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Status Report Number Three on Clinch River Study

Description: Report describing the progress made in the Clinch River Study for the period May to October 1961. This report is based off of multiple reports of water sampling conducted across six stations in order to evaluate the safety and radioactive content of the Clinch River.
Date: December 6, 1962
Creator: Morton, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear Merchant Ship Reactor Final Safeguards Report, Volume 6: Environmental Analysis OF NS "Savannah" Operation at Camden

Description: "An analysis is presented of the accidental release of activity following the operation of the NS "Savannah" at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation docks in Camden, New Jersey. Although a number of accidents are considered, the report is primarily concerned with the environmental activity levels and subsequent exposures which would result from the "maximum credible accident" (p. v).
Date: January 24, 1961
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Parker, F. L.; Mann, L. A. & Schmidt, G. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Use of Steam-Electric Power Plants to Provide Thermal Energy to Urban Areas

Description: This report presents the results of a study that argues the importance of providing thermal energy from steam-electric power plants to urban areas.
Date: January 1971
Creator: Miller, A. J.; Payne, H. R.; Lackey, M. E.; Samuels, G.; Heath, M. T.; Hagen, E. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Preliminary Survey of Radioactive Constituents in Rainwater at ORNL

Description: Technical report surveying radio-chemical analyses by ORNL's Analytical Chemistry Division and Health-Physics Division of large volumes of rainwater for plutonium, uranium, and fission products. Overall, carrying efficiencies for Al(OH)3 scavenging of rainwater were determined for these elements, as well as for Pu and U. [From Abstract, Introduction]
Date: December 4, 1950
Creator: Booksbank, W. A., Jr.; Emmons, A. H.; Gost, J. W. & Reynolds, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Safeguard Report

Description: The proposed ORNL Research Reactor is designed to serve as a general purpose research tool delivering a maximum thermal flux of 8x10^13 n/cm2-sec at the initial power level of five megawatts. Operation at power levels up to ten megawatts is proposed for such items as sufficient cooling capacity is available to handle the increased heat load. The reactor will use MTR-type fuel elements and beryllium reflector pieces in a 7 x 9 grid with moderation and cooling provided by forced circulation of demineralized water. The reactor tanks are submerged in a barytes concrete pool, filled with water, which serves as a biological shield. Experimental facilities include two 18" diameter "Engineering Test Facilities" and six 6" diameter beam holes. In addition, access to the core is available through the water of the pool. The result on the surrounding population of release to the atmosphere of a large fraction of the radioactive material in the core has been computed by two methods. It is shown that under certain conditions off-area personnel could be subjected to greater than the maximum permissible exposure. An analysis of the maximum hazard caused by the release of the entire contents of the core to the local watershed indicates that the resulting incident could be quite serious, but with proper monitoring and supervision would probably not constitute a lethal hazard. The probability of the occurrence of a catastrophic release of activity of sufficient magnitude to cause widespread hazard to life is quite small and it is believed that the measures taken to lessen this probability are adequate. An Appendix, Volume II, contains supporting information for this report, and is also intended to serve as a reference for future use.
Date: October 7, 1954
Creator: Binford, F. T.; Cole, T. E. & Gill, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Cost Analysis of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

Description: A capital cost breakdown of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, a directly maintained remotely operated plant for processing spent enriched uranium fuel assemblies from reactors, is presented. The capital investment in the plant, including design, construction, training, and preoperational costs, an estimate of the direct costs incurred by the Atomic Energy Commission, and a proportional part of the costs of Central Facilities, including the value of the land and improvements theorem when acquired by the Commision, was $31,105,899. The cost of design and construction was $25,212,231, of which $3,773,357 was expanded on design and inspection.
Date: January 4, 1955
Creator: Robertson, P. L. & Stockdale, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Safeguard Report

Description: This memorandum sets forth a recommended uniform basis for designing the ORN shield.This includes design values for power level and emergent radiation, standards values for various material properties, and basic radiation intensities.
Date: October 7, 1954
Creator: Binford, F. T.; Cole, T. E. & Gill, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electronuclear Research Division Semiannual Progress Report

