Search Results

Low cost solar array project: composition measurements by analytical photon catalysis. First quarterly report, November 1--December 31, 1978

Description: The object of this research is to assess the applicability of the photon catalysis technique for effecting composition analysis of silicon samples. In particular, the technique is to be evaluated as a detector for the impurities Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ti, V, Mo and Zr. During the first reporting period Al, Cr, Fe and Mn were detected with the photon catalysis method. The best fluorescence lines to monitor were established, and initial sensitivities to each to these elements were determined by atomic absorption calibration. In the course of these tests, vapor pressure curves for these four pure substances have also been mapped.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Sutton, D.G.; Galvan, L.; Melzer, J. & Heidner, R.F III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation and targeting of geothermal energy resources in the southeastern United States. Progress report, July 1, 1978-September 30, 1978

Description: The first results for the Atlantic Coastal Plain drilling program are reported by the Geophysics group for 17 holes drilled in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Average geothermal gradients range from about 25/sup 0/C/Km to a high of 45/sup 0/C/Km. Three sites, Salisbury, MD, Crisfield, MD, and Wallops Island, VA, have sufficiently high thermal gradients to warrant further study to outline the thermal anomaly and to discover if they are associated with a potential field anomaly. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 papers.
Date: 1978~
Creator: Costain, John K.; Glover, Lynn, III & Sinha, A. Krishna
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological and geophysical analysis of Coso Geothermal Exploration Hole No. 1 (CGEH-1), Coso Hot Springs KGRA, California

Description: The Coso Geothermal Exploration Hole number one (CGEH-1) was drilled in the Coso Hot Springs KGRA, California, from September 2 to December 2, 1977. Chip samples were collected at ten foot intervals and extensive geophysical logging surveys were conducted to document the geologic character of the geothermal system as penetrated by CGEH-1. The major rock units encountered include a mafic metamorphic sequence and a leucogranite which intruded the metamorphic rocks. Only weak hydrothermal alteration was noted in these rocks. Drillhole surveys and drilling rate data indicate that the geothermal system is structurally controlled and that the drillhole itself was strongly influenced by structural zones. Water chemistry indicates that this geothermal resource is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Several geophysical logs were employed to characcterize the drillhole geology. The natural gamma and neutron porosity logs indicate gross rock type and the accoustic logs indicate fractured rock and potentially permeable zones. A series of temperature logs run as a function of time during and after the completion of drilling were most useful in delineating the zones of maximum heat flux. Convective heat flow and temperatures greater than 350/sup 0/F appear to occur only along an open fracture system encountered between depths of 1850 and 2775 feet. Temperature logs indicate a negative thermal gradient below 3000 feet.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Galbraith, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision analysis for evaluating and ranking small solar thermal power system technologies. Volume I. A brief introduction to multiattribute decision analysis

Description: Multiattribute decision analysis is a methodology for providing information to a decision maker for comparing and selecting between complex alternatives. A brief introduction to the principal concepts of the Keeney and Raiffa approach to multiattribute decision analysis is presented. The concepts of decision alternatives, outcomes, objectives, attributes and their states, attribute utility functions, and the necessary independence properties for the attribute states to be aggregated into a numerical representation of the preferences of the decision maker for the outcomes and the decision alternatives are presented. 50 references.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Feinberg, A. & Miles, R.F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small power systems study. Volume. Study results. Technical summary report

Description: The Division of Solar Technology of the Department of Energy is currently examining the market potential of a number of dispersed solar energy systems, including the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power system. Small fossil-fueled generating units in the United States utility system, (i.e., investor-owned, municipal, and cooperatives) have a current capacity of approximately 8000 MW/sub e/ or about 1.5 percent of the total US electrical capacity, and provide a large potential market for small solar thermal power systems. The Small Power Systems Study has as its objective the determination of conditions under which small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power units can provide cost-effective electrical power to a variety of users. Potential users, in addition to the utility systems; include Department of Defense installations and applications, remote mining and/or lumbering operations, and other industrial power systems with and without cogeneration. The first year's results on the Small Power Systems Study are summarized. The data base used and the breakeven cost analysis are discussed. Information on both small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units and the utility systems using them is presented as well as data on fossil fuel costs, solar plant costs, and solar insolation values. The results of a survey of Department of Defense (DOD) worldwide electrical generating capacity at its military bases and on a potential DOD application are presented. Information on a potential small solar power system experiment in the interior of Alaska is given, and a limited amount of information on a remote application which would provide power or a large open pit copper mine is presented. Volume II of this Technical Summary Report contains an inventory, by state, of the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) …
Date: May 31, 1978
Creator: Sitney, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) blanket design study, December 1978

