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Fission Product Activities in Irradiated Natural Uranium, Enriched Uranium, and Thorium

Description: Calculated data and graphs describing the effects of batch thermal-neutron irradiations on the buildup of fission products in natural uranium, enriched uranium, and thorium are presented together with empirical equations and plots correlating total fission product activities and/or decontamination factors. Fluxes of 1012-1015 are considered.
Date: March 28, 1956
Creator: Arnold, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Relative Biological Hazards of Radiations Expected in Homogeneous Reactors TBR and HPR

Description: An evaluation of the relative health hazards of radioisotopes produced in nuclear reactors is reported. The most important hazards were indicated to be I131, the Sr90 - Y90 chain, the Ce144 -Pr144 chain, Sr 89, the Ba140-La40 chain, Y91, the Zr95-Nb95 chain, Pr143, La140 , and Pa233. The most critical body organs affected by air-borne contamination are the thyroid gland, the bone marrow, the lungs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Where possible, continuous daily removal of gaseous and solid fission products from the reactor environment can be shown to permit very significant reductions in the total hazards. Homogeneous reactors, such as the Thermal Breeder Reactor and the Homogeneous Plutonium Producer Reactor, specifically studied in this report, are designed with daily removal cycles and may be considered potentially safer than heterogeneous reactors.
Date: December 2, 1955
Creator: Arnold, E. D. & Gresky, A. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thorex Thorium Nitrate Product Specifications

Description: Activity and ionic impurity specifications are presented for Thorex thorium nitrate products. Two sets of specifications are given, one set for direct handling during refabrication of production reactor thorium metal slugs and the second for refabrication of future power reactor thorium metal elements by semi-remote technics. Consideration was given to the health hazard problems associated with each process step between the Thorex process and final refabricated source material in order to arrive at these specifications.
Date: May 24, 1956
Creator: Arnold, E. D. & Wischow, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HRP Radiation Corrosion Studies

Description: A fifth in-pile loop experiment, L-4-8, was completed. The loop operated in-pile for a total of 1637 hr, during which time the LITR energy output was 4377 Mwhr. The average fission power in the loop based o cesium analyses was 622 w when the LITR was at full power (3 Mw). Based on oxygen data, the generalized corrosion rate for the first 300 hr was 4.0 mpy; the rate for the remaining 1357 hr was 0.7 mpy. The nickel data gave parallel results. The corrosion of the type 347 stainless steel, Zircaloy-2, and Ti-55AX [unintelligible] exposed in the core and in in-line holders was generally consistent with that observed in previous in-pile loop experiments. Some differences with steel were attributed to the fact that this was the first loop containing steel specimens operated with 0.04 m H2SO4 present in the uranyl sulfate charge solution (0.17 m UO2SO4, 0.03 m CuSO4). Stress specimens, made from the alloys Zircaloy-2, type 17-4 PH stainless steel, and Ti-C-130-AM, were exposed in care, in-line, and pressurizer locations. Microscopic examination and average weight loss gave no indication of effects attributable to the stressed condition of the specimens.
Date: August 21, 1956
Creator: Baker, J. E.; Bradley, N. C.; Jenks, G. H.; Olsen, A. R.; Savage, H. C. & Walter, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Homogeneous Reactor Test Summary Report for the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

Description: The Homogeneous Reactor Test (HRT) is the experimental reactor facility (Frontispiece) being designed and constructed at ORNL as the next step in homogeneous reactor development between the 1-Mv HRE and a "full-scale" power station. The HRT will provide an integrated test at 5 to 10 Mv for the flowsheet and equipment designs on which the full-scale effort will be based. Furthermore, its design is such that several homogeneous systems which require essentially the same operating equipment may be tested with comparatively minor modifications of the original reactor installation. The reactor will be assembled in the building which housed the HRE, located in the experimental reactor exclusion area approximately one mile south of the oak ridge laboratory. (See figure 1) / It is the purpose of this report to provide information with which the hazardous aspects of this reactor may be evaluated. Briefly, it will be shown after a statement of purpose and a general description of the reactor that: 1. The design characteristics and equipment requirements are such that escape of highly reactive material from the reactor piping is unlikely. 2. Should the entire core and blanket contents suddenly escape from the reactor system, a seal-welded steel tank surrounding the system will prevent the leakage of a significant quantity of activity into the building. The biological hazards resulting from the destruction of the reactor and shield by bombing or other remote causes are presented in detail.
Date: January 5, 1955
Creator: Beall, S. E. & Visner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic Gamma-Ray Data for ART Heat Deposition Calculations

