Search Results

open access

Air blast studies with animals. Part II.

Description: Goats under Nembutal and mice were exposed in a shock tube modified to give longer-duration overpressures and equipped with ports for photography. Except for ear damage, displacement still seemed to be the major cause of injury in goats in the 4-foot section of the tube. However, it was found that mice were killed, apparently by pure blast, in a particular position in a particular type of side chamber attached to the higher-pressure, smaller-diameter, section of the tube. The relation between maximum velocity of displacement and the distance animals were thrown was fairly regular. The probability of injury over different terrains is discussed. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Anderson, R. S.; Stemler, F. W. & Rogers, E. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Argonne 60-IN. Scattering Chamber

Description: The 60-in. scattering chamber used with the external beam of the Argonne 60-in. cyclotron is described. The scattering chamber permits operation over an angular range from 4 deg to 176 deg with an accuracy of plus or minus 3 min. of arc. The geometrical factors involved in the measurement of cross sections are known to plus or minus 0.1% or better. The angular positions of the detectors, the target changer, and an absorber foil system in front of the detection units are operated by remote control so as to permit continuous operation of the cyclotron when these parameters are varied. It is possible to operate several detectors simultaneously; and in order to permit angular correlation studies, the angular position of one detector can be varied by remote control with respect to the other detector units. A summary of some of the experimental work performed with this instrument is given. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Yntema, J. L. & Ostrander, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

BIO-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY QUARTERLY REPORT DEC. 1960 THROUGH FEB.1961

Description: The current interest in the subject of fiber optics has brought about, among its many achievements, the development of a new technique for measuring refractive index. An instrument designed as a light-pipe refractometer or rod photorefractometer has been described by Kapany and Pike. these authors have presented both a theoretical study of the phenomenon and experimental results arising from a prototype apparatus. The range of applicability of such a device is limited, however, by the availability of rod materials having suitable refractive indices. In particular, the available solid material which has the lowest refractive index and which is also transparent is fused quartz (n{sub D} = 1.458). For reasons inherent in the geometry of the photorefractometer optics, the use of quartz rods does not permit high sensitivity of measurement on liquids having refractive index values less than 1.44. Aqueous solutions, therefore, are beyond the range of study of a system using solid rods. Kapany and Pike suggested the possibility of replacing the solid rod with a hollow cylindrical glass tube filled with a standard liquid. In this manner the effective refractive index of the light pipe is that of the reference liquid and can be varied over the complete range of refractive index for which liquids are available. Under these conditions the refractive index of the solid tube material now serves as an upper limit to the range of applicability. To date no experimental results using a hollow-tube refractometer have been reported, however. In the study presented here a photorefractometer cell incorporating a liquid light pipe has been constructed, and experimental results are reported on solutions in both water and methanol as solvents. These solutions would not be capable of sensitive refractive index measurement using a solid-rod photorefractometer. In addition, some experiments have been carried out toward determining the refractive …
Date: April 1, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Report: 1960

Description: Report issued by the Brookhaven National Laboratory discussing the work conducted by the lab during the fiscal year of 1960. As stated in the introduction, "the progress and trends of the research program are presented together with a description of the operational, service, and administrative activities of the Laboratory" (p. vii). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: April 1961
Creator: Brookhaven National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Comparative Boron Isotopic Analysis

Description: S>Surface ionization results for natural boron isotopic analysis are in agreement with other recent investigations indicating a B/sup 11//B/sup 10/ atom ratio nesrer to 4.00 than the more commonly accepted value of 4.31 based on BF/ sub 3/ analysis. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Goris, P.; Morgan, T. D. & Nielsen, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

CONVERGENCE OF TRANSPORT SOLUTIONS FOR THIN SLAB CELLS

Description: Reported DSN calculations of reactivity worths of heterogeneities in ZPR- III fast critical assemblies, caused by use of various fuel plate and diluent thicknesses, have shown the necessity for high-order approximations to obtain convergence of flux shape and eigenvalue. Convergence properties of solutions for a simplified two-region, oneenergy-group, repetitive slab cell having regional thicknesses and regional cross sections representative of those encountered in some energy -groups of the previous threegroup study are compared for DSN (N = 2, 4, 8, 16), singlespherical harmonics, PN (N = 1, 3,...., 11, 13), and double spherical harmonics, DPN (N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5), solutions for the case of a spatially constant unit source density in the alternate regions of the cell. Analogous uncollided flux solutions and an integral transport solution for uncollided flux showing effects of contributions of sources in neighboring cells upon the solution are obtained. As the angular width of the anisotropic flux component occurs predominantly in the region about mu = 0, the "shape" of the spatial flux is largely determined by at most a few nearestneighbor source regions, and the anisotropic component is largely the anisotropic component of the uncollided flux. Use of either a discrete ordinate method in which the quadrature angles and weights are assigned on the basis of an uncollided angular- flux estimate or an integral transport method in which the angular integration is accurately carried out is suggested for more effective convergence. For such quasi-homogeneous cells a simple hand-calculational method is presented in which the spatial flux "shape" is first obtained from an uncollided flux analysis, using an integral transport treatment requiring at most a few nearest neighbor regions and arising from "effective" regional source levels, based upon the constant flux of an equivalent homogeneous cell, which include the elastic scattering sources as …
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Meneghetti, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Corrosion of Aluminum and its Alloys in Superheated Steam

