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Dispute Settlement in the Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)

Description: The proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) follows current U.S. free trade agreement (FTA) practice in containing two types of formal dispute settlement: (1) State- State, applicable to disputes between the KORUS FTA Parties, and (2) investor-State, applicable to claims by an investor of one KORUS FTA Party against the other Party for breach of an agreement investment obligation.
Date: May 11, 2001
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1999

Description: The following document reports the findings of the 1999 field studies over the Hawaiian monk seal of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The information provided gives us an evaluation on the status and trends of monk seal subpopulations, natural history traits such as survival, reproduction, growth, behavior, and feeding habits, and the success of various activities designed to facilitate population growth.
Date: September 2001
Creator: Johanos, Thea C. & Baker, Jason D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)

Description: The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional to the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam …
Date: June 22, 2001
Creator: Hurh, P.G. & Tang, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Recent ARF1 Calibration Measurements to the Pbar RF Curve Loading Console Application (P2)

Description: The P2 console application (Antiproton Source RF Files) calculates frequency and voltage curves from a sequence of command statements input by the user. P2 initially calculates these curves in terms of the actual frequencies and voltages required on the RF cavity as a function of time. These curves are then converted to the appropriate low-level drive voltages that will cause the RF system high-level electronics to generate the required frequency and voltage ramps. The low-level drive ramps are then downloaded into CAMAC ramp cards. In order to convert the required cavity voltage and frequency into the correct drive voltages P2 uses a set of constants that determined from calibration measurements of the various Antiproton Source RF systems. These constants are editable from the P2 constants window. The P2 constants at the time of this writing are shown in Figure 1. The validity of these constants determines the extent to which P2 able to translate the user's commands into the actual voltages and frequencies that appear on the RF cavity. A comparison of the 4/18/2001 calibration of ARF1 with that presently assumed by P2 shows a large discrepancy in both the frequency constants and the voltage constants. This report documents the determination of the P2 ARF1 constants from the calibration measurements that were made on April 18, 2001. In addition, this report will compare the measured response of ARF1 to that derived from the present P2 constants. This comparison will be used to explain some resent observations of ARF1 behavior.
Date: April 21, 2001
Creator: Werkema, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What to Look for in the Accumulator Core Cooling Signal Suppression Measurements

Description: This document explains what to look for in the signal suppression display produced by program P192 Pbar Accumulator Core Cooling Suppression Measurement. First we will give a quick overview of beam cooling and why we measure signal suppression. Beam cooling is a technique whereby the physical size and energy spread of a particle beam circulating in a storage ring is reduced without any accompanying beam loss. The goal is to compress the same number of particles into a beam of smaller size and energy spread. This is desirable for the Accumulator as it compensates for various mechanisms leading to growth of beamsize and/or loss of stored particles and makes space available so that more beam can be stored. It also allows us to provide a low emittance beam through the Main Injector into the Tevatron in order to maximize the collision rate. For further information on specific stochastic cooling systems see Chapter 5 of the Antiproton Source Rookie Book.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Sondgeroth, Al & Vander Meulen, Dave
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for the Simultaneous Operation of the Tevatron Collider and pp Experiments in the Antiproton Source Accumulator

Description: This document is a slightly expanded version of a portion of the Proton Driver design report. The Proton Driver group gets the credit for the original idea of running an Accumulator experiment in the BTeV era. The work presented here is a study of the feasibility of this idea. The addition of the Recycler Ring to the Fermilab accelerator complex provides an opportunity to continue the program of {bar p}p physics in the Antiproton Source Accumulator that was started by Fermilab experiments E760 and E835. The operational scenario presented here utilizes the Recycler Ring as an antiproton bank from which the colliders makes 'withdrawals' as needed to maintain the required luminosity in the Tevatron. The Accumulator is only needed to re-supply the bank in between withdrawals. When the {anti p} stacking rate is sufficiently high, and the luminosity requirements of the Collider experiments are sufficiently low, there will be time between Collider fills and subsequent refilling of the recycler to deliver beam to an experiment in the Accumulator. In the scenario envisioned here, the impact of the Accumulator experiment on the luminosity delivered to the Collider experiments is very small. If the Run II antiproton stacking rate goals are met, the operational conditions required for running Accumulator based experiments will be met during the BTeV era. A simple model of the operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex for BTeV and an experiment in the Accumulator has been developed. The model makes predictions of the rate at which luminosity is delivered to BTeV and an Accumulator experiment. This model was used to examine the impact of the proton driver on this experimental program.
Date: June 7, 2001
Creator: Werkema, Steven J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emittance Growth Due to Steering Errors for the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice

