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Theory of Asymmetric Arrays of Control Rods in Nuclear Reactors

Description: Introduction: Seldom does the actual arrangement of control elements in a nuclear reactor confers to the ideal and convenient mathematical array. In order to achieve shim control. safety and regulation, it is desirable to design with rods of different sizes and materials. With given fuel element arrangement, typically in square or hexagonal lattice spacing, there will be rods located at different distances form the center of the core and from each other. As the reactor operates, absorbers will be withdrawn, leaving further asymmetries in the location of those remaining. It is the purpose of this report to develop in detail a two-group diffusion theory with as complete generality as possible. The method is as yet restricted to the unreflected core, or to the reflected core by use of reflector savings and bare equivalent geometries.
Date: April 25, 1959
Creator: Murray, Raymond L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defect testing of coextruded uranium-zircaloy-II clad fuel material in a 300 C out-of-reactor recirculating water loop: Interim report

Description: A major problem in the development of a pressurized water reactor coolant system for the NPS is the rupture performance of the fuel elements. As water temperatures are increased to 300 C, uranium corrosion rates increase rapidly. Swelling of the uranium fuel by corrosion could cause the process tube to burst or reduce the tube cooling water flow below acceptable limits. The desirability of slow cooling of the water to avoid thermal shocks to the reactor piping after a rupture is detected further complicates discharge and decontamination problems as fuel will continue to corrode with attendant fuel element damage during the cooling period. Coextruded uranium-zircaloy-2 clad fuel elements are scheduled for use in the NPR. The rupture behavior of this type fuel material after heat treatment was studied in ELMO-4, an out-of-reactor recirculating water loop. Several types of initial defects were studied. Fuel materials with five different heat treatment histories and with different types of defects were tested to determine their rupture behaviors. The five conditions were (1) as-extruded material as received from Nuclear Metals, Inc., (2) beta heat-treated and water quenched, (3) beta heat-treated and air-cooled, (4) beta heat-treated, isothermally treated at 600 C and air-cooled, and (5) beta heat-treated and furnace cooled (vacuum). Both pinhole and cleavage type defects were studied. Most of the work consisted of measuring weight loss and physical dimension changes after various lengths of exposure in 300 C water. This report presents the results of the tests.
Date: September 25, 1959
Creator: Hayden, K. D. & Goffard, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Artificial cooling of the Columbia River by dam regulation. Part 3

Description: The temperatures of the Columbia River was reduced 1 to 30 Centigrade with beneficial effects at HAPO. It is reasonable to expect that future benefits may be possible. It is desirable that the temperature of the river be controlled each year to the maximum extent possible. Instrumentation improvements requested to effect optimum savings. Records of river temperatures and flows should continue to be maintained by IPD as a necessary part of temperature optimization. Where possible, the coincident use of the river cooling technique should be made for the benefit of anadromous fish.
Date: May 25, 1959
Creator: Kramer, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Expansion program 190 Building studies results

Description: It is the objective of this study to investigate preliminary expansion program requirements for process water, as supplied by 190 Building equipment; from the point of view of practical pumping, flywheel and pump suction head requirements. These requirements are to be determined at this time in such a form and accuracy as to be useful in refined estimating for budget study purposes. In order to obtain the objectives of this study at this time it has been decided to consider five different conditions of process water flow to a reactor. These conditions are flow to the reactor under summer conditions of operation in gallons per minute with a corresponding top of riser pressure in pounds per square inch: 85,000 gal/min, 580 psi; 100,000 gal/min, 480 psi; 130,000 gal/min, 280 psi; 150,000 gal/min, 280 psi; and 150,000 gal/min, 150 psi.
Date: November 25, 1959
Creator: Quackenbush, C. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Specifications: Laboratory hot press process for {open_quotes}C{close_quotes}size I & E fuel elements

Description: Hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements has been developed to a point where the process is feasible. Complete specifications have been written for the process covering component, dies and punches, furnace construction, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection. Drawings covering each major item are included.
Date: September 25, 1959
Creator: Tverberg, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Artificial cooling of the Columbia River by dam regulation: Part 1