Description: The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum and some of its alloys in superheated steam was found to depend markedly on the method of starting the corrosion test. Pure aluminum samples survived only in tests that were brought to temperature and pressure very rapidly. Resistant Al-- Ni-- Fe alloys performed well only if a relatively slow starting procedure was used, suffering extensive blistering or complete disintegration in a test started rapidly. Over the range of temperature and pressure investigated, 400 to 540 deg C and 150 to 600 psig, with optimum starting conditions both pure aluminum and resistant Al-- Ni-- Fe alloy samples quickly formed a very protective oxide film. Interference colors were noted for exposures of several weeks. Samples surviving a 260-day test at 540 deg C and 600 psig had less than 1-mg/cm/sup 2/ weight gain. Nonresistant alloys disintegrated in short corrosion exposures. A penetrating attack, initiated in only a few spots, rapidly destroyed the samples. The effects of composition, dispersion of second-phsse compounds, hydrogen porosity, and pretreatments were investigated for 5.6% Ni--0.3% Fe-0.1% Ti in 540 deg C, 600-psig steam. It was concluded that porosity produced by corrosion product hydrogen was a major factor in the survival of samples. A mechanism for the rapid penetrating attack was proposed as based on observations made during the study of hydrogen porosity. Pretreatment of resistant alloy samples in dry air at 540 deg C or in high-temperature water at 350 deg C greatly reduced the amount of porosity produced by corrosion in superheated steam. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Draley, J. E.; Ruther, W. E. & Greenberg, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Corrosion of Some Reactor Materials in Dilute Phosphoric Acid

Description: Corrosion tests in dilute phosphoric acid (pH 3.5) at elevated temperature are described for X8001 aluminum, 18-8 stainless steels, aluminized carbon steel, and Zircaloy. In a 307-day dynamic test at 18 ft/sec and 315 deg C, X8001 aluminum corroded at a rate of 1/2 mdd for the first 240 days. In subsequent exposures, the corrosion rate increased, but the total average penetration at 307 days was only 0.0005 inch. At 200 days, the total corrosion in this test was one-fiftieth that in distilled water. Static tests at 225 deg C gave corrosion rates too low to measure (<0.2 mdd). Of several different 18-8 stainless steels tested in this solution at 315 deg C, only sensitized type 316 suffered intergranular attack. General attack rates of the other samples, of the order of 1/4 mdd, were obtained for the period from 94 to 186 days. Although this is much larger than the rate in distilled water, it represents a penetration rate of only about 5 x 10/sup -//sup 5/ inch/year. Aluminized carbon steel did not suffer rapid corrosion in this solution at 315 deg C, even when large areas of the carbon steel were exposed. There was a tendency for corrosion to separate the steel and aluminum with some specimens, depending on the heat treatment. Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-3 corrosion were of the same order in this solution at 315 deg C as in water. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Draley, J. E.; Greenberg, S. & Ruther, W. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Effect of Surface Treatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Zircaloy-2

Description: ABS>An experiment was performed to determine the effects of nonpickling versus pickling to depths of one and two mils on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy-2 machined by various methods. No significant difference in corrosion rate between pickled and unpickled Zircaloy-2 was found, provided that properly sharpened and hardened tools were used. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Scott, D. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Electronuclear Research Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending January 16, 1961

Description: Research with 28-Mev N/sup 3+/ ions from the ORNL 63-Inch Cyclotron included studies of elastic and inelastic scattering, of angular distributions from transfer reactions, and of nuclear reactions resulting in the evaporation of alpha particles and protons. The research program associated with the 22-Mev protons from the ORNL 86-Inch Dyclotron lncluded studies of bound states of neutrons, the investigation of energy levels in neutron-deficient rareearth nuclei, and the production of neutron-deficient radiolsotopes. Theoretical studies are belng made for the interpretation of both proton-induced and nitrogen- induced reactions with distorted-wave Born approximatlon calculations and with the optical model. Fabrication and assembly of Cyclotron Analogue II are nearing completion. The building for the Oak Ridge lsochronous Cyclotron was completed. The final design work is well advanced; the major heavy components were fabricated and are being installed. (For preceding period see ORNL-3047.) (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Experimental Evaluation of the Radiation Protection Provided by an Earth- Covered Shelter