Description: During 8 GeV antiproton transfers between the Accumulator to the Main Injector, the antiprotons must travel through four separate beam lines, AP3, AP1, P2, and P1. The AP1, P1, and P2 transfer lines are also used for 120 GeV antiproton production so that many of the magnet strings must accommodate a large range of excitation current. This note will quantify the relationship between emittance dilution for 8 GeV antiprotons injected into the Main Injector and variations in the excitation currents of the bending magnets.
Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: McGinnis, Dave
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Look at the AP2 Beamline

Description: Some recent work has been done to look at improvements of transporting beam from the Lithium Lens to the Debuncher. This work has been done using the beamline modeling tools developed by Dave McGinnis. These tools, console application P143 and optimization code running MAD repeatedly on the Beam Physics UNIX system, were first used to match the Twiss and dispersion parameters at the end of AP2 to the Debuncher. Imaginary trims were then added to AP2 to study where additional trims could be used to help with beam control in small aperture areas.
Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Gollwitzer, Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARF1 Frequency and Amplitude Curve Calibration

Description: ARF1 was calibrated and checked on 4/18/01. The technique used was to set the start/stop timers (A:R1LLT1 and A:R1LLT2) for duration of 200 msec. Driving the cavities for longer than 200 msec at full voltage could put some stress on the Hipotronics anode supply. The Camac curve generator card was substituted with a precision DC voltage source. Data for both amplitude and frequency were taken with the DC source. A HP 8563A spectrum analyzer in zero span with resolution bandwidth of 1 MHz at a center frequency of 52.818 MHz was used to take the amplitude data. The dynamic curve was a triangle waveform provided by a triggered HP3213A function generator. Frequency was measured on the Fluke frequency counter mounted in the rack in AP50 (with the high level RF off). The attached data and graph contain the current calibration. ARF1-1 is slightly lower voltage than ARF1-2, but well within spec. The calibration was made with the Anode supply at 9 Kvolts, the bend busses were off due to an access that was in progress. Due to the unregulated Anode supply, the voltage levels observed may be slightly higher than with bend busses on. The dynamic performance with the triangle waveform looks correct. The peak voltages measured for ARF1-1 and ARF1-2 were 27.1 KV and 32.9 KV respectively. The calibration for the fanback is 22 Kvolts per volt for ARF1-1&2, and 66 Kvolts per volt for ARF1 Sum. ARF1 has historically run with a flat top voltage duration of 160 msec. The current curve generator has lengthened that time considerably. The curve generator should take full advantage of the 65 dB dynamic range measured.
Date: April 20, 2001
Creator: Pasquinelli, Ralph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Search for the Higgs Boson Using Very Forward Tracking Detectors with CDF

Description: The authors propose to add high precision track detectors 55 m downstream on both (E and W) sides of CDF, to measure high Feynman-x protons and antiprotons in association with central states. A primary motivation is to search for the Higgs boson, and if it is seen to measure its mass precisely. The track detectors will be silicon strip telescopes backed up by high resolution time-of-flight counters. They will have four spectrometer arms, for both sides of the p and {bar p} beams. The addition of these small detectors effectively converts the Tevatron into a gluon-gluon collider with {radical}s from 0 to {approx} 200 GeV. This experiment also measures millions/year clean high- |t| elastic p{bar p} scattering events and produce millions of pure gluon jets. Besides a wealth of other unique QCD studies they will search for signs of exotic physics such as SUSY and Large Extra Dimensions. They ask the Director to ask the PAC to take note of this Letter of Intent at its April meeting, to consider a proposal at the June meeting and to make a decision at the November 2001 meeting. They request that the Directorage ask the Beams Division to evaluate the consequences and cost of the proposed Tevatron modifications, and CDF to evaluate any effect on its baseline program and to review the technical aspects of the detectors, DAQ and trigger integration.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Albrow, M. G.; Atac, M.; Booth, P.; Crosby, P.; Dunietz, I.; Finley, D. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Differential Relationships Between Momentum Magnetic Field, Orbit Length, and Revolution Frequency

Description: The purpose of this memo is to put down, in one place, a number of commonly used accelerator formulae. I'll also comment briefly on the derivation of these relationships. Nothing in this memo is my original work. All of this was developed many years ago by the brilliant founders of the field of Accelerator Physics. The widely used differential relationships between beam momentum (p), dipole magnetic field (B), orbit length (L), and revolution frequency (f) are given in Table 1.
Date: February 9, 2001
Creator: Werkema, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chromaticity Measurements Using Phase Modulated RF and Vector Signal Analyzers