Description: In early July 1958, it appeared that Columbia River temperatures at HAPO would be near 24--50{degree}C by the end of August. River temperatures were averaging 40 to 50{degree}C above 1957 figures and were 3{degree} to 4{degree} above the ten year highs. It seemed desirable to examine the problem to determine if any corrective measure could be taken, since it was apparent that production losses were imminent. The large storage of cold water behind Grand Coulee Dam, normally untapped, was a source of possible relief. A plan for use was proposed for the peak high temperature period and agreed to by the Bureau of Reclamation.
Date: May 25, 1959
Creator: Kramer, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Redox in-line monitoring instruments information manual

Description: The in-line monitoring instruments installed in the Redox plant in the late 1950s consisted of six gamma monitors, a single channel gamma spectrometer, an alpha monitor, and a neutron counter. A gamma monitor on the steam condensate outlet line and a uranium monitor on the 2DFS stream were to be added at a later date. The first section of this information manual describes the in-line gamma monitors and gives operating instructions for them. The second section covers the alpha monitor, and the third section the neutron counter. Sections on the uranium monitor and the steam header gamma monitor were to be added at a later date.
Date: March 25, 1959
Creator: Erlandson, O. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Gamma Rays from Inelastic Scattering of 14-Mev Neutrons on Pb²⁰⁸

Description: Abstract: "The cross section for the production of 2.61-Mev gamma rays from the Pb-208(n, n')Pb-208* reaction has been measured for five different angles from 50 to 130 degrees. The angular distribution appears to be isotropic within the precision of the experiments, and leads to an integrated cross section of 25.5 +/- 4.6 millibarns."
Date: August 25, 1959
Creator: Hallett, Edward & Jensen, Roger
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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9-Zoom : A One-Dimensional, Multigroup, Neutron Diffusion Theory Reactor Code for the IBM 709

Description: The following document describes the usage and purpose of the neutron diffusion theory reactor program 9-Zoom, a memory-contained program that takes advantage of 709 features such as, for example, preferential order of multiply by zero, and for small problems approaches input-output limitations with excellent convergence properties.
Date: August 25, 1959
Creator: Stone, S. P.; Collins, E. T. & Lenihan, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Liquid Metal Fuel Reactor Experiment Annual Technical Report: 1958

Description: Annual report of the Liquid Metal Fuel Reactor Experiment describing progress during calendar year 1958 and as well as an evaluation of progress and plans for future work.
Date: March 25, 1959
Creator: Babcock & Wilcox Company
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Brief Review of Heat Transfer Problems Encountered in the Production of Magnetic Fields

Description: The design of internally cooled electrical coils for the production of high intensity magnetic fields presents many new aspects and combinations of the familiar modes of heat transfer. However, the customary methodology appears to be sufficient for preliminary analysis and understanding of those problems. This methodology comprises the derivation of a qualitative, approximate equation expressing the relative performance of the various parts of a system, followed by an examination of this equation in order to locate the limiting features of the system. These features are then investigated by more powerful methods, which in turn provide guidance for development research in the laboratory. (auth)
Date: May 25, 1959
Creator: Alexander, L G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PROGRESS ON THE USE OF GAS-PRESSURE BONDING FOR FABRICATING LOW-COST CERAMIC, CERMET, AND DISPERSION FUELS

Description: Basic properties of several types and grades of commercial UO/sub 2/ have been determined. Compacting characteristics of these powders were evaluated with the objective of obtaining a minimum cold-pressed density of 70% of theoretical prior to gas-pressure bonding. Fused and special dense grades of UO/ sub 2/ powders were compacted to a density of 85% of theoretical by use of a 50- tsi compacting pressure. Cold-pressed compacts were simultaneously clad and densified to a maximum he UO/sub 2/ powders that were capable of being pressed to the hightest coldpressed density exhibited the least amount or densification during gus-pressure bonding. A small stainless essure bonded at 2100 F for 3 hr at 10,000 psi. Examination of this assembly indicates that it is feasible to prepare fuel ep operation by use of the gas-pressure-bonding process. (auth)
Date: August 25, 1959
Creator: Paprocki, S.J. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solvent Extraction Recovery of Vanadium (and Uranium) From Acid Liquors With Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid

Description: Bench-scale studies were made on use of di(2ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in an organic diluent (Dapex process) for solvent extraction recovery of vanadium from acid leach liquors. Vanadium may be stripped from the solvent by either acidic or alkaline reagents, the former having been studied in considerably greater detail. A process for single-cycle recovery and separation of uranium and vanadium from sulfate leach liquors was shown to be attractive both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Process schemes for recovery of vanadium from uranium-barren liquors are also described. On the basis of the encouraging laboratory results, pilot scale tests for specific applications are recommended. (auth)
Date: November 25, 1959
Creator: Crouse, D.J. & Brown, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Recovery of Uranium and Plutonium From Sulfuric Acid Decladding Solutions

Description: Uranium and plutonium were recovered by liquid-liquid extraction from simulated sulfuric acid stainless steel decladding solution with several extractants. Consecutive extraction of U(IV) and Pu(III) or (IV) by 0.1 to 0 3 M primary amine in hydrocarbon-- alcohol diluent appeared promising, and chemical flowsheets were demonstrated in laboratoryscale continuous countercurrent extraction. Extraction of U(VI) with a dialkylphosphoric acid appeared promising when plutonium recovery is not needed. Recovery is also chemically feasible by extraction of U(VI) and Pu(IV) with an N-benzyl secondary alkyl amine or a trialkylphosphine oxide. The amine extracts are stripped with nitric acid, giving a sulfate-nitrate product solution. The organophosphorus extractants permit elimination of the sulfate but require sodium carbonate for stripping. (auth)
Date: November 25, 1959
Creator: Horner, D. E. & Coleman, C. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ANALYSIS OF NEUTRON PULSES IN A GODIVA-TYPE REACTOR

Description: Some calculations have been made to estimate the characteristics of a neutron-burst type fast reactor similar to Godiva but made up of relatively small component parts--the so-called "layered assembly." One spherical and three cylindrical assemblies have been considered. Critical masses, assuming 5% voids, range from 58 to 65 kg of 93.4% enriched U/sup 235/. For a reactivity addition of 0.33 dollars above prompt criticals bursts between 2 x 10/sup 17/ and 6.7 x 10/ sup 17/ fissions were computed with accompanying temperature rises varying from 514 to 1600 deg C. The burst width at half-maximum was about 12 microseconds. To obtain an idea of the possibilities of stress reduction which might be achieved by layerings an assembly made of small rings was considered. While the critical masses obtained here are believed to be fairly accurates the predictions concerning mechanical energy generated, total fissions, and burst width may be subject to sizeable error due to the many simplitications required to allow hand computations. Neverthelesss considerable improvement in safety and burst-size is indicated by the use of a "layered assembly" instead of an assembly composed of relatively thick parts. (auth)
Date: February 25, 1959
Creator: Nestor, C.W. & Tobias, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems Program. Monthly Progress Report for April 1959

Description: The Army Gas Cooled Reactor System Program includes water moderated heterogeneous reactor (Gas Cooled Reactor Experiment I), a graphite moderated homogeneous reactor (Gas Cooled Reactor Experiment II), a mobile gas cooled reactor (ML-1), and the co ordination of thc Gas Turbine Test Facility. The progress of each project, the associated tests and data evaluation, the applicabie design criteria, and the fabrication of reactor components are briefly summarized. (For preceding period see IDO-28538.) (W.D.M.)
Date: May 25, 1959
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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THE DIFFUSION OF HYDROGEN IN BETA ZIRCONIUM

Description: Diffusion coefficients for hydrogen in beta zirconium were determined from permeation rates in the range 650 to 850 deg C. Both the steady-state method, which is dependent upon the hydrogen concentration, and the time-lag method, which is independent of hydrogen concentration, were employed to obtain diffusion data. Zirconium disks, 0.03 to 0.1 cm thick and varying in hydrogen concentration from 9 to 33 at.%, were used to measure permeation rates. The diffusion coefficients determined by the steady-state and time-lag methods on samples of differing thickness were in agreement. It was concluded that the permeation process was diffusion controlled. The diffusion coefficients were found to be independent of concentration and can be expressed by D = 6.14 x 10/ sup 4/ exp (--45,900/RT). (auth)
Date: August 25, 1959
Creator: Albrecht, William M. & Goode, W. Douglas, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Determination of Excessive Emulsification by Coalescence Behavior Measurements