Description: against fall-out radiation provided by an earth-covered shelter. The study indicated that the shelter offered excellent protection from fall-out radiation deposited on and around the shelter. This study also added additional data to the research in radiation shielding provided by various structures which is being conducted by the Civil Effects Test Operations, Division of Biology and Medicine, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. A fall-out radiation field was simulated by pumping, at constant speed, a sealed Co/sup 60/ source through a long length of tubing which was evenly distributed over an area. Radiation measurements were made inside the shelter by dose-integrating ionization chambers. In general, the results indicated that the protection factor (ratio of the open- field exposure dose rate to the exposure dose rate in the structure) was approximately 5000 in the center of the shelter, increasing to 10,000 to 15,000 along the sides, and decreasing to about 3000 near the ends. Directly below vents the protection factor was found to be approximately 2500 at the 3-ft level. The shelter was a halfround corrugated-steel structure covered by a minimum of approximately 2 ft of earth on the top and 5 to 7 ft of earth on the sides. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Burson, Z. & Borella, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

FILM GROWTH ON ALUMINUM IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER

Description: Film growths on aluminum and two aluminum-1 wt.% nickel alloys in water at 250 and 350 deg C were studied. It was found that oxide growth does not advance on a uniform front but, to the contrary, the advancing surface contains many outcrops in the form of thin platelets, chunky outcrops, and whiskers. With both the pure metal and the alloys considerable intergranular attack was observed. The general corrosion product was usually more uniform in crystal size when formed on the pure metal, but variations in crystal size were observed on both aluminum and alloys with varying features of the metal surface. The roughness of the general oxide surface (includlng outcrops) was found to increase rapidly to about 0.2 micron and then remain relatively constant with increasing film thickness. The composition of films formed under all investigated conditions, except one, was found to be boehmite ( alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/O). This exception was films carried by the alloy specimens after testing for 32 days at 350 deg C. In this case the main corrosion film was still boehmite, but in addition the outer surface supported long needles of diaspore ( beta -Al/sub 2/ O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/O). (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Hart, R.K. & Ruther, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Gamma-ray scanning techniques for fast breeder reactor safety studies

Description: A radiation scanning device was constructed to observe meltdown of fast breeder reactor fuel elements in the TREAT reactor by means of self gamma emission. Although the original desired specification was to view natural uranium pins with a space resolution of 0.1 in. and a time resolution of 1 millisecond, the system was designed to give the above space resolution, but the time resolution would be 5 milliseconds or longer depending on the signal intensity. The system failed to give satisfactory pictures because of low signal strength which gave poor contrast against high-strength background from the container required for safety reasons. Measurements indicated that a Mark III system could be constructed to view enriched pins in the standard container with a space resolution of 0.15 in. horizontally and 0.75 in. vertically with a time resolution of 5 milliseconds. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Beach, L. A.; Pieper, A. G. & Young, M. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The H-1 High Temperature Graphite Irradiation Experiment

Description: A high temperature graphite irradiation experinient was performed in the GETR core to determine the effects of differences in manufacturing, formulation, and graphitization temperatures on radiation-induced eontraction. The experiment was performed at temperatures of 800 to 1200 deg C in an intense fast neutron flux. The maximum integrated exposure of the sample positions was 3.2 x 10?sup 21/ nvt, E> 0.18 Mev, corresponding to approximately 24,000 MWD/AT in a conventional graphite-moderated reactor. All the graphites tested, with the exception of the controls, were needle coke filler, coal tar pitch binder graphites varying mn particle size, graphitization temperature, and impregnation. From theoretical and experitnental considerations, the formulations and treatments were expected to result in a relatively stable graphite in the direction transverse to extrusion. For comparison of the experimental results to existing experience, a conventional graphite, CSF, was used at each irradiation position. The results showed that the graphite most stable to contraction was graphaitized at a high temperature(>3100hC) and made from small particle size (all flour) filler. In all cases, the needle coke graphite contracted at a lower rate than the CSF graphite. Differences attributable to the size of extrusion and/or post graphitization cooling rate were discerned readily. Auxil iary to the purposes of the experiment, the apparent thermnal neutron cross section for Co/sup 58/ (plus Co /sup 58m) was determined. Co/sup 58/ and Co/sup 58m/ are the products of the Ni/sup 58/ (n,p) reaction, which is used widely for fast flux monitoring. Both have large thermal neutron capture cross sections which must be accounted for to prevent error in fast neutron dosimetry. In this experiment, a value was determined for the apparent burn-out cross section of 3750 barns. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Davidson, J.M. & Helm, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Health and Safety Laboratory Fallout Program Quarterly Summary Report: December 1, 1960 - March 1, 1961