Description: In order that fairly accurate thermal stress calculations can be made on the ART, it is necessary to have a reasonable picture of the temperature distribution in the reactor. To get the temperature distributions, and to determine cooling requirements in various parts of the reactor, one must know the heat deposition rates due to alpha particles, beta rays, gamma rays, and neutrons in all parts of the reactor. The present report contains only the basic physical data necessary to determine the heat deposition rates due to gamma rays. Neutron fluxes in the core and reflector regions of the ART are to be obtained from two-dimensional multigroup calculations (performed by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation). These fluxes, in conjunction with the neutron absorption cross sections, determine the neutron capture and inelastic scattering rates in the core and in the reflector. The data in this report permit the calculation of the number of gamma rays originating at various energies at every point in the core and reflector.
Date: October 3, 1956
Creator: Bertini, H. W.; Copenhaver, C. M.; Perry, A. M. & Stevenson, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solid State Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending August 31, 1955

Description: LITR Fluoride-Fuel Loop. — The inconel loop was dismantled for removal of the samples and for recovery of the uranium by using the remote cutting tools installed in a half cell of the Solid State Building. Disassembly proceeded without incident. An electric-arc cutting technique was developed for removal of the stainless steel enclosure around the pump bowl. Fission power and maximum flux were determined by irradiating a simulated loop, by heat-balance calculations, by radiochemical analyses for fission products in the fuel, by measuring the activation of cobalt foils attached to the loop, and by activation of the loop tubing itself. The determination of the power by these various methods gave 2.5 to 2.8 kw during operation of the loop, and the maximum power density was 0.4 kw/cc. Chemical analyses of the fuel were carried out to determine U, Zr, and the major constituents of inconel: Ni, Cr, and Fe.
Date: November 16, 1955
Creator: Billington, D. S. & Crawford, J. H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solid State Division Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending February 28, 1955

Description: This semiannual progress report and future reports will be published as two documents to permit a wider distribution of the unclassified material. The report numbers are assigned in sequence so that the two reports will fall together when filed by report number.
Date: July 12, 1960
Creator: Billington, D. S. & Crawford, J. H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Safeguard Report

Description: The proposed ORNL Research Reactor is designed to serve as a general purpose research tool delivering a maximum thermal flux of 8x10^13 n/cm2-sec at the initial power level of five megawatts. Operation at power levels up to ten megawatts is proposed for such items as sufficient cooling capacity is available to handle the increased heat load. The reactor will use MTR-type fuel elements and beryllium reflector pieces in a 7 x 9 grid with moderation and cooling provided by forced circulation of demineralized water. The reactor tanks are submerged in a barytes concrete pool, filled with water, which serves as a biological shield. Experimental facilities include two 18" diameter "Engineering Test Facilities" and six 6" diameter beam holes. In addition, access to the core is available through the water of the pool. The result on the surrounding population of release to the atmosphere of a large fraction of the radioactive material in the core has been computed by two methods. It is shown that under certain conditions off-area personnel could be subjected to greater than the maximum permissible exposure. An analysis of the maximum hazard caused by the release of the entire contents of the core to the local watershed indicates that the resulting incident could be quite serious, but with proper monitoring and supervision would probably not constitute a lethal hazard. The probability of the occurrence of a catastrophic release of activity of sufficient magnitude to cause widespread hazard to life is quite small and it is believed that the measures taken to lessen this probability are adequate. An Appendix, Volume II, contains supporting information for this report, and is also intended to serve as a reference for future use.
Date: October 7, 1954
Creator: Binford, F. T.; Cole, T. E. & Gill, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Safeguard Report

Description: This memorandum sets forth a recommended uniform basis for designing the ORN shield.This includes design values for power level and emergent radiation, standards values for various material properties, and basic radiation intensities.
Date: October 7, 1954
Creator: Binford, F. T.; Cole, T. E. & Gill, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Extraction and Recovery of Uranium (and Vanadium) from Acidic Liquors with DI (2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid and Some Other Organophosphorus Acids

Description: Bench scale studies have been made of the recovery of uranium from acid leach liquors (and slurries) by solvent extracting with di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid in an organic diluent. Uranium may be stripped from the organic solvent by either alkaline or acidic reagents, the former having been studied in greater detail. On the basis of these tests, a recovery process may be considered which shows promise both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Under proper conditions, vanadium can also be extracted by the di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and stripping again may be accomplished with either acidic or alkaline reagents. Preliminary studies have been made of these possibilities. In addition to di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, some other organophosphorus acids, have been cursorily examined in respect to their extraction and/or stripping performance.
Date: May 13, 1955
Creator: Blake, C. A.; Brown, K. B.; Coleman, C. F.; Horner, D. E. & Schmitt, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aqueous Uranium Slurry Studies

Description: A summary of the laboratory development program on aqueous uranium slurry fuels for the Homogenous Reactor Project during the period April 1951 through March 1953 is presented. These investigations were devoted primarily to a study of the uranium oxides in aqueous suspensions. It was concluded that U(VI) was most likely to be the stable valence state in such slurry fuels and it was shown that β-UO3·H2O platelet crystals were the stable modification at 250°C. Very pure slurries of β-UO3·H2O platelets, uranium concentration of 250g/liter and average particle size of about 10 μ, had favorable settling rates and could be easily redispersed. Their viscosity and corrosion rate in stainless steel were comparable with those in water. Exposure of these slurries to pile radiation disclosed that radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen gas pressure comparable in magnitude to those of uncatalyzed uranyl sulfate solutions could be expected. Fission products in the irradiated slurries were predominantly associated with the solids. Radiation also tended to promote caking of these solids on the walls of the radiation bombs. Uranyl phosphate and the magnesium uranates were briefly investigated as alternate system but were not found satisfactory. The program was discontinued before the feasibility of uranium slurries for reactor fuels could be definitely established.
Date: October 20, 1955
Creator: Blomeke, J. O.; Bamberg, J. L.; Blomeke, J. O.; Bruce, F. R.; Fulmer, J. M.; McBride, J. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Preliminary Survey of Radioactive Constituents in Rainwater at ORNL

Description: Technical report surveying radio-chemical analyses by ORNL's Analytical Chemistry Division and Health-Physics Division of large volumes of rainwater for plutonium, uranium, and fission products. Overall, carrying efficiencies for Al(OH)3 scavenging of rainwater were determined for these elements, as well as for Pu and U. [From Abstract, Introduction]
Date: December 4, 1950
Creator: Booksbank, W. A., Jr.; Emmons, A. H.; Gost, J. W. & Reynolds, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ORNL Mortal Recovery Plant: Processing of ORNL Graphite Reactor Fuel Elements During the Period July and August, 1955

Description: From July 7 to August 31, 1955, 20 tons of uranium and 1,200 g of plutonium were recovered in 47 days of plant operation at an average rate of 833 lb/day of uranium and at a cost of $2.60/lb of uranium. Uranium and plutonium recoveries were, respectively, 99.9 and 95.5 per cent.
Date: November 11, 1955
Creator: Brooksbank, R. E.; Chandler, J. M. & Hylton, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Isolation and Purification of Americium

Description: Gram amounts of americium were separated quantitatively from kilogram quantities of lanthanum to yield an americium product approaching 90% purity. The remaining impurity was chiefly yttrium. Elution of americium from 25% loaded Dowex 50 resin column with 0.15 M citric acid— 0.10 M diammonium citrate — 0.3 M ammonium nitrate, pH 3.3 gave a product containing 99% of the americium with a La/Am ratio of 1/100 or less in one fourth of a column volume, in this case about 1 100-fold volume reduction. Approximately 9 g of americium was purified by this method. Elution with 12.8 M hydrochloric acid from a 20 to 30% loaded column gave 90% of the americium in two column volumes of product with a La/Am ratio of about 1/4. About 1 g of americium was purified by this method.
Date: April 17, 1956
Creator: Campbell, D. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effects of Reactor Irradiation of Thorium-Uranium Alloy Fuel Plates

