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Air Scattering of Co60 Gamma Rays: Theory Versus Experiment

Description: For Co60 source at 15 meters, the air-scattered gamma dose rate predicted by theory is excerpted from ORNL-1575, pp. 167-203. This is compared with experimental measurements for the same source and comparable geometry reported by Convair in CVAC-170T. After applying an appropriate correction for ground scattering as estimated in Mart-55-16T (Convair), the two results are found to be in substantial agreement.
Date: April 17, 1958
Creator: Moran, Rubert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 10, 1955

Description: This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of the research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory under its Contract W-7405-eng-26. The report is divided into three major parts: I. Reactor Theory, Component Development, and Construction, II. Materials Research, and III. Shielding Research. The ANP Project is comprised of about 530 technical and scientific personnel engaged in many phases of research directed forward the achievement of nuclear propulsion of aircraft. A considerable portion of this research is performed in support of the work of other organizations participating in the national ANP effort. However, the bulk of the ANP research at ORNL is directed toward the development of a circulating-fuel type of reactor. The design, construction, and operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART), with the cooperation of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, are the specific objectives of the project. The ART is to be a power plant system that will include a 60-Mv circulating-fuel reflector-moderated reactor and adequate means for heat disposal. Operation of the system will be for the purpose of determining the feasibility, and the problems associated with the design, construction, and operation, of a high-power, circulating-fuel, reflector-moderated aircraft reactor system.
Date: March 12, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cremer, S. J.; Miller, A. J. & Savelainen, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report For Period Ending June 10, 1955

Description: The development of the reactor layout is continuing. New features that have been incorporated because of stress, fluid flow, or fabricability considerations include an elliptical fuel expansion tank, a rounded dome to enclose the top of the reactor, a newly designed sodium pump impeller, and other related items. Recently completed heat exchanger tests yielded consistent data from which a series of heat exchangers is being designed. The most promising of these will be chosen for the ART.
Date: July 28, 1955
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cromer, S. J.; Strough, R. I.; Miller, A. J. & Savolainen, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending June 10, 1956 [Declassified Version]

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes summaries of project activities in: aircraft reactor test design, ART physics, ART instruments and controls, component development and testing, procurement and construction, ART, ETU, and in-pile loop operations, phase equilibrium studies, chemical reactions in molten salts, physical properties of molten materials, production of fuels, compatibility of materials at high temperatures, chemistry, analytical chemistry, metallurgy, dynamic corrosion studies, general corrosion studies, fabrication research, welding and brazing investigations, mechanical properties studies, ceramic research, nondestructive testing studies, heat transfer and physical properties, radiation damage, fuel recovery and reprocessing, critical experiments.
Date: September 4, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cramer, S. J.; Miller, A. J. & Savelainen, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending June 10, 1956 [Secret Version]

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes summaries of project activities in: aircraft reactor test design, ART physics, ART instruments and controls, component development and testing, procurement and construction, ART, ETU, and in-pile loop operations, phase equilibrium studies, chemical reactions in molten salts, physical properties of molten materials, production of fuels, compatibility of materials at high temperatures, chemistry, analytical chemistry, metallurgy, dynamic corrosion studies, general corrosion studies, fabrication research, welding and brazing investigations, mechanical properties studies, ceramic research, nondestructive testing studies, heat transfer and physical properties, radiation damage, fuel recovery and reprocessing, critical experiments.
Date: September 4, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cromer, S. J.; Miller, A. J. & Savelainen, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending March 10, 1956

Description: This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of the research on circulating-fuel reactors and ether ANP research at the Laboratory under its Contract W-7405-eng-26. The report is divided into three major parts: I. Reactor Theory, Component Development, and Construction, II. Materials Research, and III. Shielding Research.
Date: June 13, 1956
Creator: Jordan, W. H.; Cromer, S. J. & Miller, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Reactor Test Hazards Summary Report

Description: The successful completion of a program of experiments, including the Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE), has demonstrated the high probability of producing militarily useful aircraft nuclear power plants employing reflector-moderated circulating-fuel reactors. Consequently, and accelerated program culminating in operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART) is under way. In order to adhere to the compressed schedule of the accelerated program, it is essential that the Atomic Energy Commission approve the 7500 Area in Oak Ridge as the test site by February15, 1955. This report summarizes the hazards associated with operating the contained 60-Mv reactor of the ART at the proposed Oak Ridge test site.
Date: January 19, 1955
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Ergen, W. K.; Fraas, A. P.; McQuilkin, F. R. & Meem, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Thorex Pilot Plant Radiation Exposures During 1955

