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A Novel Coal Feeder for Production of Low Sulfur Fuel

Description: During the past three months, the coal feeding system has been tested and currently undergoing evaluation at the University of Cincinnati. The system consists primarily of an auger feed tube which is used to both convey and provide desulfurization of a high sulfur coal feedstock. The coal is conveyed at temperatures ranging from 350 to 550{degrees}C and under normal atmospheric pressure. Under these mild processing conditions, the coal partially pyrolizes and emits sulfur in the form of hydrogen sulfide while maintaining a relatively high heating value in the char product. The evolved gases are evacuated from the reactor (the feed tube) to another absorbing bed where H{sub 2}S reacts with the sorbent, usually lime or limestone. The resultant sorbent utilization is substantially higher than the values found in current dry scrubbing system and the produced low-sulfur char may then be used in a conventional steam boiler.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Khang, S. J. & Keener, T. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

Description: This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Evans, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Program of FRC Theory Research Annual Report

Description: At the request of the Office of Fusion Energy, a group of experts was convened on February 6--8, 1990. This group met to assess the world data base on Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) physics, and, further, to assess the role of the ZTH experiment in providing reactor relevant physics understanding for that confinement geometry. This group met, analyzed some of the relevant literature, and heard extensive presentations on the physics of the RFP and the plans for the ZTH and RFX devices. The conclusions of this group of experts are contained in this report.
Date: May 18, 1990
Creator: Krall, Nicholas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal

Description: The fermentation pH has been observed to be the key parameter affecting the ratio of ethanol to acetate produced by Clostridium ljungdahlii. The effects of controlled pH on cell growth and product formation by C. ljungdahlii were measured. It was found that cell concentration and acetate concentration increased with pH, while the ethanol concentration was highest at the lower pH. The molar product ratio of ethanol to acetate was 0.74 at pH 4.0, 0.39 at pH 4.5 and 0.12 at pH 5.0. Future experiments will concentrate on studying other important parameters such as agitation rate and nutrients concentrations with controlled pH as a preclude to continuous reactor studies.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FLOWTRAN benchmarking with onset of flow instability data from 1988 Columbia University single-tube OFI experiment

Description: Benchmarking FLOWTRAN, Version 16.2, with an Onset of Significant Voiding (OSV) criterion against measured Onset of Flow Instability (OFI) data from the 1988--89 Columbia University downflow tests has shown that FLOWTRAN with OSV is a conservative OFI predictor. Calculated limiting flow rates based on the Savannah River Site (SRS) OSV criterion were always higher than the measured flow rates at OFI. This work supplements recent FLOWTRAN benchmarking against 1963 downflow tests at Columbia University and 1988 downflow tests at the Heat Transfer Laboratory. These studies provide confidence that using FLOWTRAN with an OSV based criterion for SRS reactor limits analyses will generate operating limits that are conservative with respect to OFI, the criterion selected to prevent fuel damage.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Chen, K.; Paul, P. K. & Barbour, K. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ELISA-Based Segregation of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon for Control of Bacterial Kidney Disease, Annual Report FY 1990.

Description: Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS), is a serious disease of salmonid fish worldwide. The disease has a major impact on spring chinook salmon populations in the Columbia River system. There is strong evidence that RS can be transmitted from parent to progeny, and segregation of progeny based on levels of antigen detected in adult fish may obviate this mode of transmission. Results from the second year of a four year study to investigate segregation of broodstock as a tool for controlling BKD are presented. To segregate the progeny of adult fish infected with RS we have used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) optimized in the first year of this project. Gametes from fish either injected with erythromycin or receiving no antibiotic injection were successfully segregated into groups having either high or low levels of the RS soluble antigen. Screening of eggs from infected adults has not revealed any detectable antigen present in the egg tissue. Development of a rapid, field ELISA has been accomplished this year. The field ELISA utilizes monoclonal antibodies currently employed in the monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. The sensitivity of the field ELISA approaches that of the monoclonal ELISA, and has been tested on 150 adult chinook salmon. A high correlation exists between samples assayed by the monoclonal ELISA, field ELISA, and direct FAT. An alternative system for detecting RS soluble antigen, the Western blot, has also been improved. Using a chemiluminescent substrate, the sensitivity of detection has been increase 50--100 fold. 16 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Winton, James R. & Kaattari, Stephen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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H-Area Seepage Basins