Description: Several plates of 98.7% Th - 1.2% U 235 (clad in aluminum) were irradiated in the MTR for an integrated flux of 2.6 x 10 21 neutrons/cm2. Although these samples represent an early development in bonding of aluminum to thorium and there are better methods at present, the bond proved to be quite strong and both clad and core were dimensionally stable under irradiation. The production of uranium 233 was as much as theory would indicate and the total amount of fissionable material material after irradiation and after decay of the protactinium 233 was greater than before irradiation. A fuel element of this nature appears to offer excellent potentialities from the standpoint of radiation stability.
Date: September 7, 1955
Creator: Carrell, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Fused Salt—Fluoride Volatility Process for Recovery and Decontamination of Uranium

Description: A preliminary chemical flowsheet is presented of a fluoride volatility process for recovering and decontaminating uranium from heterogeneous reactor fuels after dissolution in a fused salt. In laboratory work, a gross β decontamination factor of > 10 4 was obtained in the fluorination of a UF4-NaF-ZrF4 melt by passing the product UF6 through NaF at 650°C. The solubility of UF6 in molten NaF-ZrF4 was shown in kinetic studies to cause a lag in the evolution of UF6 from the fluorinator. Corrosion of nickel in the fluorination step appeared to be 2-4 mils/hr during the time that uranium was present. The average corrosion rate over the process as a whole was less than O.4 mil/hr. Earlier studies were reported in ORNL-1709 and 1877.
Date: October 10, 1955
Creator: Cathers, G. I. & Bennett, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Separation of Isotopes Section Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending December 31, 1954

Description: New systems involving the exchange of boron between boron trifluoride and boron trifluoride addition compounds have been explored. These systems have large separation factors and potentially simple reflux mechanisms. A precise determination of this separation factor for the anisole-boron trifluoride system gave the value (see report). Boron exchange was found to occur between BF and BCl3. Several homogenous catalysts have been found which activate the hydrogen-water exchange, but none are adoptable to the production of deuterium because of the slow exchange rate. Platinum or platinum oxide may be usable as a heterogeneous catalyst with proper support or dispersion techniques. The high-pressure solubility of hydrogen in several amalgams was investigated in connection with a unique countercurrent exchange system. A proposed system involving isotopic exchange between lithium dipivaloylmethane in diethyl ether and lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution was shown to give little or no isotopic separation. Column studies of the carbonate system exchange reaction were concluded with a 40°C run. Slightly higher enrichment of N15 was obtained than at 30°C . The temperature dependence of all in this system was measured between 15 and 45°C. The factor increases with temperature, showing a tendency toward a maximum near 45°C. Isotopic exchange appears to be complete in less than 3 min. A qualitative examination was made of the carbonate system waste reflux reaction in laboratory equipment. No insurmountable difficulties are anticipated in connection with this reaction. The critical product-reflux reaction is being studied in pilot-scale equipment. Preliminary data are encouraging. Additional nitrogen exchange reactions have been studied to provide a broader basis for selecting a system for large-scale production of enriched nitrogen isotopes. A proposed system for enriching potassium isotopes was found to have a single stage separation factor of (see report). The single-stage fractionation factor between uranyl ion on Dowex 50 resin and …
Date: May 20, 1955
Creator: Clewett, G. H & Drury, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Separation of Isotopes Section Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending June 30, 1955

Description: The countercurrent gas-liquid system BF3(g)—anisole·BF3(l) for the concentration of boron isotopes has been studied. The single-storage separation factor varies from 1.039 at 0°C to 1.029 at 30°C. Rate of exchange is rapid, and, with efficient contacting equipment, complete exchange may be obtained in less than 15 sec. A total separation of 1.525 has been realized in laboratory equipment. The critical-product reflux reaction is quite efficient. Only about 55 moles of BF3 remain in each million moles of effluent solvent under laboratory conditions. The vapor pressure of BF3 over the complex rises sharply as the temperature is increased. At 0°C the pressure is 150 mm Hg, and at 40°C the pressure has risen to 1800 mm Hg. From vapor-pressure measurements, an approximate upper limit of ΔH= -12kcal per mole of complex was calculated for the reaction [equation not transcribed]. Qualitative tests indicate good resistance of anisole to decomposition by BF3 under plant conditions. The uncatalyzed exchange of boron between BF3 and BCl3 was found to be too slow to be exploited in a countercurrent system. The single-stage, equilibrium separation factor for the Nitrox system is a function of acid concentration. At 26°C the factor ranges from 1.064 with 1 M acid to 1.020 with 15 M acid. A contractor is described for studies on gas-liquid equilibria. A product-end refluxer for the Nitrox system, NO(g) vs HNO3(aq), was designed and operated and was found to be satisfactory for use in this exchange system. The nitrogen-isotope separation factor for the system NO(g) vs FeNO++(aq) was found to be 1.009 at 16.5°C. The N13 concentrated in the liquid phase. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes between aqueous ammonium hydroxide and metal-ammonia complexes adsorbed on Dowex 50 resin is being studied. The separation factors for complexes of Ni, Cu, and Zn have been measured; further experiments …
Date: February 23, 1956
Creator: Clewett, G. H. & Drury, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Physical Property Summary for Fluoride Mixtures