Description: This work represents only the second iteration of the conceptual design of a DTHR blanket; consequently, a number of issues important to a detailed blanket design have not yet been evaluated. The most critical issues identified are those of two-phase flow maldistribution, flow instabilities, flow stratification for horizontal radial inflow of boiling water, fuel rod vibrations, corrosion of clad and structural materials by high quality steam, fretting and cyclic loads. Approaches to minimizing these problems are discussed and experimental testing with flow mock-ups is recommended. These implications on a commercial blanket design are discussed and critical data needs are identified.
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis and evaluation of processes and equipment in Tasks II and IV of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Quarterly report, October 1977-January 1978

Description: Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible costs through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry-over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. Consequently, the specific add-on costs of the Cz-process can be expected to be reduced by about a factor of three by 1982, and about a factor of five by 1986. A format to guide in the accumulation of the data needed for thorough techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes has been developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format, and has first been applied, as well as refined, in the Cz crystal pulling analysis. The accumulated Cz process data are presented in this format in the Appendix. The application of this UPPC format with the SAMICS cost and price determination methodology, at least in its Interim Price Estimating Guidelines (IPEG) form, has been established and is detailed.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Goldman, H. & Wolf, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems

Description: This study summarizes the promise and timing of the hybrid concept and culminates in a generic R and D timetable. This document emphasizes the meaningfulness of the concept to tomorrow's energy needs and energy production systems rather than strict analysis of technical feasibility. (MOW)
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F. & Kaminski, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PWR decontamination feasibility study

Description: The decontamination work which has been accomplished is reviewed and it is concluded that it is worthwhile to investigate further four methods for decontamination for future demonstration. These are: dilute chemical; single stage strong chemical; redox processes; and redox/chemical in combination. Laboratory work is recommended to define the agents and processes for demonstration and to determine the effect of the solvents on PWR materials. The feasibility of Indian Point 1 for decontamination demonstrations is discussed, and it is shown that the system components of Indian Point 1 are well suited for use in demonstrations.
Date: December 18, 1978
Creator: Silliman, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommended revised sections to line focus solar central power systems

Description: The design requirements, subsystem characteristics, environmental requirements, and cost and performance evaluation techniques are defined for the Line Focus Solar Central Power Systems. Specific passages revised are enumerated. (LEW)
Date: October 18, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar heating and cooling working fluids released to the ecosystem

Description: Gylcols, polygloycols, silicone oils, hydrocarbon oils and various corrosion inhibitors and biocides used in solar heating and cooling systems are tested and evaluated for their potential effects on soils, vegetation, and in regard to potential groundwater contamination. Experimental tests include measurement of the effects of additions of these substances to soils on soil microbial respiration, above ground vegetation, and on the mobilization of chemicals in soil water, including the test substance and any significant biodegradation products. Experimental work aims at developing the data base necessary to evaluate the environmental acceptability of the wide range of materials used for this purpose, addressing the need for development of disposal practices and the means of mitigating effects on the environment due to accidental releases.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Wilson, D.W. & Miera, F.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 2. Results

Description: This volume, the second of a four-volume report, presents the current status of the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM), an analysis and projection of the use of energy in the industrial sector, developed as a tool to develop insights on the energy future of the US. Volume 1 describes the model logic and primary data inputs of ISTUM. This volume presents the results of the initial base case run of ISTUM. Volumes III and IV discuss in detail the energy demand data inputs and technology cost inputs, respectively. It is believed that, given the specified policy scenarios, the results presented in this volume provide an accurate picture of the trends in the demands for fuels and technologies for the remainder of the century. Following the introductory chapter, chapters are entitled: Projected Trends in Industrial Fuel Consumption; Projected Contributions of Technologies to the Industrial Sector; and Service Sector Perspectives of ISTUM 4/6/78 Base Case Results (steam sector, direct heat - intermediate and dirty; indirect heat - coal capable; machine drive service sector; electrolytic sector; space heat; indirect - not coal capable; calcining; glass melting; brick and clay firing; iron making; and steel reheating).
Date: June 19, 1978
Creator: Bohn, R.E. & Herod, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of RBE. Progress report, 1 January-31 December 1978

Description: The shapes of the blackness-exposure curves of special nuclear emulsions after exposure to x-rays of 15-150 kvp have been found to remain constant, at all applied voltages. Since the shapes of these curves mimic those of biological cells (for cell killing vs. exposure), no change is expected in the RBE of low LET radiations at low dose levels. This finding disagrees with radiobiological findings in which the RBE of gamma-rays relative to x-rays increased at low dose, and was expected to approach 4. A minimal model of a heavy ion beam incorporating secondary and tertiary particle production has been constructed, in support of our investigations of relative effectiveness. The model gives good agreement with depth-dose curves from He to Ar for 8-30 cm of penetration in water. When applied to the survival of T-1 kidney cells using the parameters of the theory of RBE assigned from earlier work and slightly modified to accomodate recently attained levels of hypoxia, good agreement is found with measured values of the RBE and OER in Ar beams, for these cells. Secondary particle distribution alters the depth dose distribution dramatically, but has a much smaller effect on these biological parameters. To illustrate the potential application of the model to heavy particle therapy, we have designed a ridge filter, and find once again that it will be impossible to achieve isoeffect volumes for both oxic and hypoxic cells in a single port irradiation. Where possible, the preferred mode for heavy ion therapy must be symmetric cross-firing, where it is relatively simple to achieve isoeffect volumes for both oxic and hypoxic cells.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Katz, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct use applications of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume II: appendixes