Description: During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Stejskal, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FY 90 annual research plan

Description: The National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) was established by the DOE to perform contract research for government and industrial clients. The emphasis of the DOE program is immediate near- and mid-term concerns of domestic oil and gas producibility. Its primary purpose is to improve the fundamental understanding of domestic oil and gas resources and the chemical, physical, and biological phenomena that govern the occurrence and recovery of these resources in addition to their associated environmental issues. The near-term objective of the DOE program is to maintain access to resources presently being produced in domestic oil and gas fields, and to decrease the rate of decline of domestic production. NIPER projects in chemical flooding, gas injection, steam injection, and microbial EOR address near-term concerns of domestic oil production. Further, problems associated with the utilization of heavier fossil feedstocks are being addressed. The mid-term objective of the DOE program is to maximize the recovery efficiency of discovered oil and gas through improved understanding of the resource and to develop advanced extraction and instrumentation techniques. The objective also emphasizes an expanded understanding of the environment. NIPER projects dealing with the quantification of reservoir heterogeneities, pore structure analysis, and fluid flow in porous media are designed to improve extraction technologies. 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Glossary: Carbon dioxide and climate

Description: This Glossary contains definitions of selected CO{sub 2}-related terms as well as tables containing information related to CO{sub 2} and climate. Each term is defined with an emphasis on its relationship to CO{sub 2} and climate. Many of the definitions are then followed by a more detailed description of the term and its use. References to the literature from which the definitions were taken are listed at the end of the Glossary.
Date: August 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparison of TRAC and RELAP5 reactor system calculations for a DEGB LOCA in K-14. 1

Description: A comparison of TRAC and RELAP5 predictions of steady-state and DEGB LOCA results (FI phase) for K-14.1 has been made. Both codes had been previously benchmarked against 1985 L Reactor AC Flow data and were under configuration control. The purpose of the code-to-code comparison is to provide insight on the transient uncertainty in TRAC plenum and tank bottom plenum pressures. The comparisons focus on LOCA results between 0.5 and 2.0 s, which is the primary period of interest for Flow Instability (FI) limits.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Griggs, D.P. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)) & Liebmann, M.L. (Wais and Associates (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts

Description: Methods of preparation of the copper, cobalt, and titanium catalysts were outlined. The catalyst samples were then analyzed through nuclear magnetic and nuclear quadrupole resonance.
Date: February 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiation properties of coal combustion products

Description: An assessment is made of the experimental data and the theoretical bases for determining the absorption and scattering coefficients of the coal products of combustion. Particular attention is devoted to the complex refractive indices for char and ash. A dispersion relation is developed from sparse extinction data that can be used to estimate the optical constants of char. Considerable uncertainty and scatter is found in the literature data on ash optical constants and is attributed to variability in ash composition, lack of experimental rigor and limitations in the data reduction procedures. A correlation is presented for estimating the complex refractive indices of ash as a function of its mineral composition. A parametric study is conducted to elucidate the role of char, soot and ash particulates in determining the radiation properties of coal flames. The effects of combustion particulates are discussed in terms of the modification of the band structure of gas radiation to a luminous spectrum, introduction of scattering in radiation transport, particle size distribution, particle loading and particle composition. The results are interpreted as possible effects of coal beneficiation, coal micronization and flyash composition on heat transfer to the water walls of a coal furnace. 19 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Im, K.H. & Ahluwalia, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A study of steady-state steam-water counterflow in porous media

Description: Vapor-liquid counterflow in porous media arises in processes such as heat pipes, oil recovery and geothermal systems. Previous studies analysed these phenomena in separate contexts. This paper presents a unified description from which previous models result as limiting cases. The analysis includes capillarity, heat conduction, and Kelvin effects. The importance of each term to various processes is examined. Significantly, it is found that the critical heat flux is not constant but increases with decreasing permeability. A threshold permeability is identified below which steady states may not exist. Analogous conclusions are reached regarding liquid-dominated geothermal systems. 24 refs., 15 figs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Satik, C.; Parlar, M. & Yortsos, Y.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

Description: The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.
Date: December 20, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