Description: Nuclear physics research with 22-Mev protons in the 86-in. cyclotron included angular-distribution measurements of neutrons from (p,n) reactions in nine target elements; measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments from proton-induced fission of U233, U225, U228, Th230, and Th232; measurement of alpha-particle angular distributions from (p,α) reactions a study of the neutron-deficient isotopes of terbium and completion of an extensive program of the measurement of activation cross sections. Two more targets for cyclotron production of isotopes were developed, and the production yields for 14 radioisotopes are summarized. A new record for continuous beam power on a production target, 36 kw for 5 hr, was achieved. The design of a beam-deflector system for the 86-in. cyclotron has been completed, and several of the components have been fabricated ; a shutdown for installation is scheduled for October 8. The deflected N+++ beam of the 63-in. cyclotron was used in a study of the gain and loss of electrons by nitrogen lens passing through thin foils, and the equilibrium charge distribution of lens as a function of energy was thus obtained. The excitation functions were measured for nitrogen-induced reactions on both nitrogen and oxygen. Assembly restrictions of the prepared 114-in. heavy-particle cyclotron were continued, and on investigation of the possibility of converting the 44-in. cyclotron was initiated.
Date: November 18, 1954
Creator: Livingston, R. S. & Howard, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effect of Acidity and Reducing Agents on Ruthenium Solvent Extraction by Tributyl Phosphate in the 25 Process

Description: Results of tracer studies suggest that, in tributyl phosphate extraction processes designed to recover and purify fissionable material, minimum ruthenium extraction should be obtained from feeds at least 2 M in nitric acid or at least 1 M acid-deficient. Ruthenium decontamination was decreased by preheating the feed and increased by pretreatment with reducing agents. A pretreatment using 0.06 M ferrous ion and 0.5 M urea with 1 hr simmering at 85°C should increase ruthenium decontamination about 10-fold in the 25 process. If other process considerations dictate the use of a low-acid feed, decontamination from ruthenium may be improved by using 3 M nitric acid as the scrubbing solution. Apparently, the scrubbing process is quite time-dependent; a solvent holdup time of about 15 min may be needed in the scrub section for maximum decontamination.
Date: December 15, 1954
Creator: Flanary, J. R. & Frashier, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Combination of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Platinum Catalyzed Flow Reactions

Description: An extension of the concepts advanced by Langmuir regarding the nature of the platinum catalyzed oxidation of hydrogen and the application of the resulting theory to the experimental data observed by Ranschoff and Spiewak for an HRE type recombiner indicates that their data are corrected by the dimensionless equation (see report) equally well, with a mean deviation of 3.8 percent. This expression is recommended as a basis for the design of catalytic recombiners. The catalytic combinations is pictured as consisting of two surface chemical mechanisms, one of which is oxygen diffusion controlled, the other hydrogen diffusion regulated, the mechanism "change-over" occurring at that point in the recombiner where the components are arriving at the catalyst surface by diffusion in stoichiometric proportions. The catalyst volume requirements for three two portions of the bed are shown to be (see report). The hydrogen mole fraction at the mechanism "change-over" point is (see report). And the relationship between the two mass transfer coefficients is (see report). Methods for evaluating the necessary transport properties of the ternary system steam-hydrogen-oxygen for carrying out design calculations are summarized, and the new significant parameters are tabulated and plotted to facilitate these calculations. The question of non-uniform velocity profiles in packed bed flow systems, as it applied to the recombiner problem, is considered, and it is indicated that small scale test data may be used directly as a basis for designing larger units. Finally, some of the questionable aspects of the analysis of the problem are reviewed, and further experiments that should be performed to settle the doubtful point are suggested.
Date: October 26, 1954
Creator: Garber, Harold J. & Peebles, Fred N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Homogeneous Reactor Project Quarterly Progress Report: For Period Ending October 31, 1954

Description: Part I. Experimental Reactors: The design has been completed for all the major high-pressure and low-pressure components except the reactor pressure vessel. Contained in this report are the most recent revisions of the low-pressure-system flow sheet, a description of important details of the reactor cell, and the final design of the main heat exchangers, the inner dump tanks and separator. the recombiner and recombiner-condenser, and the outer dump tank and reflux condenser. Part II. Thorium Breeder Reactor: An analysis of the relative effects of major process variables on the economics and characteristics of two-region thorium breeder reactors is nearing completion, and the results to date are presented in this report. From these results most of the major reactor characteristics have been determined; they are reported with certain other engineering studies pertinent to the early phases of the program. Part III. Corrosion: One loop was removed from service and cross sectioned for inspection of the internal surfaces. This loop was of type 347 stainless steel pipe and had a cumulative operating time of more than 12,000 hr with uranyl sulfate solutions varying in concentration from 0.004 to 1.34 m. No excessive or localized corrosion attack was noted except in one highly turbulent area immediately downstream from the in-line corrosion sample holder.
Date: November 1954
Creator: McDuffie, H. F. & Kelly, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Products Produced in Continuous Neuron Irradiation of Thorium

