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Analysis of alternative-fuel price trajectories

Description: Findings are presented from a study to (1) acquire, analyze, and report alternative published price projections including both oil- and coal-price trajectories, and to (2) apply the fixed-annuity formula to the updated primary source projections (Energy Information Administration; Data Resources, Inc.; and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates, Inc.) and to the newly acquired price projections. This report also encompasses: comparisons of key assumptions underlying the price projections, and a discussion of the applicability of the fixed-annuity formula as used in the alternative-cost calculation. Section II contains graphic presentations of all updated and newly acquired coal and oil price forecasts and the corresponding calculated annuity equivalents, tabulated presentations and discussions of each forecast and underlying assumptions, and a description of how each forecast price series was transformed into input for the present-value formulas. Section III presents the fixed-annuity formula employed and discusses its appropriateness for this application. Section IV discusses the applicability of the net present value approach for comparing alternate-fuel price trajectories. Appendix A contains a listing of contacts as potential sources of price forecasts. Appendix B contains the raw forecast data from each forecast source and the coal and oil price series derived from the raw data which were actually input into the cost calculation procedure. Appendix C contains a description and listing of the computer program developed to implement the cost calculation procedure. Finally, Appendix D contains tabulations and discussions of other alternative world crude price forecasts that were identified, but for which no corresponding coal-price projections were available. (MCW)
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

Description: Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Pitt, C.H. & Wadsworth, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District Heating System, City of Caliente, Nevada.

Description: Considerable preliminary information has been gathered on the heating requirements of Caliente. It is reported that the City consists of 320 residential buildings, 90 commercial buildings, and two industries, a total of 412. Heating is predominantly by fuel oil or LPG. Only 113 of the residential, 17 of the commercial, and 1 of the industrial buildings are heated electrically. It is also reported that the average electrically heated home consumed 13,600 KWH in the year 1978, and the average all-electric commercial building 53,100 KWH. A geothermal district heating system for the city of Caliente, Nevada is economically feasible. This assumes that a 160/sup 0/F geothermal source capable of delivering a peak load of 850 gallons per minute from a relatively shallow depth can be located within, or near, the City boundaries. Total volume needed from the geothermal reservoir during the 20 year project life is 5400 acre-feet. Based on 8% bond financing of a capital investment for equipment of $2,500,000, a present worth of about $5,400,000 is generated over the project life. Total energy saved during the project life is 63 million KWH of electricity, and 7.5 millions therms of fuel.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Comparison of Heating Facilities: 75 Unit Apartment, Stewart-Lennox Area, Klamath Falls, Oregon.

Description: The apartment building would consist of about 75 units of about 900 square feet each. Also included would be an outdoor swimming pool and an enclosed activity wing of about 11,000 square feet. Though no deep geothermal wells have been drilled in the immediate area, opinions were obtained that 150/sup 0/F water would be present at 2500 feet and 80/sup 0/F water at about 1000 feet. Based on this information the comparative economics of using geothermal as a heat source versus conventional electrical heating was developed. The purpose of this comparison is to determine if there is economic incentive for the expenditure necessary to define and prove the extent of the geothermal resource. Four systems were compared, each would provide space heating, supply domestic hot water, and heat the swimming pool. A brief description of each of the systems is given. (MHR)
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering and economic evaluation of direct hot-water geothermal energy applications on the University of New Mexico campus. Final technical report

Description: The potential engineering and economic feasibility of low-temperature geothermal energy applications on the campus of the University of New Mexico is studied in detail. This report includes three phases of work: data acquisition and evaluation, system synthesis, and system refinement and implementation. Detailed process designs are presented for a system using 190/sup 0/F geothermal water to substitute for the use of 135 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/y (141 TJ/y) of fossil fuels to provide space and domestic hot water heating for approximately 23% of the campus. Specific areas covered in the report include economic evaluation, environmental impact and program implementation plans.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Kauffman, D. & Houghton, A.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the DYMAC demonstration program. Phase III report. [LASL Plutonium Processing Facility]

