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21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

Description: The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies--for use in the US and abroad--is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21--A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant--producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat--could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems--Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation--Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels--The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration--Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research--Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials.
Date: January 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

Description: The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period October 1, 2000 to December 31, 2000. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Berkovich, Adam J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Baldrey, Kenneth E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

Description: The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Golan, Lawrence P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Techniques for Real-Time Visualization of Data Intensive Missions

Description: Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories are combining entertainment industry software with traditional data collection techniques to create an interactive visualization tool. By replacing the usual flight simulator joystick with a telemetry data stream, experimental data is combined with existing three-dimensional (3D) engineering models. Users are immersed in their experiment, allowing interaction with and comprehension of complex data sets. Software tools are currently under development for post flight data visualization, and their usefulness and reusability have been demonstrated on numerous spaced-based programs within Sandia. However, data from remote sensors are subject to transmission errors that yield nonphysical behavior in real-time data visualization applications. We propose to investigate the applicability of real-time processing algorithms and estimation theories, such as Kalman filters, that have been successfully applied in other fields. Results will be integrated into existing postflight visualization tools for Proof-of-Concept validation and for potential integration of real-time applications.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Platzbecker, Mark R.; Ashcraft, Gary W.; Owen, Todd E. & Sturgis, Beverly R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

Description: As part of Task 1 in the Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has partnered with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy (formerly Range Resources) and Belden and Blake Corporation, to develop methodologies for the identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided data for over 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently in the final stages of developing and testing our new Access/Excel based software and processing this well data to generate a list of potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate these methodologies. Preparation of the Final Technical report has begun.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: II, C.M. Boyer; N.R. Fairchild, Jr. & P.G., R.J. MacDonald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AlGaN Materials Engineering for Integrated Multi-Function Systems

Description: This LDRD is aimed to place Sandia at the forefront of GaN-based technologies. Two important themes of this LDRD are: (1) The demonstration of novel GaN-based devices which have not yet been much explored and yet are coherent with Sandia's and DOE's mission objectives. UV optoelectronic and piezoelectric devices are just two examples. (2) To demonstrate front-end monolithic integration of GaN with Si-based microelectronics. Key issues pertinent to the successful completion of this LDRD have been identified to be (1) The growth and defect control of AlGaN and GaN, and (2) strain relief during/after the heteroepitaxy of GaN on Si and the separation/transfer of GaN layers to different wafer templates.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: HAN, JUNG; MITCHELL, CHRISTINE C.; WALDRIP, KAREN NMN; GUILINGER, TERRY R.; KELLY, MICHAEL J.; FLEMING, JAMES G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Application for the Risk-Based Storage of PCB Reme

Description: This Report discusses PCB hazards present at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Becker, William Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Applying the LANL Statistical Pattern Recognition Paradigm for Structural Health Monitoring to Data from a Surface-Effect Fast Patrol Boat

Description: This report summarizes the analysis of fiber-optic strain gauge data obtained from a surface-effect fast patrol boat being studied by the staff at the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (NDRE) in Norway and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. Data from two different structural conditions were provided to the staff at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The problem was then approached from a statistical pattern recognition paradigm. This paradigm can be described as a four-part process: (1) operational evaluation, (2) data acquisition & cleansing, (3) feature extraction and data reduction, and (4) statistical model development for feature discrimination. Given that the first two portions of this paradigm were mostly completed by the NDRE and NRL staff, this study focused on data normalization, feature extraction, and statistical modeling for feature discrimination. The feature extraction process began by looking at relatively simple statistics of the signals and progressed to using the residual errors from auto-regressive (AR) models fit to the measured data as the damage-sensitive features. Data normalization proved to be the most challenging portion of this investigation. A novel approach to data normalization, where the residual errors in the AR model are considered to be an unmeasured input and an auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is then fit to portions of the data exhibiting similar waveforms, was successfully applied to this problem. With this normalization procedure, a clear distinction between the two different structural conditions was obtained. A false-positive study was also run, and the procedure developed herein did not yield any false-positive indications of damage. Finally, the results must be qualified by the fact that this procedure has only been applied to very limited data samples. A more complete analysis of additional data taken under various operational and environmental conditions as well as other structural conditions is necessary before …
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Sohn, Hoon; Farrar, Charles; Hunter, Norman & Worden, Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Better Duct Systems for Home Heating and Cooling.