Description: Report that summarizes multiple laboratories' reports on global fallout deposition. Reports include data on Strontium-90 deposition recorded by the Health and Safety Laboratory, data from other laboratories, related interpretive reports, and recent publications related to fallout.
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Hardy, Edward P., Jr.; Rivera, Joseph & Frankel, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

High Explosive Crater Studies: Tuff

Description: Abstract: "Spherical charges of TNT, each weighing 256 pounds, were exploded at various depths in tuff to determine apparent crater dimensions in a soft rock. No craters were obtained for depths of burst equal to or greater than 13.3 feet. It was deduced that rock fragments were sufficiently large that charges of greater magnitude should be employed for crater experiments intended as models of nuclear explosions."
Date: April 1961
Creator: Murphey, Byron F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

High Power Density Development Project, Fourth Quarterly Progress Report, January-March 1961

Description: ABS>High-Power Density Fuel Development. High-power density VBWR fuel assemblies were irradiated to approximately 400 Mwd/t and found to be in good condition after irradiation. Fabrication and calibration of two instrumented VBWR fuel assemblies are described. Fuel Fabrication Development. A tandem- rolled fuel bundle was produced. Swaging studies were carried out for stainless steel-clad fuel rods. Inspection of defected clad powder-compacted UO/sub 2/ specimens after 570 hr of erosion flow testing in water or steam at 535 to 545 deg F indicated that only small amounts of U0/sub 2/ had been eroded. A study of density-particle size relationships was made for vibratory-compacted binary and ternary fused UO/sub 2/ powder mixes. Design characteristics are given for 10 special HPD-VBWR assemblies. Vibration tests on a 36-rod Consunaers-type element are reported. Stability, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow. The results of a stability analysis of the 50-Mw Big Rock Reactor are presented. Physics Development. The effects of enrichment variations in the fuel rods and of inserted control rods on the power distribution were studied. Studies of gross radial power distribution for a 300-Mw reactor indicate that proper radial cycling of partially burned fuel can produce desirable radial power shapes. The physics analysis of the reactor core for a laine 300-Mwe conceptual design is summarized. The incentives and functions of a computer to be used for maximizing fuel burnup are discussed. (D.L.C.)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Holland, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

High Temperature Heat Utilization in Industry

Description: Introduction: The United States Atomic energy Commission has guided the development of nuclear reactors for commercial applications for over a decade. the three most important development areas for industrial applications at the present time are for use in electric power generation, for productions of low temperature process steam, and for the supply of high temperature heat to manufacturing processes.
Date: April 1961
Creator: Ferguson, F. Alan; Towle, Leland H. & Tarrice, Richard R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

IDENTIFICATION OF HYDROCARBON TYPES IN "ULTRASENE"

Description: The C/sup 1//sup 1/-C/sup 1//sup 4/ components of a sample of"Ultrasene" were identified as normal- and iso-paraffins; mono-, bi-, and tri-cycloparaffins; alkylbenzenes; indans; indenes; naphthalenes; and acenaphthenes. The aromatic content of this sample was 3.0 vol%. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Wilhite, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Irradiation testing of tubular fuel elements: PT-IP 292A. Final report

Description: This report discusses Zircaloy-2 clad uranium and uranium-2 weight percent zirconium fuel tubes which were irradiated to 3200 MWD/T in a high temperature water cooled loop. The outer clad of one tube split due to swelling of the uranium. Postirradiation examination of the fuel cores included metallography, electron microscopy, density determinations, dimensional measurements, and radiochemical burn-up analysis.
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Geering, G. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Mathematics Panel Annual Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1960

Description: The construction of a translator to Oracle language from ALGOL, the international algebrnic language, is described. The use of functions other than polynomials, e.g., trigonometnic fu nctions, as a basis for numerical quadrature in solving differential equations is considered. Functions satisfying a recursion in such a way that the stability of the computation is stabilized are evaluated, and matrices are studied with reference to localization of characteristic roots. Some problems in biology, medicine, health physics, and metallography requiring statistical analysis are described. Programming activities are described, including a program for analyzing the transmission data in neutron cross section determinations. A bnief summary of the Oracle operating experience and practice is given. (D.L.C.)
Date: April 1, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen