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Isotopic Analysis of Boron as Trimethyl Borate

Description: Boron-impregnated polyethylene tape was irradiated in the Engineering Test Reactor Critical Facility to study the effect of boron as a burnable poison in reactor fuel. Isotopic analysis of the boron was performed with a conventional CEC Model 21-103 mass spectrometer. The tape was distilled off and the residual boron was converted to trimethyl borate. The reaction mixture was analyzed without separation. Good precision was obtained with samples containing less than 0.5 mg. boron. Features of the mass spectrum of trimethyl borate are discussed. Other applications of the method are suggested. (auth)
Date: January 28, 1960
Creator: Abernathey, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development test IP-342-AG increase of bulk outlet water temperature 105-DR

Description: The objective of this test is to determine the DR-Reactor effluent systems characteristics under 95 degrees Celsius bulk temperature operation. This proposed bulk temperature increase from 93.5 to 95 degrees represents a 33% decrease in the bulk temperature suppression below the boiling point. A major aim of this test will be to evaluate the degree of increased maintenance at this higher temperature operation. The basis and justification, test preparation and instrumentation, procedure, costs, outage time, hazards, standards, and responsibilities are discussed in this document.
Date: July 14, 1960
Creator: Adams, O. E. Jr.; Hedges, J. W. & Jones, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Removal of Radioiodine From Air Streams by Activated Charcoal

Description: Contamination of the atmosphere by radioactive isotopes of iodine constitutes a serious biological hazard and, for this reason, provisions should be made at reactors to prevent such releases in the event of an accident. The efficiency of activated charcoal for adsorption of iodine vapor from air streams was measured by using a radioactive tracer method, and efficiencies of 99.6 to 99.999+% were obtained for various conditions. Comparative tests were run with silver-plated copper ribbon. A criterion for selecting an iodine removal material was developed based on efficiency and resistance to air flow. The iodine vapor adsorption efficiency of a commercial charcoal filter was measured. Various materials were considered for possible application in the emergency exhaust system of the building housing the 5-Mw swimming pool reactor at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center. Based upon its high adsorption efficiency and retention properties, it is proposed that activated charcoal be utllized for iodine vapor adsorption. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Adams, R. E. & Browning, W. E., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Report on the Pinot Experiment

Description: The Pinot Project was designed to provide some indication of the extent to which gases from a confined underground explosion in oil shale would migrate parallel to the bedding planes. At 0800 on Aug. 2, 1960, 946 lb of nitromethane was fired in shot hole No. 1. There was no visible damage to the mine adit or to any structure associated with cation of the extent to which gases from a confined underground explosion in oil shale would migrate parallel to the bedding planes. At 0800 on Aug. 2, 1960, 946 lb of nitromethane was fired in shot hole No. 1. There was no visible damage to the mine adit or to any stnucture associated with the workings. Gas samples collected from sampling holes near the shot hole were analyzed for Kr/sup 85/, which had been included with the nitromethane as a tracer. It appeared that the Kr/sup 85/ concentration in the samples out to 50 ft was more or less independent of space and time between +2 and +50 hr. Relativsly little Kr/sup 85/ was detected at 125 ft and none beyond. About (20 plus or minus 10)% of the Kr/sup 85/ escaped into ths adit. The results of the Pinot experiment cannot be extrapolated quantitatively to the case of a nuclear explosion in oil shale. Even if the structure at the Pinot site is typical of oil shale, the generation of a smaller quantity of noncondensible gases per unit energy in a nuclear explosion (as compared with a chemical explosion), the shonter time scale of the ensrgy release and the higher temperatares and pressures encountered will all have a definite influence on the effective containment distance. One can conclude, however, that, if the medium at the site of a potential nuclear experiment is similar to that at Pinot, …
Date: December 27, 1960
Creator: Adelman, F. L.; Bacigalupi, C. M. & Momyer, F. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Theoretical Feedback Analysis in Boiling Water Reactors