Description: The Thorex Pilot Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was operated during 1955, processing reactor-irradiated thorium slugs to recover U233 and thorium and 12 MTR fuel elements to recover U235 and Np237. The radiation exposure received by operating personnel during this period averaged 60 mrcp/man-week. Most radiation exposure was received in areas that were intended to be only slightly or nonradioactive. However, because insufficient decontamination of process solutions was achieved and equipment surfaces became contaminated from equipment failures, these areas became primary sources of personnel exposure. The installation of additional shielding where needed and the prompt removal of surface contamination successfully reduced the radiation levels and exposures in these areas. Remote control of processing equipment and sampling of very radioactive solutions from process equipment was successfully accomplished, and assisted in the reduction of exposure to operating personnel.
Date: November 16, 1956
Creator: McCarley W. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analytical Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending April 20, 1954

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Analytical Chemistry Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work in ionic analyses, analytical instrumentation, radiochemical analyses, activation analyses, spectrochemical analyses, inorganic preparations, optical and electron microscopy.
Date: July 5, 1956
Creator: Kelley, M. T.; Susano, C. D. & Raaen, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analytical Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending April 20,1955

Description: The development of ionic methods for the determination of corrosion products in the highly radioactive Homogeneous Reactor (HR) fuels has been of major interest in the work of the Ionic Analyses Laboratory. Methods for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum and for the polarographic determination of iron in HR fuels have been developed. The polarographic determination of molybdenum in uranyl sulfate solutions was studied. A polarographic method for the determination of zinc was developed. A fluorometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of fluoride was studied. Three organic reagents were investigated as precipitants for microgram quantities of zirconium in HR fuel. The automatic photometric titration technique was applied to the determination of thorium and of sulfate. A method was developed for the ionexchange separation and potentiometric titration of cobalt. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of technetium and rhenium were studied.
Date: May 6, 1955
Creator: Kelley, M. T.; Susano, C. D. & Raaen, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analytical Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending October 20, 1955

Description: The development of ionic methods for the determination of corrosive products in the highly radioactive Homogeneous Reactor (HR) fuels has been of major interest in the work of the Ionic Analyses Laboratory. Methods for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum and for the polarographic determination of iron in HR fuels have been developed. The polarographic determination of molybdenum in uranyl sulfate solutions was studied. A polarographic method for the determination of zinc was developed. A fluorometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of fluoride was studied. Three organic reagents were investigated as precipitants for microgram quantities of zirconium in HR fuel. The automatic photometric titration technique was applied to the determination of thorium and of sulfate. A method was developed for the ion-exchange separation and potentiometric titration of cobalt. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of technetium and rhenium were studied.
Date: December 27, 1955
Creator: Kelley, M. T.; Susana, C. D. & Rooen, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The ANCO System for Boron Isotope Enrichment Progress Report for Period Ending September 20, 1955

Description: A new gas-liquid countercurrent system (the ANCO system from Anisole-Complex) for the enrichment of boron isotopes has been developed. It is believed that use of this systems will result in a considerably lower unit cost for enriched boron-10 than was previously possible. The system utilizes the exchange reaction between BF3 (gas) and BF3·anisole (liquid) to concentrate boron-10 in the liquid phase. The single stage isotopic separation factor for this system has been found to vary from 1.039 at 0°C to 1.029 at 30°C. The isotopic exchange reaction has been shown to be rapid. Vapor pressures of the complex as a function of temperature have been measured and the heat of formation of the complex determined. Laboratory experiments show that quantitative removal of the BF3 from the complex can be accomplished by heating. A complete miniature ANCO plant was constructed and operated in the laboratory to test the feasibility of the system. The system was found to operate efficiently with a minimum of attention, and to enrich the isotopes of boron as expected. Based upon the experience obtained with the laboratory ANCO unit, a pilot plant large enough to utilize a 6-inch diameter exchange column was designed. The design calculations of the major pieces of equipment are presented.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Healy, R. M.; Joseph, K. F. & Palko, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aqueous Uranium Slurry Studies

Description: A summary of the laboratory development program on aqueous uranium slurry fuels for the Homogenous Reactor Project during the period April 1951 through March 1953 is presented. These investigations were devoted primarily to a study of the uranium oxides in aqueous suspensions. It was concluded that U(VI) was most likely to be the stable valence state in such slurry fuels and it was shown that β-UO3·H2O platelet crystals were the stable modification at 250°C. Very pure slurries of β-UO3·H2O platelets, uranium concentration of 250g/liter and average particle size of about 10 μ, had favorable settling rates and could be easily redispersed. Their viscosity and corrosion rate in stainless steel were comparable with those in water. Exposure of these slurries to pile radiation disclosed that radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen gas pressure comparable in magnitude to those of uncatalyzed uranyl sulfate solutions could be expected. Fission products in the irradiated slurries were predominantly associated with the solids. Radiation also tended to promote caking of these solids on the walls of the radiation bombs. Uranyl phosphate and the magnesium uranates were briefly investigated as alternate system but were not found satisfactory. The program was discontinued before the feasibility of uranium slurries for reactor fuels could be definitely established.
Date: October 20, 1955
Creator: Blomeke, J. O.; Bamberg, J. L.; Blomeke, J. O.; Bruce, F. R.; Fulmer, J. M.; McBride, J. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic Gamma-Ray Data for ART Heat Deposition Calculations

