Search Results

Multiflash feed-and-bleed coupling for the evaporation and crystallization industry. Technical report, April 1-June 30, 1977

Description: The technical and economic feasibility of using low temperature geothermal brine in place of steam from conventional sources for industrial multi-effect evaporation and crystallization was studied. Work on the following is described: candidate industry evaluation, including process flow diagrams, heat and material balances; conceptual engineering, and a visit to Leslie Salt plant. The economic analysis includes economic groundrules established, capital and operating costs derived, and a cost comparison of geothermal vs. fossil fuel plants. Other topics covered are: the analysis of fuel savings by use of geothermal resources; the analysis of environmental impact of geothermal vs. fossil fueled plants; and a comparison of feed-and-bleed process with other geothermal heat utilization processes. (MHR)
Date: June 30, 1977
Creator: Basuino, D. J.; Doyle, P. T. & May, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect on air and water emissions of energy conservation in industry

Description: Environmental emissions for five large energy-consuming industries plus others are estimated for four US energy system scenarios for 1985 and 2000. Emissions are estimated by specifying fuel mixes to steam boilers and direct heat, combustion efficiencies, shifts in the relative shares of alternative industrial processes use of industrial cogenerators, and penetration of pollution-control technologies. Analyses show that emissions do not vary significantly among scenarios principally because of increased coal use and the reduced penetration rate of advanced pollution-control technologies in the low-energy-demand scenarios. Within scenarios, emissions from the chemical and iron and steel subsectors dominate all aggregate estimates. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide process emission coefficients for the chemical subsector must be improved.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Raskin, P D & Rosen, R A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar and geothermal energy utilization n SF-2: a sensitivity analysis

Description: A sensitivity analysis was conducted of the utilization levels for Solar, Geothermal, and Advanced Energy Systems (ASGA) technologies during the 1985-2000 time period. In particular, the sensitivity of the utilization levels was tested with respet to both analytical techniques and to specific parameter assumptions. The sensitivity to analytical techniques was examined insofar as certain criteria were examined to elucidate their importance in determining the level of use of the ASGA technologies. The criteria incorporated consideration of such factors as total cost of the energy system, environmental impacts, and resource use patterns. The parameter assumptions studied included costs of ASGA costs of ASGA technologies, costs of non-renewable resources, and limitations on the use of technologies and resources. (MHR)
Date: April 5, 1977
Creator: Davitian, H.; LaSala, R. & Marcuse, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition and utilization of cellulose for chemicals from agricultural residues

Description: This study was undertaken for several reasons. Firstly, because of the scarcity of data on the composition of certain agricultural residues generated predominantly in California, it could only be inferred from the published composition of agricultural grains and wood what the carbohydrate composition of the residue straw, stems, and roots might be. Published methods of analysis on wood and grains were adapted or modified to suit these materials, resulting in an analytical system applicable to these residues. Secondly, a series of chemical pretreatments were studied to see if sugar production by enzymatic hydrolysis might be improved. Also these studies are used as a basis of generating the data for chemical engineering parameters of the Berkeley process. Since lignin is ultimately used as a feed back energy source in the Berkeley process, it is not necessary for it to be in the form of a relatively low weight polymer. Therefore, a study on the use of recoverable chemical solvents for dilignification by solution, rather than by a depolymerization reaction is indicated.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Sciamanna, A.F.; Freitas, R.P. & Wilke, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. Quarterly report, 9 October 1976-9 January 1977

Description: Honeywell is to develop twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems. Six of these are to be heating and six are to be heating/cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications. Schedules and technical discussions are given, along with illustrations on the progress made from October 9, 1976 through January 9, 1977.
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-liquid transient flow in horizontal pipes: a model for predicting flow-pattern transitions. Final report

Description: Recent studies (Taitel and Dukler, 1976) have provided a method for predicting conditions for flow regime transitions by modelling the actual physical processes taking place. This work was concerned only with steady flow conditions. Of considerable importance to the analysis of a Loss of Cooling Accident is the ability to predict the flow regime under conditions of transient flow. This report extends the steady state method of analysis to that of transient flow. It is shown that under transient conditions the transitions between flow patterns can occur at flow rates different than that which will take place if the changes in flow rate were to take place infinitely slowly. Furthermore, for rapid changes in flow rates from one set of conditions to another, flow regimes can appear which would not be observed if the change were made slowly. The theory for flow regime changes under transient flow conditions is developed and methods for predicting the onset of transition under transients presented. Experimental confirmation of the theory is described.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Taitel, Y.; Lee, N. & Dukler, A. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Case study of total energy plant at the Kansas City TWA overhaul base

