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Tertiary Blast Effects: The Effects of Impact on Mice, Rats, Guinea Pigs and Rabbits. Technical Progress Report

Description: A total of 455 mlce, rats, gulnea plgs, and rabbits was subjected to lmpact at velocitles ranglng between 25 ft/sec and 51 ft/sec. The deslred velocities were generated by allowlng the anlmals to free-fall from various helghts to a flat concrete pad. The ventral surface of each anlmal was the area of impact. Problt analyses of the 24-hr mortallty data ylelded LD/sub 50/ lmpact veloclties with 95% confldence limits as follows: mouse, 39.4 (37.4 to 42.0) ft/ sec; rat, ft/sec; and rabbit, 31.7 (30.2 to 33.3) ft/sec. The LD/sub 50/ figures for the mouse and rat were slgnificantly higher, statlstically, than those for the gulnea plg and rabblt. The small spread ln the LD/sub 50/ values suggested little variation ln the tolerance of blologlcal systems to impact. Further, the steepness of the mortallty curves lndicated a narrow survlval range to lmpact. Extrapolatlon of the experimental data to the 70 kg anlmal yielded a predicted LD/ sub 50/ impact velocity of 26 ft/sec (18 mph). Literature relevant to the human case was revlewed and the tentative appllcabllity of the predlcted flgures to adult man ls discussed. (auth)
Date: February 28, 1961
Creator: Richmond, D. R.; Bowen, I. G. & White, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EBR-II Dry Critical Experiments. Experimental Program, Experimental Procedures and Safety Considerations

Description: Revisions in the reactor system and operating procedures necessary for carrying out a proposed dry critical experiment in the EBR-II are described. The safety aspect of the program is considered. The critical experiment will be conducted in the EBR-II prior to filling the primary system with sodium. The facility, experimental program, operational and experimental procedures, and hazards and plant safety are described. (M.C.G.)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Kock, L. J.; Loewenstein, W. B.; Lovoff, A.; Hooker, H. H.; Monson, H. O.; Ramp, R. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR THE REFABRICATION OF EBR-II FUEL ELEMENTS. PART I. ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS FOR EBR-II FUEL REFABRICATION. PART II. DEVELOPMENT OF INJECTION CASTING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT. PART III. DEVELOPMENT OF FUEL PIN PROCESSING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT. PART IV. ASSEMBLY, WELDING, AND LEAK TESTING EBR-II FUEL RODS. PART V. DODIUM BONDING AND BOND TESTING EBR-II FU

Description: The development of remote fabrication methods and equipment in which the cooling periods, chemical fission product separation, and complete decontamination of the fuel is not required is discussed. A process designed around precision casting in multiple, glass molds served as a basis for design of refabrication equipment. The injection casting process is used. Procedures and equipment were developed for the remote manufacture of right-cylindrical, uranium alloy fuel pins from the castings. Assembly, welding, and leak testing of the EBR-II fuel rods are described. Methods of sodium bonding and bond testing are described. (M.C.G.)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Shuck, A.B.; Ayer, J.E.; Jelinek, H.F.; Iverson, G.M.; Carson, N.J. Jr.; Brak, S.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HRT CORROSION SAMPLES--ADDITIONAL DATA ON SPECIMENS REMOVED PRIOR TO RUN NO. 20

Description: Results of the examinations of corrosion specimens exposed in the HRT are presented. Specimens examined include core screen samples, core specimen array No. 1, blanket specimen array No. 2, core solution line specimen arrays No. 103 and 103A, and blanket solution line specimen array No. 203. These data include corrosion rates, computed from specimen weight-changes, and results of chemical analyses of scales removed from the specimens or specimen holders. A summary is included of the HRT operating schedule during exposure of the specimens and of the status of examinations for the specimens removed from the reactor prior to run 20. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Baker, J.E.; Silverman, M.D.; Jenks, G.H. & Olsen, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Kanigen, Electroless Nickel Plating for Steam Side of a Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: The evaluation of Kanigen electroless nickel plating for surfaces in contact with water and steam in a sodium-heated Type 316 stainless steel steam generator is reported. The purpose of the coating is to afford protection from stress corrosion cracking originating on the water-steam side of the unit. It is concluded that the Kanigen coating does not afford adequate protection for the service conditions. (D.L.C.)
Date: February 15, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Frequency of Earthquakes for Selected Areas in the Western United States for the Period 1945-59

Description: The following report covers earthquake frequency data for the period 1945-59 for the states of California, Nevada, Washington, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. Additionally, it presents earthquake-frequency data for 100-mile square areas in California, Nevada, Washington, and Montana-Wyoming.
Date: February 1961
Creator: Twenhofel, W. S.; Black, R. A. & Balsinger, D. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SOME EXPERIENCES IN THE WELD FABRICATION OF REFRACTORY METALS