Description: The dynamic behavior of boiling-water reactors for small perturbations was investigated in a systematic way. General expressions for the transfer functions associated with the individual feedback mechanisms were obtained for an arbitrary flux distribution, weighting function, and steam velocity distribution. Specific forms were derived in the case of a first power flux weighting, a uniform steam velocity distribution, and a sinusoidal flux distribution with an adjustable wave length. These forms were simplified and single time-constant transfer functions were obtained. The error involved in the lumped time-constant approximation was shown to be as large as 4 db in amplitude in certain feedback mechanisms. Theoretical results were applied to the experimental power-void transfer function obtained at Ramo-Wooldridge Research Laboratory, and to the EBWR transfer function. In the former case, the agreement was found to be reasonably good, but yet more systematic experimental data were needed to reach a definite conclusion as to the validity of the proposed model, which assumes a time lag associated with steam formation and a steam perturbation speed greater than the steady-state steam velocity. In the second application, the agreement between the experimental and calculated reactor responses was proved to be better than 5 db in amplitude and 10 deg in phase, in the entire frequency range from 0.01 to 100 rad/sec. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Akcasu, A. Ziya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Diffusion of Hydrogen in Zirconium Hydride

Description: The diffusion of hydrogen in zirconium hydride was studied using permeation techniques. The rate of permeation of hydrogen through zirconium hydride disks was measured for small concentration gradients. Data were obtained at 61 to 65 at.% hydrogen and 500 to 750 ction prod- C. The diffusion coefficients were determined by the time-lag method. Ho variation of the diffusion coefficients with hydrogen concentration was observed. The diffusion coefficients can be expressed by D (cm/sup 2/ per sec) = 599 exp (-34,800/RT). (auth)
Date: March 1, 1960
Creator: Albrecht, W. M. & Goode, W. D., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Decay of Neptunium-238

Description: >A study was made of the energy levels of Pu/sup 238/ which are populated by Np/sup 238/ beta decay, by an examination of the Np/sup 238/ conversion electron spectrum in high-resolution beta spectrographs. The general features of the level scheme as previously given were unchanged but several new transitions were observed, with energies of 119.8, 871, 943, 989, and 1034 kev. Two new levels are postulated at 915 and 1034 kev which accommodate all but the 943-kev transition. A possible assignment of the 943-kev transition to the (0+.0) state of the beta vibrational band is discussed. In addition, the weak 885-kev transition from the 2+ state of the gamma -vibrational band to the 4+ state of the ground band was seen and its relative intensity determined. Comparisons were made of the experimental relative transition intensities of the three photons depopulating this band with those predicted from the rules of Alaga et al.; only fair agreement was noted. A discussion is given of the beta decay branchings and log ft values of Np/sup 238/ decay in terms of the postulated characters of the Pu/sup 238/ states and the measured spin of Np/sup 238/. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1960
Creator: Albridge, R. G. & Hollander, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Buried Conduits as Personnel Shelters

Description: Supersedes ITR-1421. Twelve large-diameter buried conduit sections of various shapes were tested in the 60- to l49-psi overpressure region of Burst Priscilla to make an empirical determination of the degree of personnel protection afforded by commercially available steel and concrete conduits at depths of burial of 5, 7.5, and 10 feet below grade. Essentially, it was desired to assure that Repartment of Defense Class I, 100psi and comparable radiations, and Class II, 50-psi and comparable radiations, protection is afforded by use of such conduits of various configurations. Measurements were made of free-field overpressure at the ground surface above the structure; pressure inside the structures; acceleration of each structure; deflection of each structure; dust inside each structure; fragmentary missiles inside the concrete structures; and gamma and neutron radiation dose inside each structure. All buried conduit sections tested provided adequate Class I protection for the conditions under which the conduits were tested. Standard 8-foot concrete sewer pipe withstood 126-psi overpressure without significant damage, minor tension cracks observed; standard 10-gage corrugated-steel 8-foot circular conduit sections withstood 126- psi overpressure without significant damage; and standard 10-gage corrugated- steel cattle-pass conduits withstood 149-psi overpressure without significant damage. Durations of positive pressure were from 206 to 333 milliseconds. (auth)
Date: July 14, 1960
Creator: Albright, G. H.; LeDoux, J. C. & Mitchell, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiant-heat spray-calcination process for the solid fixation of radioactive waste. Part 1, Non-radioactive pilot unit