Description: The objective of proposed research is development of catalysts with enhanced slurry phase activity and better selectivity to fuel range products, through a more detailed understanding and systematic studies of the effects of pretreatment procedures and promoters/binders (silica) on catalyst performance.
Date: January 15, 1990
Creator: Bukur, D.B. & Patel, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Establishment and maintenance of a coal sample bank and data base

Description: In this Project Status Report for 7/9/89--10/8/89, results of a comparative study of coal sample deterioration in several container types were presented. In April 1990, one year after the initial analyses, the set of analyses was repeated on the most important container types. The new results are included in Table 2. During the current reporting period a total of 42 data printouts were distributed. In addition, 7 special data requests were fulfilled by either search/sort and printout or creation of a data disk, resulting in distribution of limited information on 2083 samples. Several preliminary requests for Sample Bank and Data Base information and price quotations have also been handled.
Date: July 11, 1990
Creator: Davis, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Description: The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.
Date: February 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Po-210 as long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment

Description: The general objective is to improve the knowledge about the transferring processes leading from airborne radon/radon daughters to embedded Po-210 in hard surfaces in the indoor environment. The specific goal of the research is to identify situations in which the surface activity of Po-210 can be used as a long-term indicator of lung cancer risk from past or future radon exposures.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Samuelsson, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermally Induced Structural Changes in Coal Combustion

Description: The effect of particle shape on char burnout is investigated in the limit of shrinking core combustion. As a first step, the particle temperature is assumed to proceed in the shrinking core regime and under conditions of negligible Stefan flow. The problem then reduces to calculating the oxygen concentration field around a non-spherical particle with the oxidation reaction taking place on the external surface. This problem has been addressed by an analytical technique and a numerical technique. An analytical technique known as domain perturbation'' was used to examine the change due to reaction in the shape of a slightly nonspherical, but axisymmetric, particle. It was found that the aspect ratio always increases with conversion, i.e., the particle becomes less spherical. A numerical technique, based on the boundary integral'' method was developed to handle the case of an axisymmetric particle with otherwise arbitrary shape. Numerical results are presented which again show the aspect ratio to increase with conversion. 8 refs.
Date: January 17, 1990
Creator: Gavalas, G. R. & Flagan, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Removal of trichloroethylene contamination from the subsurface: A comparative evaluation of different remediation strategies by means of numerical simulation

Description: Volatile organic compounds such as petroleum hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents are common contaminants of the subsurface environment. Although immiscible with water, many of these organics have large enough aqueous phase solubilities to significantly degrade the quality of groundwater with which they come in contact. In addition, many of these substances exhibit high vapor pressures, causing them to partition strongly into the gas phase in their surroundings. Because of these properties, a volatile organic compound (VOC), once introduced into the subsurface may be transported as a solute, a vapor, or as a constituent in a non- aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). This implies that at some sits, an adequate description of the migration of these contaminants in the subsurface would necessarily involve three phases, -- gas, aqueous and NAPL. For example, to design an effective aquifer remediation scheme for a site where NAPL is present, it would be wrong to focus solely on the aqueous phase while ignoring either the gas phase or the NAPL phase. In the present work, we use a simulator developed by Falta et al. (1990a), known as STMVOC,'' which models true three-phase flow in which NAPL, gas and aqueous phases can move in response to pressure, capillary and gravitational forces. STMVOC is capable of handling three-dimensional, three-phase fluid flow with strong heat transport and the associated phased change effects. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Adenekan, A.E.; Pruess, K. & Falta, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation

Description: Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Hu, Weibai; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D. M. & Wadsworth, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal

Description: A batch kinetic study involving Clostridium lungdahlii in a mineral medium was carried out in order to provide baseline data for the effects of nutrients on product ratio and kinetics. The use of this minimal medium containing vitamins, minerals, select amino acids and salts showed both a lower maximum specific growth rate and a lower maximum specific uptake rate than found when using a complex medium supplemented with 0.01% yeast extract. At the same time, the product ratio was improved slightly in favor of ethanol over acetate. Future experiments will measure the effects of ammonia and phosphate limitation on product ratio and process kinetics.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Automatic lighting controls demonstration

Description: The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Rubinstein, F. & Verderber, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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