Description: Discussion is given on the welding fabrication of tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, and tantalum. Properties which make the four refractory metals important are tabulatcd along with titanium which is given for comparison. Extensive evaluation was conducted using the gas, tungsten arc welding process employing both manual and machine welding. Design data were obtained exclusively from machine welded sheet materials. Flash welding, resistance spot welding and brazing, electron beam welding, and high frequency resistance welding processes were also applied to molybdenum alloys. The oxidation of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium in flowing air at 2000 deg F is also given. (P.C.H.)
Date: February 10, 1961
Creator: Thompson, E.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PHASE I REPORT OF DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES FOR POWER PRODUCTION FROM MIXED FISSION PRODUCTS

Description: An investigation was made into the various processes for the fixation of mixed fission products as solids in order to determine the extent they could be utilized as heat sources for thermoelectric generators. Generators of up to ten watts can be designed and built with state-of-art'' thermoelectric materials and mixed fission products soon to be available from the ldaho Falls calcination pilot plant. Mixed fission products from other processes and plants to be on stream'' in this decade will be capable of fueling practical generators into the kilowatt range using thermoelectric materials available in the same time period. A survey was made on current research and development eIforts on waste fixation processes. Studies showed that a wide range of power densities (from 0.002 to 0.2 watts per cubic centimeter) will be available from calcined fission product wasted. An experimental program for the consolidation of low density, ldaho Chemical Processing Plant alumina type wastes is reviewed. Preliminary results indicated that densification factors of three to four are readily obtainable for such wastes. Bulk densities of 0.8 g/cc were increased to 2.9 g/cc by selective use of fluxes and cold compacting techniques. This means that power densities of up to.001 w/cc will be possible from waste materials in the ldaho Chemical Processing Plant tanks. An experimental program for the evaluation of the high temperature life characteristics of bismuth telluride alloys is discussed. A program for the optimization of thermoelectric convertor design utilizing the diffuse heat from a mixed fission product source is described, derivation of pertinent equations are presented and results of the study are discussed. Conceptual designs for thermoelectric generators utilizing diffuse fission product heat sources are described. Problem areas regarding the use of mixed fission products in conceptual thermoelectric conversion device designs are discussed, with particular emphasis being placed on …
Date: February 18, 1961
Creator: Eaton, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Isotopic Sources of Secondary Radiation. Final Report

Description: Recent work on isotopic x ray sources is reportcd. The research was directed toward optimization of high-level isotopic sources and evaluation of their use in typical scientific and technical applications. The resulting experi- mental data are used in obtaining an approximate mathematical formulation of x- ray output as a function of beta energy, target mnaterial, and source configuration. (J.R.D.)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Filosofo, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Equations of State for Evolution Studies of Supernovae

Description: Tables of the energy, pressure, and chemical composition for a stellar mixture, originally a pure Fe/sup 56/, are presented as functions of temperature and density. They cover a range of conditions pertinent to the evolution of supernovae, involving the deconiposition of iron into helium plus neutrons, and the later stage of decomposition of helium into neutrons and protons. Relativistic degeneracy of electrons is included in these calculations. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Grasberger, W. H. & Yeaton, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE HEAT TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM

Description: Two groups of plutonium bars, one group containing 165 ppm iron and the other 678 ppm iron were end-quenched from the beta, gamma, delta, delta-prime, and epsilon phases. In general, cooling rate was found to have three striking effects on microstructure. The alpha grain size was found to decrease with increasing cooling rate during cooling from all phases. Upon cooling high-iron plutonium from the epsilon phase, the size of the Pu--Pu6/sub 6/Fe eutectic network decreased with increasing cooling rate. Cooling high-iron plutonium from temperatures between 413 and 460 deg C produced a wide variety of Pu --Pu/sub 6/ Fe configurations in the microstructure. Finally, the size of an unidentified spheroidal inclusion, soluble in the delta and higher temperature phases, decreased as cooling rate increased across the delta to gamma transformation. These effects of cooling rate can be used to indicate the cooling rate or thermal history that a particular plutonium specimen has encountered. A linear relationship between the alpha grain size and the Pu--Pu/sub 6/Fe eutectic network size was observed. The network size was roughly two times larger than the alpha grain size. Hardness traverses on each of the bars indlcated no apparent effect of coollng rate during quenchlng on hardness. A density decrease was noted near the quenched end of both low and high-iron bars which lndicated that faster cooling rates promote microcracklng. However, a greater decrease in density was obtained for the low-iron bars which was attributed to their greater tendency to microcrack. The presence of the Pu--Pu/sub 6/Fe eutectic network in the high-iron bars inhibits microcracking. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Gardner, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LOLA - A Multi-Dimensional Optimization Code for the IBM 709-7090