Description: The following appendixes are included: Desert Hot Springs (DHS) Geothermal Project Advisory Board, Geothermal Citizens Advisory Committee, community needs assessment, geothermal resource characterization, a detailed discussion of the geothermal applications considered for DHS, space/water heating, agricultural operations, detailed analysis of a geothermal aquaculture facility, detailed discussion of proposed energy cascading systems for DHS, regulatory requirements, environmental impact assessment, resource management plan, and geothermal resources property rights and powers of cities to regulate indigenous geothermal resources and to finance construction of facilities for utilization of such resources. (MHR)
Date: July 1978
Creator: Christiansen, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of insolation variation over a solar collector field

Description: The experiment described in this report makes observations to determine the direct insolation every 16 sec at corners of a quadrilateral approximately 600 meters in size located near Barstow, California. This size approximates the collector field of the solar power plant to be built near Barstow. Data from the first three months of operation of this experiment indicate cloudy conditions, capable of affecting the operation of a solar power plant, occurred during 15% of the daylight hours of some months. Patterns of insolation variation over the experiment area indicate shadows often exist with dimensions less than the projected size of the collection field for the 10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal power plant. Detailed statistical summaries of four partly cloudy events are included. Rates of insolation change on an individual sensor greater than or equal to 30 Wm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ have been observed, but these rate measurements have probably been limited by the response time of the experimental system. Spatial averaging of the measured insolation over the sensor field lowers the rate of insolation change.
Date: December 30, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SLSF loop handling system. Volume III. AISC code evaluations and analysis of critical attachments. [LMFBR]

Description: SLSF loop handling system was analyzed for deadweight and postulated dynamic loading conditions using a linear elastic static equivalent method of stress analysis. Stress computations of Cradle and critical attachments per AISC Code guidelines are presented. HFEF is credited with in-depth review of initial phase of work.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Ahmed, H.; Cowie, A.; Malek, R.A.; Rafer, A.; Ma, D. & Tebo, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southwest regional geothermal operations research program. Summary report. First project year, June 1977--August 1978

Description: A summary report is given of the information, data, and results presented by New Mexico Energy Institute and the five State Teams in their separate draft reports. The objective is to develop scenarios for the development of each identified geothermal resource area in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. Included are an overview; an economic analysis; institutitional procedures, contraints, and incentives; location of geothermal resources in the southwest; geothermal development postulations, state by state; and recommended actions for promoting and accelerating geothermal development. (MHR)
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Meyer, R. T. & Davidson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

Description: Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Lindell, M. K.; Earle, T. C.; Hebert, J. A. & Perry, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report, 1978

Description: Research is presented concerning materials science including metallurgy and ceramics; solid state physics; and materials chemistry; chemical sciences covering radiation science, chemical physics, and chemical energy; nuclear science; coal research; solar energy; magnetic fusion, conservation; and environmental research. (FS)
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and evaluation of die materials for use in the growth of silicon ribbons by the inverted ribbon growth process. Task II. LSSA Project. Quarterly report No. 5, October 1-December 31, 1978

Description: Several ribbon growth experiments were performed in the Mark II ribbon growth facility from V-shaped dies coated with CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/. The most significant result was the ability to perform five consecutive growth runs from the same die without mechanical degradation of the die through temperature cycling. The die was made from vitreous carbon coated with CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/. Silicon oxynitride, Si/sub 2/N/sub 2/O, was examined with respect to thermal stability in contact with molten silicon. The results of x-ray analysis indicate that this material is converted to both ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ in the presence of molten silicon. The latter phase is the dominant phase. Experiments on the stability of CVD SiO/sub x/N/sub y/ show that this material can be maintained in contact with molten silicon (sessile drop test) for greater than 30 h at 1450/sup 0/C without total decomposition. These layers are converted mainly to ..beta..-Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/. The fabrication of coated EFG-type dies is proving difficult because of thermal expansion mismatch between layer and substrate and instability of substrate materials at high temperature. Self-supporting CVD dies have been prepared on silicon substrates but the wall thickness is not greater than about 50 ..mu..m. Experiments are continuing.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Duffy, M.T.; Berkman, S.; Moss, H.I. & Cullen, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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