Description: An accountancy system based on the Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System has been in operation at the Plutonium Processing Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since January 1978. This system, now designated the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System (PF/LASS), has enhanced nuclear material accountability and process control at the Los Alamos facility. The nondestructive assay instruments and the central computer system are operating accurately and reliably. As anticipated, several uses of the system, notably scrap control and quality control, have developed in addition to safeguards. The successes of this experiment strongly suggest that implementation of DYMAC-based systems should be attempted at other facilities.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Malanify, J.J. & Bearse, R.C. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Experimental and theoretical plasma physics program]. Technical progress [in FY 1980]

Description: This report summarizes the technical progress made in plasma physics research. Studies include: (1) plasma production by means of electric discharges; (2) formation of spheromak configuration using combined z and {theta} pinch techniques; (3) plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics in toroidal experiments.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Griem, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extended burnup demonstration reactor fuel program. Semi-annual progress report, January 1979-September 1979

Description: This is the first semi-annual progress report for the DOE-sponsored Extended Burnup Demonstration program. The program objectives, description, and organization are detailed. Characteristics are given for the 64 Big Rock Point fuel rods and the four 8 x 8 Oyster Creek fuel assemblies which will be driven to extended burnup. The transfer of 64 Big Rock Point fuel rods from their original assemblies into host assemblies and the results of the fuel examination of these rods are described.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Woods, K.N. & van Swam, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of Recycling Thorium in a Fusion-Fission Hybrid/PWR Symbiotic System

Description: A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion-fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Josephs, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GeoEnergy technology

Description: The goal of the GeoEnergy Technology Program is to improve the understanding and efficiency of energy extraction and conversion from geologic resources, hence maintaining domestic production capability of fossil energy resources and expanding the usage of geothermal energy. The GeoEnergy Technology Program conducts projects for the Department of Energy in four resource areas--coal, oil and gas, synthetic fuels and geothermal energy. These projects, which are conducted collaboratively with private industry and DOE`s Energy Technology Centers, draw heavily on expertise derived from the nuclear weapons engineering capabilities of Sandia. The primary technologies utilized in the program are instrumentation development and application, geotechnical engineering, drilling and well completions, and chemical and physical process research. Studies in all four resource areas are described.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal home heating facilities, Green Valley Estates, Fernley, Nevada

Description: A housing development to be located at Fernley, Nevada, about thirty miles east of Reno, is in an area of known geothermal water. The practicality of heating these homes with this water, as an alternative to heating with natural gas, has been investigated. A preliminary engineering design of a geothermal system was developed. This design permitted capital and operating cost to be estimated and a financial evaluation to be made. Two cases were investigated. The Base Case provides facilities for heating a tract of 371 houses. The Alternate Case adds another tract of 371 for a total of 742 houses. Geothermal water is to be provided by two wells and the used water reinjected into a third well. The Base Case has a rate of return on capital investment of 13.0 percent before taxes. The Alternate Case has a rate of return of 16.5 percent before taxes. The Alternate Case has a more favorable return due primarily to the assumption that each well has the capacity to produce 800 gpm of geothermal water. This is enough to provide for the additional 371 houses in the Alternate Case without an additional well. (MHR)
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heating facilities for the city schools, Ephrata, Washington

Description: The City of Ephrata, Washington has an existing well that has the capability of pumping 2200 gallons per minute of 86/sup 0/F water into the City drinking water system. To determine the economic practicality of using the City water to heat the schools, one school (Middle School) was selected for evaluation. Two cases were considered. Case 1 uses a two stage water-to-water heat pump to produce a 190/sup 0/F circulating hot water steam. This would be compatible with the existing system and essentially no retrofit costs for the room convective heating system would be incurred. Case 2 uses a single stage water-to-water heat pump to produce a 140/sup 0/F circulating hot water stream. Retrofit costs would incur for additional room convection equipment. In both cases the heat pump is sized to furnish the total heating and hot water requirements of the school. However, one of the existing boilers is left in place to serve as standby. The Middle School evaluation shows the single stage heat pump to be most cost effective, having a return on invested capital of about 19%. Projecting the single stage evaluation to include all the schools, the total conversion cost would be about $800,000. This includes a retrofit allowance of $100,000. The return on investment would be about 19%. Total annual savings in fuel oil consumption would be nearly 150,000 gallons, amounting to a first year savings of about $134,000. Peak water usage would be 1000 gallons per minute, about 45% of that available. Annual water usage would be about 90 million gallons, about 14% of the water used during 1978. This water would be returned to the drinking water system after extraction of heat. (MHR)
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Basic Data for Dodge City NTMS Quadrangle, Kansas