Description: Chromaticity measurements are usually done by changing the energy of the beam by a known amount and measuring the change in betatron tune with a spectrum analyzer. The energy change is done by adjusting the RF frequency. The change in RF frequency is made large enough so that the change in betatron tune can be seen. If synchrotron motion is present in the beam, then measuring the change in betatron tune can be difficult. This note will outline a method to measure the change in betatron tune by phase-modulating the RF and measuring the phase modulated betatron spectrum Extremely small resolution bandwidths are available on modern vector signal analyzers. A small resolution bandwidth is equivalent to measuring the chromaticity many times and averaging the results. This would permit much smaller shifts in betatron tunes to be measured. The phase-modulated signal consists of sidebands whose amplitudes are given by Bessel functions. The complication of the Bessel functions can be removed if the vector signal analyzer is capable of phase demodulation. The sign of the chromaticity can be determined by observing the modulation spectrum at both betatron sidebands.
Date: February 16, 2001
Creator: McGinnis, Dave
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debuncher Momentum Cooling Systems Signal to Noise Measurements

Description: The Debuncher Momentum cooling systems were carefully measured for signal to noise. It was observed that cooling performance was not optimum. Closer inspection shows that the installed front-end bandpass filters are wider than the pickup response. (The original filters were specified to be wider so that none of the available bandwidth would be clipped.) The end result is excess noise is amplified and passed onto the kickers unimpeded, hence, reducing the achievable system gain. From this data, new filters should be designed to improve performance. New system bandwidths are specified on the data figures. Also included are the transfer function measurements that clearly show adjacent band response. In band 4 upper, the adjacent lobes are strong and out of phase. This is also degrading the system performance. The correlation between spectrum analyzer signal to noise and network analyzer system transfer functions is very strong. The table below has a calculation of expected improvement of front noise reduction by means of building new front-end bandpass filters. The calculation is based on a flat input noise spectrum and is a linear estimation of improvement. The listed 3dB bandwidths of the original filters are from measured data. The expected bandwidth is taken from the linear spectrum analyzer plots and is closer to a 10 dB bandwidth making the percentage improvement conservative. The signal to noise measurements are taken with circulating pbars in the Debuncher. One cooling system was measured at a time with all others off. Beam currents are below ten microamperes.
Date: December 18, 2001
Creator: Pasquinelli, Ralph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal for Drell-Yan Measurements of Nucleon and Nuclear Structure with the FNAL Main Injector

Description: We propose measuring the fractional momentum $(x)$ dependence of the ratio of the anti-down to anti-up quark distributions in the proton, $\bar{d}(x)/\bar{u}(x)$, using proton induced Drell-Yan reactions at 120 GeV. Recent measurements by FNAL E866 unexpectedly show considerable $x$ dependence in this ratio for $x$ > 0.2. A lower energy primary proton beam from the Main Injector makes it possible to extend the E866 measurements to larger x with much higher precision. The apparatus will also be used with nuclear targets to measure parton energy loss and modifications to anti-quark distributions in nuclear targets at large $x$ ($x$ > 0.2).
Date: April 1, 2001
Creator: Isenhower, L. D.; Sadler, M. E.; Arrinton, J.; Geesamn, D. F.; Holt, R. J.; Jackson, H. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quadrupole Focussing and Quadrupole Steering Tolerances for the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice

Description: This note will outline the sensitivity to emittance blowup of antiproton transfers due to quadrupole focussing and quadrupole steering errors in the 8 GeV AP3-P1 transfer line. It will be shown that these tolerances are much larger than the dipole steering tolerances discussed in PBAR Note 649. This note will use the lattice discussed in PBAR Note 648.
Date: February 5, 2001
Creator: McGinnis, Dave
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Common Mode Rejection Calculations on the Debuncher Upgrade

Description: The 4-8 GHz Transverse Debuncher Cooling Systems are power limited. Misalignments and imperfections in the transverse pickup arrays will generate a longitudinal signal in addition to the betatron signal. This longitudinal signal can use up a significant fraction of the precious TWT power if the imperfections are large enough. This note will summarize calculations of the contributions to the longitudinal signal observed in the transverse systems of the 4-8 GHz Debuncher slow-wave pickup arrays due to various misalignments and imperfections.
Date: February 2, 2001
Creator: McGinnis, Dave
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transverse Beam Profile Measurement Using Scrape Scans