Description: In order that fairly accurate thermal stress calculations can be made on the ART, it is necessary to have a reasonable picture of the temperature distribution in the reactor. To get the temperature distributions, and to determine cooling requirements in various parts of the reactor, one must know the heat deposition rates due to alpha particles, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutrons in all parts of the reactor. The present report contains only the basic physical data necessary to determine the heat deposition rates due to gamma rays. Neutron fluxes in the core and reflector regions of the ART are to be obtained from two-dimensional multigroup calculations (performed by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation). These fluxes, in conjunction with the neutron absorption cross sections, determine the neutron capture and inelastic scattering rates in the core and in the reflector. The data in this report permit the calculation of the number of gamma rays originating at various energies at every point in the core and reflector.
Date: October 3, 1956
Creator: Bertini, H. W.; Copenhaver, C. M.; Perry, A. M. & Stevenson, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography of ORNL-BSF Reports Pertinent to Swimming Pool Type Reactor Design (Revised)

Description: Much of the shielding work carried out with the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) has yielded data of particular interest for the design of swimming pool type reactors, However, it is often difficult for a reactor designer to locate such data since it may be recorded in a report primarily concerned with shielding problems. Therefore, this memorandum presents a bibliography of reports from the Bulk Shielding Facility arranged according to the application of data to the various aspects of reactor design.
Date: April 13, 1956
Creator: Maienschein, F. C. & Johnson, E. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biology Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending February 15, 1956

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biology Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes a summary of scholarly output from the division and departmental activities in cytology and genetics, mammalian genetics and development, microbial protection and recovery, mammalian recovery, pathology and physiology, general physiology, biochemistry, enzymology and photosynthesis, microbiology, plant biochemistry, and biophysics.
Date: April 20, 1956
Creator: Hollaender, Alexander & Carson, Stanley F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biology Progress Report for Period Ending August 15, 1955

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biology Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes a summary of scholarly output from the division and departmental activities in: cytology and genetics, microbial protection and recovery, mammalian recovery, mammalian genetics and development, pathology and physiology, microbiology, biochemistry, enzymology and photosynthesis, plant biochemistry, general physiology, and biophysics.
Date: December 12, 1955
Creator: Hollaender, Alexander; Carson, Stanley F. & Sleughter, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bulk ThO2, a Reactor Material

Description: Thorium, a fertile material, is of interest to the Reactor Program in the production of U233. Thorium can be extracted and processed to a very pure bulk metal for fabrication into solid fertile elements. There are advantages, technical and economic, for using fabricated bulk thorium dioxide rather than the metal in some applications. It is the purpose of this paper to point out these advantages and to present briefly the technology related to fabrication, radiation damage and chemical processing of ThO2.
Date: May 24, 1956
Creator: Johnson, J. R. & Warde, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Separation of Isotopes Section Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending December 31, 1954

Description: New systems involving the exchange of boron between boron trifluoride and boron trifluoride addition compounds have been explored. These systems have large separation factors and potentially simple reflux mechanisms. A precise determination of this separation factor for the anisole-boron trifluoride system gave the value (see report). Boron exchange was found to occur between BF and BCl3. Several homogenous catalysts have been found which activate the hydrogen-water exchange, but none are adoptable to the production of deuterium because of the slow exchange rate. Platinum or platinum oxide may be usable as a heterogeneous catalyst with proper support or dispersion techniques. The high-pressure solubility of hydrogen in several amalgams was investigated in connection with a unique countercurrent exchange system. A proposed system involving isotopic exchange between lithium dipivaloylmethane in diethyl ether and lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution was shown to give little or no isotopic separation. Column studies of the carbonate system exchange reaction were concluded with a 40°C run. Slightly higher enrichment of N15 was obtained than at 30°C . The temperature dependence of all in this system was measured between 15 and 45°C. The factor increases with temperature, showing a tendency toward a maximum near 45°C. Isotopic exchange appears to be complete in less than 3 min. A qualitative examination was made of the carbonate system waste reflux reaction in laboratory equipment. No insurmountable difficulties are anticipated in connection with this reaction. The critical product-reflux reaction is being studied in pilot-scale equipment. Preliminary data are encouraging. Additional nitrogen exchange reactions have been studied to provide a broader basis for selecting a system for large-scale production of enriched nitrogen isotopes. A proposed system for enriching potassium isotopes was found to have a single stage separation factor of (see report). The single-stage fractionation factor between uranyl ion on Dowex 50 resin and …
Date: May 20, 1955
Creator: Clewett, G. H & Drury, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Separation of Isotopes Section Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending June 30, 1955

