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1977 environmental monitoring report

Description: The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1977 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Naidu, J R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Absolute measurements of the /sup 233/U (n,f) cross section between 0. 13 and 8. 0 MeV. [Cross sections, 0. 13 to 8. 0 MeV]

Description: The fast neutron fission cross section of /sup 233/U was measured absolutely between 0.13 and 8.0 MeV. The absolute cross section values were obtained by low geometry alpha counting and isotopic dilution analysis of various /sup 233/U samples, 2..pi..-detection of the fission fragments with an ionization chamber, and the measurement of the neutron flux with several black neutron detectors. Absolute cross sections were obtained with a 2 to 3% uncertainty over the most important energy range.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Poenitz, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accelerated/abbreviated test methods, Study 4 of Task 3 (encapsulation) of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Eighth quarterly progress report, January--March 1978

Description: To meet the goals of the LSSA program, solar cell encapsulants must provide protection for 20 years. Consequently, the objective of the present program is to develop methodology for making confident predictions of encapsulant performance at any exposure site in the U.S.A. During the first year of the program, inherent weatherability was studied. Inherent weatherability is controlled by the three weather factors common to all exposure sites: insolation, temperature, and humidity. Emphasis was focused on the transparent encapsulant portion of miniature solar cell arrays by eliminating weathering effects on the substrate and circuitry (which are also parts of the encapsulant system). The most extensive data were for yellowing, which was measured conviently and precisely. Considerable data also were obtained on tensile strength. Changes in these two properties after outdoor exposure were predicted very well from accelerated exposure data. Although more outdoor exposure data will be received, mathematical modeling studies are continuing. This first part of the program can be said to be successfully concluded. In continuation of the inherent weatherability study, the power output of solar cells was monitored under accelerated test conditions and is being followed for outdoor exposures. For this purpose, Universal Test Specimens (UTS's) with nine different substrate/transparent encapsulant combinations were prepared. Again, the objective is to predict outdoor performance from accelerated exposure data with photochemical stresses of about 8 times normal. Continuous accelerated exposure under 8 key combinations of ultraviolet (UV) light intensity, temperature, and humidity was continued for 2 months. Then the same UTS's were exposed to 100% relative humidity at 100/sup 0/C for one month. Degradation effects are discussed and illustrated.
Date: April 3, 1978
Creator: Kolyer, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Acoustic emission intrusion detector

Description: In order to improve the security of handling special nuclear materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a sensitive acoustic emission detector has been developed that will detect forcible entry through block or tile walls, concrete floors, or concrete/steel vault walls. A small, low-powered processor was designed to convert the output from a sensitive, crystal-type acoustic transducer to an alarm relay signal for use with a supervised alarm loop. The unit may be used to detect forcible entry through concrete, steel, block, tile, and/or glass.
Date: April 28, 1978
Creator: Carver, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AFCT/TFCT/ISFS Program. Technical progress report for the period January 1, 1978--March 31, 1978

Description: This is the ninth in a series of quarterly progress reports on Fuel Cycle Technologies/Thorium Fuel Cycle Technologies/International Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage (AFCT/TFCT/ISFS) program. This program provides information needed by industry to close the back end of the power reactor fuel cycle. Included in the program are activities supporting specific design studies, as well as activities for general fuel cycle technology. Studies were conducted in the following tasks: thorium resource price analyses; investigation of air cleaning processes for removing TBP from off-gas streams; study of iodine chemistry in process solutions; high-level waste treatment; electropolishing to decontaminate metallic waste from alternate and thorium converter fuel cycles; U.S. scale transport, dispersion and removal model comparison; safety criticality experiments; and criticality research in support of thorium fuel cycle technology program. (21 figs., 7 tables) (DLC)
Date: April 1978
Creator: Hill, O. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air-core kicker magnets with and without metallic enclosure

Description: Estimations have been made for the design of air-core kicker magnets with the given specification, under the condition of having and without having an enclosure. It is found that the kicker magnet contained in a cylindrical enclosure of a radius equal to the spacing of the fields winding will require an amount double the electrical power and 40% more in excitation current. However, these quantities decrease rapidly with the increase of the cylinder's radius. It is recommended that a radius of 1.5 times, or more, of the winding's spacing should be used. Two curves are given to show the tendency of the power and current as a function of the enclosure's-radius-to-spacing ratio. The values obtained from the theoretical calculations are found to be in good agreement to those from computer calculations on a similar model. 5 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: April 1978
Creator: Sun, Rai-Ko
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Allocation of petroleum feedstock: Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, Sollers Point SNG Plant, Sollers Point, Baltimore County, Maryland. Final environmental impact statement

Description: An allocation of naphtha feedstock up to 2,186,000 barrels per year to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG and E) to operate its synthetic natural gas (SNG) facility is being considered. The allocation would enable BG and E to produce 10,800,000 mcf of SNG during a 180 day period. Operation of the plant at design capacity is expected to result in annual pollution emissions as follows: 626.4 tons of sulfur oxides, 168.5 tons of nitrogen oxides and 21.6 tons of particulate matter. Incremental emissions due to plant operations relative to existing emissions in Baltimore County are less than 1%. All Federal and State air quality standards should be met. Treated effluent is to be discharged into the Patapasco River where the environmental impacts are not expected to be significant. The SNG facility has been designed to be in compliance with all applicable Federal, State and local effluent standards. Water consumption requirements of 335,000 gallons per day are not expected to significantly tax the area's water resources. Sound generated by the SNG facility will be inaudible or imperceptible. All other operational impacts on land use, population, visual quality, roadways, community facilities and services and ecological systems were judged to be minimal. Environmental impacts resulting from various alternatives ranging from full allocation through denial of an allocation are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Allowable misalignment of various elements of the TMX magnet set