Description: A scraper scan - sending a scraper through a particle beam while measuring the intensity as a function of scraper position - is a common method of determining the profile of the beam. At first glance, this seems to be a rather simple procedure. Nevertheless, some care is required in the acquisition of the data and in the analysis if one is going to achieve an accurate result.
Date: September 13, 2001
Creator: Werkema, Steven J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice for Antiproton Transfers

Description: During 8 GeV antiproton transfers between the Accumulator to the Main Injector, the antiprotons must travel through four separate beam lines, AP3, AP1, P2, and P1. This note describes the optimization of a single lattice that describes these beam lines for 8 GeV antiproton transfers from the Accumulator to the Main Injector and 8 GeV proton transfers from the Main Injector to the Accumulator.
Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: McGinnis, Dave
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Emergency Powers

Description: The President of the United States has available certain powers that may be exercised in the event that the nation is threatened by crisis, exigency, or emergency circumstances (other than natural disasters, war, or near-war situations). Such powers may be stated explicitly or implied by the Constitution, assumed by the Chief Executive to be permissible constitutionally, or inferred from or specified by statute. Through legislation, Congress has made a great many delegations of authority in this regard over the past 200 years.
Date: September 25, 2001
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack

Description: The Constitution empowers the President to act as Commander in Chief of the armed forces and to see to the execution of federal law; it gives Congress the authority to make federal law including laws for the regulation of the armed forces. The Posse Comitatus Act prohibits the use of the armed forces to perform civilian governmental tasks unless explicitly authorized to do so. There are statutory exceptions to ensure continued enforcement of state and federal law, to provide disaster assistance, and to provide technical support for law enforcement. There are constitutional impediments to the use of the military to nationalize an industry, to try civilians, and to compel state officials to perform federally-imposed duties.
Date: September 14, 2001
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Martial Law and National Emergency

Description: Crises in public order, both real and potential, often evoke comments concerning a resort to martial law. While some ambiguity exists regarding the conditions of a martial law setting, such a prospect, nonetheless, is disturbing to many Americans who cherish their liberties, expect civilian law enforcement to prevail, and support civilian control of the military authority. An overview of the concept of, the exercise of, and authority underlying martial law is provided in this report, which will be updated as events warrant.
Date: September 27, 2001
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants

Description: In response to the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, Congress passed legislation making permanent a provision that allows aliens with critical information on criminal or terrorist organizations to come into the United States in order to provide information to law enforcement officials. This legislation (S. 1424) became P.L. 107-45 on October 1, 2001. The law amends the Immigration and Nationality Act to provide permanent authority for the administration of the “S” visa, which was scheduled to expire on September 13, 2001. On November 29, 2001, Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the “Responsible Cooperators Program” to reach out to persons who may be eligible for the S visa. Up to 200 criminal informants and 50 terrorist informants may be admitted annually. Since FY1995, almost 700 informants and their accompanying family members have entered S visas. This report will not be regularly updated.
Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Ester, Karma
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Latin America: Terrorism Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

Description: Latin American nations strongly condemned the September 11, 2001 attacks on NewYork and Washington and took action through the Organization of American States and the Rio Treaty to strengthen hemispheric cooperation against terrorism and express solidarity with the United States. Many nations are taking actions to investigate possible regional linkages with the Osama bin Laden terrorist network, and to ensure that their financial sectors are not being used by terrorists. In the aftermath of the attacks, the U.S. policy toward the region will likely include a re-invigorated security agenda, with the development of new cooperative mechanisms against terrorism. The terrorist attacks will have implications in several areas, including the extent of hemispheric cooperation against terrorism, anti-money laundering efforts, Andean counter-narcotics strategy, the trade agenda, regional economic stability, and policy toward Mexico and Cuba.
Date: October 13, 2001
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trying Terrorists as War Criminals

Description: On November 13, 2001, President Bush signed a Military Order pertaining to the detention, treatment, and trial of certain non-citizens in the war against terrorism. The President’s Military Order makes it apparent that he plans to treat the attacks as acts of war rather than criminal acts, and to prosecute those responsible as war criminals, trying them by special military commission rather than in federal court. The purpose of this the report is to clarify the legal basis for treating the acts as war crimes and the ramifications of applying the law of war rather than criminal statutes to prosecute the perpetrators. The discussion focuses on the trial of alleged terrorists and conspirators by a military commission rather than the federal courts. A longer treatment of the issues in this report and an analysis of other relevant issues, including the Military Order, are contained in CRS Report RL 31191.
Date: November 28, 2001
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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