Description: Report describing the LOLA computer code, which is "capable of processing analytical or empirical systems containing a large number of variable parameters" (p. 2). The report also describes the calculations that LOLA can make.
Date: February 1961
Creator: Egan, M. R. & Knudsen, C. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Investigation of Supersaturation in Saline Water Conversion

Description: From Objectives and Outline of the Program: "The primary objective of this work has been the determination of the conditions which control the allowable level of supersaturation of the conditions which control the allowable level of supersaturation of calcium sulfate in the waste stream of electrodialysis demieralizers."
Date: February 1961
Creator: Lurie, R. M.; Berg, M. E. & Giuffrida, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Improved Zirconium Alloys : Summary Report, April 1, 1960 - January 31, 1961

Description: Abstract: "The objectives of this program are the development of zirconium-base alloys possessing exceptionally good corrosion resistance to 680 F water or 750-900 F system and/or improved strength at elevated temperatures. Approximately 100 binary compositions were prepared and screened by corrosion testing in 680 F water; selected compositions were exposed to 750 F steam. The data obtained indicate promising bases for ternary and quaternary alloys. Related investigations involving zirconium purity and heat treatment for improvement of corrosion properties are proceeding. Hydrogen pickup and mechanical properties will be used as acceptability tests on promising compositions."
Date: February 28, 1961
Creator: Weinstein, Daniel; Holtz, F. C. & Van Thyne, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Improved Zirconium Alloys Quarterly Report: October - December 1960

Description: Quarterly report describing the progress and development of improved zirconium alloys for service in superheated water and steam. This report covers the period between October 1 to December 31, 1960 and was conducted by the United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).
Date: February 2, 1961
Creator: Weinstein, Daniel; Holtz, F. C. & Van Thyne, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Boron-Carbon System: Quarterly Report Number 3, November 1960 - January 1961

Description: Abstract: A definitive investigation of the boron-carbon equilibrium system is being made by X-ray diffraction, metallographic, and thermal analytical techniques. On the basis of metallographic and X-ray diffraction studies it is concluded that boron carbide has a range of solubility from approximately 10 to 20 atomic per cent carbon at 1500 degrees to 2000 degrees Celsius. The melting point of the carbide-graphite eutectic has been established as 2325-2350 degrees Celsius. No reversible allotropy of the beta-rhombohedral structure has been observed. The solubility of carbon in boron is very small. The melting point of dilute carbon alloys is found to be essentially the same as that of pure boron (2040 degrees to 2050 degrees). No metallographic evidence of a three-phase reaction of dilute alloys is observed.
Date: February 6, 1961
Creator: Elliott, Rodney P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EBR-II Dry Critical Experiments Experimental Program, Experimental Procedures, and Safety Considerations

Description: Report containing zero power (<1 kw) Dry Critical Experiments that were "to be conducted in the EBR-II Reactor prior to filling the Primary System with sodium coolant" (p. 7.) The two primary objectives of these experiments were to determine how well the system performed without sodium coolant and to "determine and/or verify certain operational data to permit modification or improvement of the system (neutron shield, instrumentation, etc.) prior to the introduction of sodium into the system" (p. 7.)
Date: February 1961
Creator: Koch, L. J.; Loewenstein, W. B.; Lovoff, A.; Hooker, H. H.; Monson, H. O.; Ramp, R. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Kanigen, Electroless Nickel Plating for Steam Side of a Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: Introduction: This is a final report on the evaluation of Kanigen electroless nickel plating for surfaces in contact with water and steam i a sodium heated AISI Type 316 stainless steel steam generator. The purpose of the coasting was to afford protection from stress corrosion cracking originating on the water-steam side of the unit. It has been concluded that the kanigen coating does not afford adequate protection for the services condition intended. This work was performed as part of the research and development program for the United States Atomic Energy Commission sodium Components Design Project.
Date: February 15, 1961
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Specific activity of the NPR primary coolant loop

Description: In coolant system such as NPR's, the coolant activity level increase with each succeeding pass through the reactor flux until a saturation limit is reached. Therefore, the activity level of the NPR coolant system will be much higher than that of the old reactor once-through systems. This report is the determination of the specific activities (disintegrations/cc{center dot}sec) of the various coolant impurities which determine the total activity of the coolant system. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: February 16, 1961
Creator: Bitz, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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