Description: This report presents field and laboratory data for # water samples and # soil samples collected from the Dodge City quadrangle in Kansas. -- adjust as needed; if collection lab is named in abstract, should be a contributor/originator, others=sponsors
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program
Location Info:
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dodge City NTMS Quadrangle, Kansas

Description: Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dodge City Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 756 groundwater and 321 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for uranium mineralization are as follows: (1) in the north central area of the quadrangle within close proximity to the Arkansas River, mostly from waters of the Ogallala Formation; (2) in the west central area, from groundwater samples of the Dakota and the Ogallala Formations; and (3) between the North Fork of the Cimarron River and the main Cimarron River, mostly in waters from the Ogallala Formation. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations for magnesium, strontium, and sulfate. Of the groundwater samples taken 81% were collected from the Ogallala Formation. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium concentrations in scattered samples in the northwestern, central, and southwestern areas of the quadrangle. Most of the samples with high uranium values were collected from the Quaternary alluvium. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations of barium, cerium, iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. Progress report FY 1980

Description: Brief description of work progress during this report period are given for: (1) acceleration of disc targets, (2) laser upgrade, (3) diagnostic development, and (4) stimulated brillouin backscatter theory.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low alloy additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium: a literature survey

Description: A survey of the literature has been made on the experimental results of small additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium. Information is also included on the constitution, mechanical properties, heat treatment, and deformation of various binary and ternary alloys. 42 references, 24 figures, 13 tables.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Ludwig, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Fourth annual report

Description: The current study reported here has involved three separate tasks. The first task deals with the development of expected utility analysis techniques for economic evaluation of fusion research. A decision analytic model is developed for the incorporation of market uncertainties, as well as technological uncertainties in an economic evaluation of long-range energy research. The model is applied to the case of fusion research. The second task deals with the potential effects of long-range energy RD and D on fossil fuel prices. ECON's previous fossil fuel price model is extended to incorporate a dynamic demand function. The dynamic demand function supports price fluctuations such as those observed in the marketplace. The third task examines alternative uses of fusion technologies, specifically superconducting technologies and first wall materials to determine the potential for alternative, nonfusion use of these technologies. In both cases, numerous alternative uses are found.
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Hazelrigg, Jr, G A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Municipal geothermal heat utilization plan for Glenwood Springs, Colorado

Description: A study has been made of the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing the geothermal resource underlying Glenwood Springs Colorado, to heat a group of public buildings. The results have shown that the use of geothermal heat is indeed feasible when compared to the cost of natural gas. The proposed system is composed of a wellhead plate heat exchanger which feeds a closed distribution loop of treated water circulated to the buildings which form the load. The base case system was designed to supply twice the demand created by the seven public buildings in order to take advantage of some economies of scale. To increase the utilization factor of the available geothermal energy, a peaking boiler which burns natural gas is recommended. Disposal of the cooled brine would be via underground injection. Considerable study was done to examine the impact of reduced operating temperature on the existing heating systems. Several options to minimize this problem were identified. Economic analyses were completed to determine the present values of heat from the geothermal system and from the present natural gas over a 30 year projected system life. For the base case savings of over $1 million were shown. Sensitivities of the economics to capital cost, operating cost, system size and other parameters were calculated. For all reasonable assumptions, the geothermal system was cheaper. Financing alternatives were also examined. An extensive survey of all existing data on the geology of the study has led to the prediction of resource parameters. The wellhead temperature of produced fluid is suspected to lie between 140 and 180/sup 0/F (60 and 82/sup 0/C). Flowrates may be as high as 1000 gpm (3800 liters per minute) from a reservoir formation that is 300 ft (90 m) thick beginning about 500 ft (150 m) below the suggested drill site ...
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle beam fusion