Description: The countercurrent gas-liquid system BF3(g)—anisole·BF3(l) for the concentration of boron isotopes has been studied. The single-storage separation factor varies from 1.039 at 0°C to 1.029 at 30°C. Rate of exchange is rapid, and, with efficient contacting equipment, complete exchange may be obtained in less than 15 sec. A total separation of 1.525 has been realized in laboratory equipment. The critical-product reflux reaction is quite efficient. Only about 55 moles of BF3 remain in each million moles of effluent solvent under laboratory conditions. The vapor pressure of BF3 over the complex rises sharply as the temperature is increased. At 0°C the pressure is 150 mm Hg, and at 40°C the pressure has risen to 1800 mm Hg. From vapor-pressure measurements, an approximate upper limit of ΔH= -12kcal per mole of complex was calculated for the reaction [equation not transcribed]. Qualitative tests indicate good resistance of anisole to decomposition by BF3 under plant conditions. The uncatalyzed exchange of boron between BF3 and BCl3 was found to be too slow to be exploited in a countercurrent system. The single-stage, equilibrium separation factor for the Nitrox system is a function of acid concentration. At 26°C the factor ranges from 1.064 with 1 M acid to 1.020 with 15 M acid. A contractor is described for studies on gas-liquid equilibria. A product-end refluxer for the Nitrox system, NO(g) vs HNO3(aq), was designed and operated and was found to be satisfactory for use in this exchange system. The nitrogen-isotope separation factor for the system NO(g) vs FeNO++(aq) was found to be 1.009 at 16.5°C. The N13 concentrated in the liquid phase. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes between aqueous ammonium hydroxide and metal-ammonia complexes adsorbed on Dowex 50 resin is being studied. The separation factors for complexes of Ni, Cu, and Zn have been measured; further experiments …
Date: February 23, 1956
Creator: Clewett, G. H. & Drury, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending December 20, 1955

Description: Semiannual Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemistry Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work in inorganic and physical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, chemical physics, chemistry of separation processes, radiation chemistry, and reactor chemistry.
Date: April 13, 1956
Creator: Taylor, E. H. & Bredig, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending June 20, 1955

Description: Continued work on the adsorbability of metal complexes from concentrated LiCl solutions and LiCl-HCl mixtures on a strong-base anion-exchange resin further demonstrated the much higher adsorbability of these complexes from LiCl solutions than from HCl solutions. The effect is believed to be due to the formation of less strongly adsorbed undissociated chloro-complex acids in the case of the HCl solutions.
Date: June 20, 1955
Creator: Taylor, E. H. & Bredig, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Combination of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Platinum Catalyzed Flow Reactions

Description: An extension of the concepts advanced by Langmuir regarding the nature of the platinum catalyzed oxidation of hydrogen and the application of the resulting theory to the experimental data observed by Ranschoff and Spiewak for an HRE type recombiner indicates that their data are corrected by the dimensionless equation (see report) equally well, with a mean deviation of 3.8 percent. This expression is recommended as a basis for the design of catalytic recombiners. The catalytic combinations is pictured as consisting of two surface chemical mechanisms, one of which is oxygen diffusion controlled, the other hydrogen diffusion regulated, the mechanism "change-over" occurring at that point in the recombiner where the components are arriving at the catalyst surface by diffusion in stoichiometric proportions. The catalyst volume requirements for three two portions of the bed are shown to be (see report). The hydrogen mole fraction at the mechanism "change-over" point is (see report). And the relationship between the two mass transfer coefficients is (see report). Methods for evaluating the necessary transport properties of the ternary system steam-hydrogen-oxygen for carrying out design calculations are summarized, and the new significant parameters are tabulated and plotted to facilitate these calculations. The question of non-uniform velocity profiles in packed bed flow systems, as it applied to the recombiner problem, is considered, and it is indicated that small scale test data may be used directly as a basis for designing larger units. Finally, some of the questionable aspects of the analysis of the problem are reviewed, and further experiments that should be performed to settle the doubtful point are suggested.
Date: October 26, 1954
Creator: Garber, Harold J. & Peebles, Fred N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Combined Distillation-Electrochemical Method for Recovery of Hydrofluoric Acid

Description: Electrodialysis in an ion-exchange membrane cell was shown to be technically feasible for the concentration of an azeotropic mixture of HF and water. A flowsheet is presented for recovery of anhydrous HF by distillation and electrodialysis of the azeotropic residue. In the electrodialysis step, 2.6 kwhr of energy per pound of anhydrous product was consumed, with electricity at 1¢ per kilowatt-hour, the total operating cost of the electrodialysis equipment alone, including amortization, would be 6¢ per pound of HF.
Date: May 25, 1956
Creator: Marinsky, J. A. & Giuffrida, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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