Description: This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Andrews, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

Description: This project is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to Design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications.
Date: January 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

Description: Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Green, David A.; Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir & Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY

Description: This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the quarter October to December 2000. In task 1 careful modification of the processing conditions of the OTM has improved the properties of the final element. In addition, finite element modeling has been used to predict the mechanical behavior of OTM tubes and to identify strategies for improving OTM robustness. In task 2, composite elements of PSO1d have been prepared and tested for over 800 hours without degradation in oxygen flux. Alternative materials for composite OTM and architectures have been examined with success. In task 3, modification of fabrication routes has resulted in a substantial increase in the yield of PSO1d composite elements. The work in task 4 has demonstrated that composite OTM elements can produce oxygen at atmospheric pressure of greater than 95% purity from a high-pressure air feed gas. The work in task 5 to construct a multi-tube OTM reactor has begun.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Prasad, Ravi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Charged Particle Spectroscopy on Omega (Final report)

Description: Using the 2-MeV Van de Graaf Accelerator at SUNY Geneseo's Nuclear Structure Laboratory, a {sup 3}He-implanted tantalum target was bombarded by 450-keV deuterons to produce high energy protons via the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction. A 1500-{micro}m surface barrier detector with a 3/16 inch diameter collimator was placed at 8.75 cm from the target and 135{sup o} from the incident beam. A movable arm was setup so that an array of aluminum filters of varying thicknesses could be rotated in front of the detector. A 6-{micro}m mylar filter was also mounted on the movable arm and was used to calibrate the detector as described in the CR-39 experiment report. Eight aluminum filters with thicknesses ranging from 250pm to 1100{micro}m were in turn rotated in front of the collimator and spectra were taken for each. The results are shown on the attached graphs. The theoretical curve for each graph was generated using TRIM The exact energy distribution of the proton beam incident on the target was not known; because no such spectrum could be taken due to the high count rate for elastically scattered deuterons. Instead, it was assumed that the incident beam had a distribution similar to that measured through the 6-{micro}m mylar, namely, an average energy of 13.798 MeV with a standard deviation of 0.027 MeV. A program developed locally was used to generate an input file for TRIM with this distribution. Using this input file, TRIM simulations were run for various thicknesses of Aluminum, from 200 to 1100 {micro}m in 50-{micro}m increments. The solid line on the graph indicates the energies of the transmitted protons. The two dashed lines indicate one standard deviation above and below the average exit energy. TRIM agrees well with the experimental results.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Fletcher, K.; Padalino, S.; Schwartz, B.; Olsen, M.; Wakeman, T. & Petrasso, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A comparison of results obtained with two subsurface non-isothermal multiphase reactive transport simulators, FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT

Description: FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT are codes used to model the non-isothermal multiphase flow with multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. Different flow and reactive transport problems were used to compare the FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT codes. These problems take into account the different cases of multiphase flow with and without heat transport, conservative transport, and reactive transport. Consistent results were obtained from both codes, which use different numerical methods to solve the differential equations resulting from the various physicochemical processes. Here we present the results obtained from both codes for various cases. Some results are slightly different with minor discrepancies, which have been remedied, so that both codes would be able to reproduce the same processes using the same parameters. One of the discrepancies found is related to the different calculation for thermal conductivity in heat transport, which affects the calculation of the temperatures, as well as the pH of the reaction of calcite dissolution problem modeled. Therefore it is possible to affirm that the pH is highly sensitive to temperature. Generally speaking, the comparison was concluded to be highly satisfactory, leading to the complete verification of the FADES-CORE code. However, we must keep in mind that, as there are no analytical solutions available with which to verify the codes, the TOUGHREACT code has been thoroughly corroborated, given that the only possible way to prove that the code simulation is correct, is by comparing the results obtained with both codes for the identical problems, or to validate the simulation results with actual measured data.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Juncosa Rivera, Ricardo; Xu, Tianfu & Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