Description: Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle-beam fusion research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: Sandia research in inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) is based on pulse-power capabilities that grew out of earlier developments of intense relativistic electron-beam (e-beam) radiation sources for weapon effects studies. ICF involves irradiating a deuterium-tritium pellet with either laser light or particle beams until the center of the pellet is compressed and heated to the point of nuclear fusion. This publication focuses on the use of particle beams to achieve fusion, and on the various facilities that are used in support of the particle-beam fusion (PBF) program.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TIGER -- A technology to improve the delivery capability of nuclear bombs and the survivability of the delivery aircraft

Description: The TIGER (Terminal guided and Extended-Range) Program was initiated in 1972 to study improved delivery capabilities for stockpiled tactical nuclear bombs. The Southeast Asia conflict fostered the development of air-delivered standoff conventional weapons utilizing terminal guidance systems. SNL initiated the TIGER program to determine if current nuclear bombs could be provided with a similarly accurate standoff capabilities. These conventional weapon delivery techniques, while allowing highly accurate attack, generally require entering the target area at high altitude to establish line of sight to the target. In parallel with the TIGER program, system studies analyzed this concept and showed marked improvement in aircraft and weapon survivability with moderate standoff (10--20 km) if low level deliveries (60 m) could be accomplished. As a result of this work, the TIGER program was redirected in early 1974 to demonstrate a standoff bomb with good accuracy (90 m CEP) when delivered from low flying aircraft. This program redirection resulted in the selection of an inertial guidance system to replace the earlier terminal guidance systems. This program was called the Extended-Range Bomb (ERB). In May 1974, a joint Air Force/DOE study identified the desirability of having a single tactical weapon which could be employed against either fixed, preselected targets, or mobile battlefield targets. Studies conducted on the ERB system showed that the inertially guided weapon could fly not only the standoff mission but also a return-to-target mission against the mobile battlefield targets whose locations are not known accurately enough to use a standoff delivery. The ERB program evolved from these initial investigations into an exploratory program to develop the hardware and demonstrate the technology required to fly standoff and return-to-target trajectories. The application of this technology in the form of field retrofit kits to the B61 bomb is called TIGER II.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Volcanic hazards: Perspectives from eruption prediction to risk assessment for disposal of radioactive waste

Description: This document summarizes an oral presentation that described the potential for volcanic activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Texas repository site. Yucca Mountain is located in a broad zone of volcanic activity known as the Death Valley-Pancake Ridge volcanic zone. The probability estimate for the likelihood that some future volcanic event will intersect a buried repository at Yucca Mountain is low. Additionally, the radiological consequences of penetration of a repository by basaltic magma followed by eruption of the magma at the surface are limited. The combination of low probability and limited consequence suggests that the risk posed by waste storage at this site is low. (TEM)
Date: December 31, 1980
Creator: Crowe, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Annual report, January-December 1980

Description: Progress is reported on a project for direct use of the 130/sup 0/F central Texas geothermal resource. Well drilling and logging are reported. Work was done on a preliminary design for a heating system for a college building and a hospital. (MHR)
Date: December 30, 1980
Creator: Smith, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heating facilities, Blue Mountain Community College, Pendleton, Oregon

Description: Blue Mountain Community College campus consists of five major buildings totalling about 193,000 square feet in area. Four of these buildings are heated using hot water circulating systems, and the fifth by a low pressure steam system. The boilers for each of the systems are natural gas fired. A successful agricultural well was drilled adjacent to the campus, which during a twelve hour test produced 780 gallons per minute of 65/sup 0/F water. It was concluded that heating the campus utilizing a heat pump system is possible using readily available and proven equipment. Annual energy saving in natural gas will amount to 98,400 therms. This is an 82% reduction in the annual usage forecast after implementation of recommendations made as a result of the energy audit. The first year value of the natural gas saved is $49,200. This savings, less operating costs, when applied with escalation consideration over a period of twenty years, indicates that a capital investment of $367,500 can be justified. This assumes the project would be financed with 8% tax-free bonds. A system design was developed, new equipment sized, needed modifications identified, and major items estimated.
Date: December 30, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department