Description: This case study evaluates the reasons for TWA's 1969 decision to build a total energy plant at its Kansas City overhaul base. Total energy was bought on the basis that it would reduce energy costs and, at the same time, provide more reliable and higher quality electric power. Reasons why these expectations did not materialize are analyzed, along with operational statistics, and total energy versus purchased power costs, forming a record that can aid the Department of Energy in determining the energy conservation potential of such applications of total energy in the United States. TWA's present status at the overhaul base is that of buying electric power from the Missouri Public Service Company. Steam produced under the total energy format by waste-heat recovery, is again being produced through the use of the previously existing combustion boiler capacity.
Date: December 30, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar lumber kiln. Final report

Description: The purpose of this project was to establish design parameters for the construction of small scale (1000 board foot capacity) lumber drying kiln which derives its thermal energy from the sun. Results of a six month monitoring period are presented, as well as second generation design considerations and simplified control logic. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land use impacts of rapid transit: implications of recent experience. Final report

Description: Evidence of land use impacts of recent major rapid transit improvements are reviewed and conclusions drawn concerning the extent and nature of such impacts and the conditions under which they have occurred. Transit improvements studied are primarily post-World War II in origin. American and Canadian examples are stressed, although European experience is teated briefly. Virtually all major modern American and Canadian rapid transit investments are included, covering conventional rapid rail, commuter rail, light rail and bus/busway. In addition to conclusions on general patterns of land use impact and causes, research recommendations and Federal policy implications are drawn.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Knight, R.L. & Trygg, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential impacts of instream flow requirements on coal development in the Northern Great Plains

Description: As coal resources are developed in the Northern Great Plains regions, new reservoirs are being considered to meet expanding water demands. The amount of water available for industrial diversion, however, could be limited by regulations that require minimum flow levels to be maintained downstream of the reservoir sites. Computer simulations of potential reservoirs were used to determine to what extent, if any, instream flow requirements might limit the ability of reservoirs to deliver industrial water supplies. Data on instream flow requirements, potential reservoir sites, and historic runoff were input for the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming. Results of the simulations compared the maximum amount of water available for industrial diversion with and without requiring instream flow criteria. It was found that the potential impact of instream flow requirements on the water needs associated with coal development is indeed significant.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Shupe, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility investigation and design study of optical well logging methods for high temperature geothermal wells. Semiannual technical progress report, 30 September 1976-31 March 1977

Description: Measurement of the absorption-edge in the compound semiconductor GaAs shows that changes in temperature over a range from 200 to 500/sup 0/C produce a cut-off transmission wavelength approximately coincident with the optimum spectral transmission region of quartz optical fibers. Thin GaAs elements are thus shown to be suitable for use as passive optical temperature transducers in the logging of high temperature geothermal wells in conjunction with fiber-optic cables. Stress effects on the optical transmission properties of quartz fibers indicate increased attenuation amounting to approximately 5%, due to tensile stress of 90 ksi, or an elongation of 1%. Temperature effects on optical transmission were found to be negligible at 500/sup 0/C. Preliminary results of this study indicate that construction of a borehole geophysical cable based on single-fiber quartz waveguides is entirely feasible. Present upper temperature limits in successfully measuring certain geophysical parameters in boreholes can be extended appreciably by the use of such a cable in conjunction with passive optical transducers which require little or no down-hole electronics.
Date: April 1, 1977
Creator: Swanson, R. K.; Beissner, R. E.; Smith, V. D. & Fogwell, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Attempt at paleomagnetic dating of opal, Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

Description: The results of paleomagnetic investigation of a drill core from the Opal Dome at Roosevelt Hot Springs are reported. A log of the core from 1.5 to 16.8 m is given. (MHR)
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Brown, F.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Support research for development of improved geothermal drill bits. Annual report

Description: A full-scale geothermal wellbore simulator and geothermal seal testing machine were constructed. The major emphasis in the Phase II program, in addition to constructing the above research simulators, includes: simulated tests on full-scale components, i.e., full-scale bits; screening tests on elastomeric seals under geothermal conditions; and initial considerations of research needs for development of sealed high-temperature bits. A detailed discussion of the work is presented. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Hendrickson, R. R.; Barker, L. M.; Green, S. J. & Winzenried, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal regulation of the pipeline industry. A summary review. Technical report, Task 2

Description: The principal purposes of this report are to identify the jurisdiction areas of the federal pipeline regulating agencies, and to examine the amenability of the regulatory system to the introduction of energy-conservative new technology into the pipeline industry. The history, scope, and agency structure of state and federal regulation are recounted and some gaps, overlaps, and ambiguities are identified. The only significant inhibitory effects upon technological innovation are found to derive from the FPC and ICC limits upon profit, the 1941 Justice Department consent decree limiting dividends to shipper-owned pipelines, and the income tax rules governing recovery of investment credits and startup losses. Effects of these limits are explored by simulation studies using the Systems, Science and Software pipeline economic model (PEM). Two new concepts of regulation are proposed which would neutralize the inhibitory effect of the present regulatory system and would motivate pipeline operators to conserve energy: one, the use of a national equivalent value in the economic trade-off analyses which justify entry of a technological innovation into the rate base (valuation); and two, a valuation allowance which would reverse the presently often-existing situation and insure that the pipeline operator would realize a greater profit from saving energy than from wasting it.
Date: May 31, 1977
Creator: Banks, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resource assessment of the Imperial Valley. Final report