Description: The development of a remotely operated device for determining the coalescence times of plant process streams suspected of containing surfactants such as silicic compounds and fission product zirconium compounds is described. A general correlation between the coalescence times of pilot plant extraction column aluminum nitrate feeds and 3.25 percent tributyl phosphate extractant streams and the observations of column behavior of these streams is demonstrated. The application of the coalescence test to plant streams is given. (auth)
Date: November 25, 1959
Creator: Parrett, O. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Spectrophotometry of Molten Fluoride Salts. Status Report

Description: Progress made in the field of spectrophotometry of molten fluoride salts is summarized. The high-temperature cell assembly designed and fabricated for use in this work is described, as well as the various types of sample containers used. Spectra of nickel fluoride, cobalt fluoride, chromic fluoride, and uranium tetrafluoride in LiF--NaF-KF (46.5-11.5--42 mole%) are presented. (auth)
Date: March 25, 1959
Creator: White, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Technology Division, Unit Operations Section Monthly Progress Report for May 1959

Description: The measured diffusivity of uranyl nitrate in water at 25 ction prod- C was 0.7 x 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 2//sec with about 40% average deviation. A program was started to develop nonnuclear uses for depleted uranium. Two continuous DRUHM reaction runs were terminated due to erratic operation of the sodium metering system. In the second Fluorox run with crude UF/sub 4/ which lasted for 29 hr, a total material balance of 94.8% was obtained and 17.9% of the theoretical amount of UF/sub 6/ was collected in cold traps and chemical traps. Room temperature flow rate-pressure drop calibrations of a multiclone (thirteen 0.60-in. diam hydroclones in parallel) for installation with the HRT replacement circulating pump were completed. Mixed oxides of U : Th = 0.08 : 1 and all have low yield stresses of 0.02 to 0.05 lb/sq ft compared to 0.2 to 1.0 lb/sq ft for normal Th-U or Th oxides of 1.5 to 2.5 micron mean diameter. The rates of uranium anion exchange from solutions containing between 0.025 and 0.20 M sulfate were measured and apparent uranium diffusion coefficients between 1.2 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 2//sec and 1.6 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 2//sec were calculated. In bench scale studies, the Darex reference flowsheet was successfully applied to stainless steel-clad UO/sub 2/ fuels (Yankee Atomic) and to aluminumuranium foreign reactor fuels. The corrosion of titanium A-55 was measured in the vapor and liquid phases of a modified boiling Thorex dissolvent (13 M HNO/sub 3/, 0.04 M F/sup -/, 0.1 M H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/) containing 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 M thorium from dissolved Consolidated Edison pellets and the maximum corrosion rate was 0.6 mils/ month. Siliceous filter cakes resulting from the filtration of Darex solvent extraction feed solutions through porous metal filter elements were easily washed to a uranium loss of …
Date: August 25, 1959
Creator: Bresee, J C; Haas, P A; Horton, R W; Watson, C D & Whatley, M E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of Fuel Burn-Up on the Dissolution Process-I

Description: Data on the effects of nuclear fuel burnup on dissolution rates and U losses of a few fuel types are summarized. Burnup to the 40% level produced very little effect on the rate of solution of stainless steel-UO/sub 2/ fuel elements in solutions of the Darex type. Beyond passivation, burnup to the 250 Mwd/T level did not produce a large effect on the rate of decladding nor on the U losses in the Sulfex process. Bunnup to the 15% or 4300 Mwd/T level produced little or no effect on the rate of decladding, U losses, or Pu losses in the Zirflex process. Two other effects, air oxidation of irradiated UO/sub 2/ and prolonged contact of this oxide with Sulfex solutions in the absence of actively dissolving stainless steel appeared to be much more serious sources of loss of U. (auth)
Date: March 25, 1959
Creator: Davis, W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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