Description: The fixation of radioactive waste in a stable solid media by means of calcination of these aqueous solutions has been the subject of considerable-effort throughout the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission and by atomic energy organizations in other countries. Several methods of doing this on a continuous or semi-continuous basis have been devised, and a fev have been demonstrated to be feasible for the handling of non-radioactive, or low-activity, simulated wastes. Notable among methods currently under development are: (a) batch-operated pot calcination of waste generated from reprocessing stainless steel clad fuel elements (Darex process) and Purex waste, (b) combination rotary kiln and ball mill calcination of aluminum nitrate (TBP-25 and Redox process), and (c) fluidized bed calcination of TBP-25 and Purex wastes. Although a considerable amount of engineering experience has been obtained on the calcination of dissolved salts in a fluidized bed, and the other methods have been the subjects of a great deal of study, none of them have been developed to-the extent which would rule out the desirability of further investigation of other possible methods of calcination.
Date: November 14, 1960
Creator: Allemann, R. T. & Johnson, B. M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A RESONANCE IN THE Lambda pi SYSTEM

Description: The authors report a study of the reaction K{sup -} + p {yields} {Lambda}{sup 0} + {pi}{sup +} + {pi}{sup -} produced by 1.15 Gev/c K{sup -} mesons and observed in the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory's 15-in. hydrogen bubble chamber. A preliminary report of these results was presented at the 1960 Rochester Conference. The beam was purified by two velocity spectrometers. A hyperon/observed during the run and the preliminary cross sections for various K{sup -} reactions at 1.15 Bev/c have been reported previously. Reaction (1) was the first one selected for detailed study, because it appeared to take place with relatively large probability and because the event, a 2-prong interaction accompanied by a V, was easily identified. In a volume of the chamber sufficiently restricted so that the scanning efficiency was near 100%, 255 such events were found. These events were measured, and the track data supplied to a computer which tested each event for goodness of fit to various kinematic hypotheses. The possible reactions, the distribution of events, and the corresponding cross sections are given in Table I. An event was placed in a given category of Table I if the {chi}{sup 2} probability for the other hypotheses was < 1%. It appears likely that the majority of the events in group(e) are also reactions of type (I). This belief is based on the following arguments: (1) since the kinematics of a {Lambda} {pi}{pi} fit (four constraints) are more overdetermined than those of a {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} fit(two constraints), it is relatively easy for a {Lambda} {pi}{pi} reaction to fit a {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} reaction, but only very few {Sigma}{sup 0} configurations can fit the {Lambda} {pi}{pi} reactions. (2) The events of group(e) when treated as {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{pi} reactions give a {chi}{sup 2} distribution which is much worse than …
Date: October 24, 1960
Creator: Alston, Margaret; Alvarez, Luis W.; Eberhard, Philippe & Wojcicki, Stanley G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ames Laboratory Annual Summary Research Report in Metallurgy: 1960

Description: Annual summary documenting research related to metallurgy at Ames Laboratory. Discussions are given of developments in the following areas: the preparation and purification of metals; phase equlibria and thermodynamic properties of alloys; physical and mechanical properties of metals and alloys; solid state studies; separation processes; and investigations dealing with diffusion, oxidation, and reduction, halide reactions, preparations, vapor pressure measurements, and transport reactions. (B.O.G.)
Date: December 1960
Creator: Ames Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EURIPUS-3 AND DAEDALUS--MONTE CARLO DENSITY CODES FOR THE IBM-704

Description: EURIPUS-3 calculates the one-dimensional spatial density of neutrons slowing-down past a given energy in an infinite homogeneous medium consisting of hydrogen and one other isotope with arbitrary mass and energydependent differential-elastic and absorption cross sections. DAEDALUS determines the corresponding spatial distribution of angular integrals of an arbitrary function times the vector flux density. Spatial moments of all density functions are furnished directly. Although scattering angles are calculated by Monte Carlo, the spatial distributions and, in DAEDALUS, the energy distribution are obtained partly from an analytic treatment which, besides saving tinne, enables the output to be in the form of actual density functions at specified planes and energies, rather than histograms covering finite intervals. At certain steps in the computation of both the spatial and energy distributions, part of the analytic treatment is replaced by Monte Carlo in order either to maximize efficiency and/ or to avoid round-off error. The neutron source may be monoenergetic with either isotropic or monodirectional angular distributions, or else the source may be that from deuterons bombarding deuterons. The volume displaced by a cylindrical tube from an accelerator to the source can be accounted for in the neutron first flight but not thereafter. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1960
Creator: Amster, H. J.; Kuehn, H. G. & Spanier, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An assessment of the zirconium tube program -- C Reactor pilot demonstration installation