Description: A resource assessment of the Imperial Valley has been made based on the use of the gravity anomalies as indicators of total excess mass. These data indicate a potential of producing electric power of 7 to 80 thousand megawatts for 30 years. Over half of the total potential is located in the Salton Sea Anomaly and approximately half of the potential of the Salton Sea field is water covered. An attempt has been made to assess not only the heat in storage in the fluid but also recoverable from the country rock by reinjection. Based on calculations, the natural recharge rate of heat in the Valley due to sea floor spreading is too small to give the resource an indefinite life-span since the economic rates of withdrawal appear to be at least an order of magnitude greater.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Biehler, S. & Lee, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thin rod heat flux transducer positioned in the earth having a uniform temperature gradient: a closed form solution

Description: Signals from a thin rod heat flux transducer will be measured and translated into a geothermal heat flux. A mathematical temperature solution has been developed for an idealized thin rod positioned in an infinite solid with a uniform temperature gradient. This solution approximates the actual temperature to be encountered in the transducer when located in a drillhole. The solution is a closed form type for a thin rod wherein radial temperature differences are small compared to axial ones; the system can be classified as a fin with a variable environmental temperature gradient. The resulting temperature field is evaluated for a range of system parameters that are of interest in geothermal heat flux measurement. A description of how the mathematical results obtained will be used to extract the unknown geothermal heat flux and earth thermal conductivity from the experimental temperature information obtained by the heat flux transducer is also presented. In addition, the solution is extended to the case where there is a water or air annulus space between the transducer and the drillhole.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Poppendiek, H. F. & Connelly, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Age changes in human bone: an overview

Description: The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.
Date: December 3, 1977
Creator: Sharpe, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber Reservoir for industrial processing purposes at Valley Nitrogen Producers Inc. , El Centro Agricultural Chemical Plant. Second quarterly report

Description: The initial economic evaluation is provided for the alternatives to natural gas consumption previously identified. Using estimates of well costs, well flow, well life, temperature, enthalpy, and rates of return on invested capital, the cost of brine production has been estimated in terms of a demand charge and an energy charge. Capital costs of geothermal flash steam and binary systems from 5 to 30 Gross MW capacities have been estimated utilizing a modified Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories GEOCOST computer program. Fossil fuel costs, geothermal brine costs, and rate of inflation have been projected through 1997. Using these data, the thermal cycle efficiencies, and the capital cost data, the projected annual cost savings and the internal rate of return, as a function of the amount of fossil fuel displaced by geothermal energy, have been calculated and preliminary conclusions have been drawn based on this overall economic evaluation. In addition to an overall economic evaluation, an individual energy utilization evaluation was undertaken. Using estimates of capital costs, energy costs, and energy conversion efficiencies, a total unit charge rate in $/Hp-hr was assigned to each existing equipment driver and each proposed energy alternative to determine the best method for substituting geothermal energy for existing fossil fuel energy in the Valley Nitrogen Producers (VNP) Plant Steam Cycle. An optimal cost-effective plan for individual energy utilization in the VNP Plant Steam Cycle was developed from this evaluation and preliminary conclusions drawn.
Date: June 30, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cover-gas seals. LMFBR seal-test program. Progress report, January-March 1977

Description: The objective of the Cover Gas Seal Material Development Program is to perform the engineering development required to provide reliable seals for LMFBR application. Specific objectives include verifying the performance of commercial solid cross-section and inflatable seals under reactor environments including radiation, to develop advanced materials and configurations capable of achieving significant improvement in radioactive gas containment and seal temperature capabilities, and to optimize seal geometry for maximum reliability and minimal gas permeation. An additional objective is to select and verify the performance of a sodium and radiation resistant, high temperature reactor cell penetration sealant material.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Steele, O.P. III & Horton, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

Description: The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum D. A report to Holmes and Narver, Inc. , Anaheim, California on alternative energy sources for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

Description: This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the energy needs of a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a facility for underground storage of radioactive wastes in a deep salt bed. The report analyzes a total of sixteen possible methods for meeting WIPP energy requirements, consisting of purchased electricity and on-site generation in various combinations from full purchased to full on-site.
Date: March 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop on transport modeling for nuclear waste repositories

Description: The Transport Modeling task includes developing methods to describe the transport and impact of radiocontaminants accidentally released from waste repositories; demonstrating the use of these methods; and making the methods and techniques available to the repository managers for application at specific sites. The workshop on Transfer Modeling for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program was held at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on 25 and 26 July 1977. The objectives of the workshop were to: 1) discuss needs and criteria for the models, 2) obtain critiques of proposed model systems from experts in the field, and 3) obtain ideas for making models more useful to the safety assessment program. The proceedings of the workshop were presented.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Raymond, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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