Description: The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. During pilot plant shakedown operations, several production batch test runs were performed. These pilot tests were coupled with laboratory testing to confirm pilot results. In initial batches of operations, cellulose to glucose conversions of 62.5% and 64.8% were observed in laboratory hydrolysis. As part of this testing, lignin dewatering was tested using laboratory and vendor-supplied filtration equipment. Dewatering tests reported moisture contents in the lignin of between 50% and 60%. Dewatering parameters and options will continue to be investigated during lignin production. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. Shredding of the feed material was completed and final drying of the feed is expected to be completed by late January. Once feed drying is completed, pilot facility production will begin to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Facility modifications are expected to continue to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility continues to make progress in evaluating the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system continues.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Berglund, Ted; Ranney, Jeffrey T.; Babb, Carol L. & Broder, Jacqueline G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Control of biologically Active Degradation Zones By Vertical Heterogeneity : Applications In Fractured Media

Description: The key objective of this research was to determine the distribution of biologically active contaminant degradation zones in a fractured, subsurface medium with respect to vertical heterogeneities. Our expectation was that hydrogeological properties would determine the size, diversity, and activities of microbial communities in fractured basalt by controlling the fluxes and concentrations of aqueous constituents upon which these communities depend. We expected that microorganisms would be more abundant, of greater diversity, and of relatively higher metabolic activity within zones of high permeability that contain favorable concentrations of electron donors and acceptors; the composition and flux of these solutes will reflect the spatial continuity of interflow fracture and rubble zones. We further expected that the composition and dynamics of microbial communities associated with rock surfaces in fractured basalt aquifers could be predicted by the incubation of a native rock substratum placed at discreet, isolated intervals within a borehole.
Date: 2001
Creator: Colwell, F. S.; Smith, R.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Reysenbach, A.-L.; Mckinley, J. P. & Onstott, T. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Current and Future Dynamics of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Population Inhabiting the Savannah River National Environmental Research Park: Managing For Population Growth

Description: Research aimed to study the dynamics of the SRS population of Red-Cockaded woodpecker and compare to those of other populations to identify factors limiting population growth; recruitment clusters were evaluated to determine what properties of individual cavity trees, surrounding habitat and the surrounding landscape might limit occupancy through natural dispersal. A spatial simulation model was used to project expected dispersal rates and population growth under current conditions and compare those estimates to observed dispersal and population growth. Red cockaded woodpecker populations at SRS are stable considering size. Research reveals that closer placement of recruitment clusters to active territories would produce higher growth rates while decreasing management intensity.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Walters, J. R.; Taylor, T. B.; Daniels, S. J.; Crowder, L. B. & Pridd, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Deep Sea Gulf of Mexico

Description: No Description Available.
Date: 2001
Creator: Gallaway, Benny J.; Cole, John G. & Martin, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defect studies of optical materials using near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy

Description: Defects and impurities are generally the key material properties that govern the quality and useful lifetime of optical components. Progress in materials synthesis has advanced so that today, for high power laser applications such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), laser induced damage is typically initiated at the site of sub-micron defects. For example, in laser glass and non-linear optical crystals such as KDP, bulk damage occurs when sub-micron metal inclusion particles absorb laser energy, leading to local heating and eventually material breakdown. It is clear that continued progress in optical materials synthesis is inextricably connected with the need for a detailed understanding of the morphology and composition of the sub-micron damage nucleation sites and the associated damage mechanisms. In this project, we have developed near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) as a tool to optically characterize materials at a spatial resolution of about one order of magnitude better than conventional optical microscopy. Optical microscopy was the first and thus best understood microscopy, and a large number of contrast and spectroscopy techniques have been developed over the years. NSOM is the logical continuation of optical microscopy to the nanometer scale. NSOM combines scanning probe and optical fiber technologies, and simultaneously provides optical (e.g., spectroscopic properties) and topographic information with typically about 50 nm resolution. This project has resulted in the development of two NSOM instruments, which have been used to perform research on the characterization of surface and sub-surface defects in optical materials developed for NIF projects, including fused silica lenses and windows, KDP crystals and color-separation gratings. This research was directly addressed to laser-induced damage in optical materials, which is initiated by a local variation in optical properties at the sub-micron scale. The work was focused on the detection of the local laser field associated with sub-micron size defects, using …
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Yan, M; McWhirter, J; Huser, T & Siekhaus, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Demonstration of advanced combustion NO{sub X} control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

Description: The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO{sub x} burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO{sub x} emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO{sub x} emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10{sup 6} Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over $5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO{sub x} emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO{sub x} Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to establish the incremental performance impacts of each technology evaluated. Tests showed NO{sub x} reductions for AOFA, LNB, and LNB/AOFA of 24, …
Date: January 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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