Description: Production Test IP-272-A-FP authorizes the installation of up to 100 smooth bore Zircaloy-2 process tubes in C Reactor to demonstrate the feasibility of self-supported fuel elements for production use. An additional 200 zirconium tubes are expected to be delivered by mid-year and con be used to expand the initial demonstration facility. It is the purpose of this document to assess the status of the pilot demonstration program from the B-C Reactor Operation viewpoint.
Date: March 18, 1960
Creator: Amy, G. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Radiochemistry of Technetium

Description: ""Nuclear Science Series'' of the National Research Council. Committee on Nuclear Science. The radiochemistry of technetium is discussed. The properties of metallic technetium, solution chemistry, volatilization methods, extraction into organic solvents, chromatographic behavior and electrochemical behavior of technetium are outlined. The dissolution of samples containing compounds of technetium is described. Counting techniques for use with isotopes of technetium are reviewed. A collection of 17 detailed radiochemical procedures for the determination and separation of technetium is given. (M.C,G.)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Anders, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ILLUMINATION OF 80$sub 4$ CHAMBER

Description: An estimate is made of the illumination required for the 80-in. bubble chamber, based on the absolute sensitivity of the film. The required intensity is estimated to be 23.4 tube is calculated to be 145 cm/sup 2/. The results are compared with these obtained from 72- and 20-inch chambers. (D.L.C.)
Date: September 29, 1960
Creator: Anderson, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PREPARATION AND FABRICATION OF PLUTONIUM FUEL ALLOY FOR LOS ALAMOS MOLTEN PLUTONIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT NO. 1

Description: Tantalum-sheathed plutonium fuel pins were prepared for the first core loading of the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment-I. Plutonium--10 at.% iron alloy was prepared by co-reduction and by co-melting methods. After casting the alloy into rods, each rod was machined and finished to a 0.357-in.- diameter piece weighing 175 g. The finished alloy rod was finally placed in a tantalum sheath, then sealed by fusion welding to a tantalum cap. Procedures and equipment used for alloying, casting, machining, welding, and inspection are described. Methods used to prepare rods of other low-melting plutonium alloys also are discussed. (auth)
Date: April 15, 1960
Creator: Anderson, J.W.; McNeese, W.D. & Leary, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LEAKAGE OF WATER FROM GASKETED JOINTS PROPOSED FOR THE HWCTR. PART I

Description: When mockups of typical gasketed joints proposed for the HWCTR were subjected to thermal and pressure cycling that simulated reactor operating conditions, the average leakage rate was less than 0.11 lb of water per year per linear inch of gasket. The joints were exposed to deionized light water and were cycled 100 times from about 70 deg C and atmospheric pressure to 250 deg C and 1000 psig. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1960
Creator: Apple, F.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SN5001-AN IBM-650 CODE FOR STEADY-STATE THERMAL EVALUATION OF AN INSTRUMENTED MULTIFUEL-PLATE SUBASSEMBLY

Description: An IBM-650 computer program, SN5001, for the calculation of steady-state thermal conditions in the fuel plates and coolant of an instrumented multi-fuel- plate subassembly is described. The program is applicable for subcooled or bulk boiling coolant conditions and surface conditions of heating, local boiling, and film boilimg, and can be used for data reduction or design. The derivation and a list of the heat conduction and coolant enthalpy equations and a description of the code sufficient for its use are contained. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Arbtin, E. & Westphal, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Gas-Cooled Reactors in the USA: A Survey and Recommendation

Description: A study was made of approximately 132 reports on gascooled reactors and related subjects. Charts and tables containing the following information are included: all available reactor information, reactor flow diagrams of suggested concepts, possible core arrangement at core cross section, typical fuel and moderator cell. possible fuel types for unit fuel cell, the properties of materials for moderators and reflectors. the compatibility of gases and base fuel materials at maximum surface temperatures, maximun interfacs temperatures of fuel elements and core-jacket combinations, allowable operating temperatures and compatibility of gases and various metals. prefenences for gas coolants, cost and availability of gases plant thermal cycle efficiencies, thermal properties of gases, pumping power and reactor coolant inlet temperatures, obtainable heat fluxes, composition and physical properties of potential cladding materials. atomic and themal properties of cladding materials. fabrication characteristics and costs of cladding materials. possible process applications of gases at high temperature, and potential high-temperature materials. The various categories of gas-cooled reactors and examples of each type are discussed. A gas reactor program for high-temperature experimentation is proposed. (M.C.G.)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Armstrong, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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