Description: This report presents a summary of certain physical properties that have been determined experimentally on the fluoride mixture that have been formulated at ORNL (Rers. 1, 2). These properties include the density, enthalpy, heat capacity, heat of fusion, thermal conductivity, viscosity, Prandtl number, electrical conductivity and surface tension. In addition to the experimental data, values have been predicted for the heat capacity and density of the other mixtures from the correlations of these properties. Estimates of the viscosity have also been made for a number of the mixtures on which no experimental data were available.
Date: September 5, 1956
Creator: Cohen, S. I.; Povers, W. D. & Greene, N. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Disassembly and Postoperative Examination of the Aircraft Reactor Experiment

Description: The Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE)was successfully concluded in November of 1954, and a detailed report of the operation was published the following year. At that time it was thought that an extensive examination of the reactor and system components after disassembly was warranted. It was realized, of course, that the level of radioactivity of the components would necessitate extensive delays in the examinations. Since examination of a few critical ARE samples showed nothing unexpected, much of the planned hot-cell inspection was postponed and complete examination of all but a few specimens was indefinitely suspended. The few examinations that were completed are described in this report, along with a description of the disassembly of the ARE system. Diagrams of the fuel system, sodium system, and off-gas system are presented in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 for reference use in visualizing the disassembly process.
Date: April 15, 1958
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Crabtree, T. E.; Davis, A. L. & Piper, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Reactor Test Hazards Summary Report

Description: The successful completion of a program of experiments, including the Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE), has demonstrated the high probability of producing militarily useful aircraft nuclear power plants employing reflector-moderated circulating-fuel reactors. Consequently, and accelerated program culminating in operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART) is under way. In order to adhere to the compressed schedule of the accelerated program, it is essential that the Atomic Energy Commission approve the 7500 Area in Oak Ridge as the test site by February15, 1955. This report summarizes the hazards associated with operating the contained 60-Mv reactor of the ART at the proposed Oak Ridge test site.
Date: January 19, 1955
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Ergen, W. K.; Fraas, A. P.; McQuilkin, F. R. & Meem, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear Merchant Ship Reactor Final Safeguards Report, Volume 6: Environmental Analysis OF NS "Savannah" Operation at Camden

Description: "An analysis is presented of the accidental release of activity following the operation of the NS "Savannah" at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation docks in Camden, New Jersey. Although a number of accidents are considered, the report is primarily concerned with the environmental activity levels and subsequent exposures which would result from the "maximum credible accident" (p. v).
Date: January 24, 1961
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Parker, F. L.; Mann, L. A. & Schmidt, G. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effect of Acidity and Reducing Agents on Ruthenium Solvent Extraction by Tributyl Phosphate in the 25 Process

Description: Results of tracer studies suggest that, in tributyl phosphate extraction processes designed to recover and purify fissionable material, minimum ruthenium extraction should be obtained from feeds at least 2 M in nitric acid or at least 1 M acid-deficient. Ruthenium decontamination was decreased by preheating the feed and increased by pretreatment with reducing agents. A pretreatment using 0.06 M ferrous ion and 0.5 M urea with 1 hr simmering at 85°C should increase ruthenium decontamination about 10-fold in the 25 process. If other process considerations dictate the use of a low-acid feed, decontamination from ruthenium may be improved by using 3 M nitric acid as the scrubbing solution. Apparently, the scrubbing process is quite time-dependent; a solvent holdup time of about 15 min may be needed in the scrub section for maximum decontamination.
Date: December 15, 1954
Creator: Flanary, J. R. & Frashier, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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