Description: A series of drift-surface and magnetic-field calculations has been carried out to try to estimate the accuracy with which the elements of the TMX magnet set must be magnetically aligned. The results of these calculations, for 500 G at the solenoidal center, are summarized.
Date: April 7, 1978
Creator: Foote, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Alloy evaluation for fossil fuel process plants (liquefaction). Quarterly report, 1 January 1978--31 March 1978

Description: The objective of this program is to evaluate the mechanical properties of liquefaction process plant ''dissolver'' vessel materials in a ''dissolver'' vessel environment including coal slurry and pressurized hydrogen gas at temperatures up to 900/sup 0/F. Specifically, the degradation of notched-bar and smooth bar tensile samples of 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr--1 Mo will be monitored as a function of exposure time and stress in the ''dissolver'' vessel environment. This quarter was spent entirely on installing and debugging the newly acquired pressure vessels and their controlling circuitry. The vessels were installed in the Ames Lab explosion-safe, hydrogen-containment building, specially designed for this program. Leak checks of 24 to 72 hours were performed on the vessels at pressures ranging from 1000 to 5000 psig at temperatures of 72/sup 0/F and 800/sup 0/F. Automatic pressure and temperature monitoring controls were tested and calibrated. Pressure vessel furnaces were installed and are being tested. Containment building safety systems including hydrogen detectors, vessel over-pressure alarms, vessel over-temperature alarms, hydrogen check valves, surge valves, power failure emergency backup systems and fire alarms were tested and found satisfactory. Individual pressure vessel containment cell blow out panels and cell ventilation systems were found to be satisfactory.
Date: April 15, 1978
Creator: Woods, C.M. & Scott, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-sized absorption chillers. Semi-annual report

Description: The objective of the research program is to develop and analyze new concepts for absorption cycles to improve the performance or reduce the cost (or both) of a 3-ton absorption chiller that can be used with solar-collected heat. New refrigerant-absorbent pairs, additives to currently used refrigerant-absorbent pairs, and modifications to the cycle are being investigated. For the initial analyses the use of a fluid at 160 to 230/sup 0/F from a solar collector as a heating source is assumed. In the initial analyses the chiller is to provide chilled water at 45/sup 0/F at full load; alternatively, if a new refrigerant-absorbent pair appears to be amenable for direct cooling of the occupied space, the temperature of the evaporator is to be 45/sup 0/F. Both water cooling and air cooling of the absorber and the condenser are being studied. The use of ambient air at 95/sup 0/F dry bulb and 75/sup 0/F wet bulb temperatures is assumed. With the water-cooled cycles, the initial and operating costs of a properly sized cooling tower will be included. The research consists of five principal tasks: (a) acquisition of information for analysis, (b) definition of criteria for selection of promising refrigerant-absorbent pairs, additives for currently used pairs, or cycle modifications, (c) preparation and analysis of conceptual designs, (d) comparison and selection of the promising new systems that warrant further study, and (e) recommendations for further research for each promising new system. Progress on each of these tasks is described. (WHK)
Date: April 5, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of multiple faults in synchronous sequential circuits by Boolean difference techniques

Description: The Boolean difference is a mathematical concept which has found significant application in the study of single and multiple ''stuck at'' faults in combinational logic circuits. The concept of vector Boolean difference is extended to the analysis of multiple stuck-at faults in synchronous sequential circuits. A vector Boolean difference technique is utilized to determine the set of input/state pairs that will produce a difference in either output or next-state between the fault-free and faulty circuits. Assuming that the fault-free and faulty circuits start in the same initial state, they must be driven by applying a sequence of input vectors to a state in which either a difference in output or next-state is evidenced. If a difference in output cannot be achieved immediately, a second sequence of input vectors must be applied in order to propagate the state difference to the output. Methods for combining the Boolean difference analysis with techniques for deriving the required input vector sequence are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Goldstein, L.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of small business participation in the photovoltaic area of solar technology

Description: The level of participation of small businesses in photovoltaic technology was ascertained and recommendations were made relative to improving the level of participation. Hypothetical examples were developed of small businesses in the various stages of entry into or participating in photovoltaic activities and an analysis was made of the methods which could be used by the Division of Solar Technology (DSI) to encourage and strengthen the participation by small business in the photovoltaic activities of DST. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of SORS: a computer program for analyzing fission product release from HTGR cores during transient temperature excursions

Description: The code SORS was written by General Atomic to calculate the release of fission products from the fuel into the primary coolant during a hypothetical uncontrolled transient temperature excursion. The code assumes that the graphite core remains structurally intact. The release from the fuel particles is calculated using a coarse time step for several sections of the core. For the non-volatile elements, the code calculates a diffusion rate and an evaporation rate in each section of the core. The expression used for the evaporation rate is found to be incompatible with the rest of the assumptions used in the calculation.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Dickey, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis, scale modeling, and full scale tests of a truck spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system in high velocity impacts against a rigid barrier

Description: The report describes analyses conducted to predict the response of a truck tractor-trailer system with a spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in very severe (98 to 135 kilometers per hour) head-on crashes into a rigid concrete structure. The analyses include both mathematical and physical scale modeling of the system. The results of the analyses are compared to the results of instrumented full-scale tests conducted as the last step in the research program described in the report.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Huerta, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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