Description: Calculated data and graphs describing the effects of continuous thermal-neutron irradiation of thorium, the usual method of operations of homogeneous reactors, are presented.The buildup and decay of U^233, Pa^233, other heavy isotopes, and fission products are considered on the basis of best available cross-section and fission-yield data. The effects of the heavy isotopes and fission products on neutron economy are discussed.
Date: February 16, 1956
Creator: Gresky, A. T. & Arnold, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Products Produced in Batch Neutron Irradiation of Thorium

Description: Calculated data and graphs describing the effects of batch thermal-neutron irradiation of thorium, the usual method of operation of heterogeneous reactors, are presented. The buildup and decay of U233, Pa233, other heavy isotopes, and fission products are considered on the basis of best available cross-section and fission-yield data. The effects of these irradiation products on the Thorex chemical separation process are indicated briefly.
Date: December 27, 1955
Creator: Gresky, A. T. & Arnold, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stable Isotope Research and Production Division Semiannual Progress Report

Description: The Spectroscopy Research Laboratory is concerned with research and development in the fields of nuclear magnetic resonance, microwaves, infrared and optical spectroscopy, spectrochemistry, and x rays. Research is directed toward fruitful methods of isotope analysis; new element and compound analytical methods having application to immediate Laboratory or long-range commission needs; and fundamental research on isotopes, elements, and compounds. The work is reported on a project basis to give a more complete picture of the purpose, activity, and status of each program. More detailed information on reported or inactive projects may be obtained from the previous semiannual report.
Date: February 18, 1955
Creator: Keim, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Homogeneous Reactor Test Summary Report for the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

Description: The Homogeneous Reactor Test (HRT) is the experimental reactor facility (Frontispiece) being designed and constructed at ORNL as the next step in homogeneous reactor development between the 1-Mv HRE and a "full-scale" power station. The HRT will provide an integrated test at 5 to 10 Mv for the flowsheet and equipment designs on which the full-scale effort will be based. Furthermore, its design is such that several homogeneous systems which require essentially the same operating equipment may be tested with comparatively minor modifications of the original reactor installation. The reactor will be assembled in the building which housed the HRE, located in the experimental reactor exclusion area approximately one mile south of the oak ridge laboratory. (See figure 1) / It is the purpose of this report to provide information with which the hazardous aspects of this reactor may be evaluated. Briefly, it will be shown after a statement of purpose and a general description of the reactor that: 1. The design characteristics and equipment requirements are such that escape of highly reactive material from the reactor piping is unlikely. 2. Should the entire core and blanket contents suddenly escape from the reactor system, a seal-welded steel tank surrounding the system will prevent the leakage of a significant quantity of activity into the building. The biological hazards resulting from the destruction of the reactor and shield by bombing or other remote causes are presented in detail.
Date: January 5, 1955
Creator: Beall, S. E. & Visner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aircraft Reactor Test Hazards Summary Report

Description: The successful completion of a program of experiments, including the Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE), has demonstrated the high probability of producing militarily useful aircraft nuclear power plants employing reflector-moderated circulating-fuel reactors. Consequently, and accelerated program culminating in operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART) is under way. In order to adhere to the compressed schedule of the accelerated program, it is essential that the Atomic Energy Commission approve the 7500 Area in Oak Ridge as the test site by February15, 1955. This report summarizes the hazards associated with operating the contained 60-Mv reactor of the ART at the proposed Oak Ridge test site.
Date: January 19, 1955
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Ergen, W. K.; Fraas, A. P.; McQuilkin, F. R. & Meem, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Monte Carlo Estimation of the High Energy Neutron Flux Distribution in the ORNL Graphite Reactor

Description: The flux through a given region is proportional to the total lengths of the neutron flight paths that intersect that region. The analytical Monte Carlo procedure manufactured neutron flight paths and totaled the lengths of all paths intercepted by the regions illustrated in Figure 1. The procedure was designed to utilize the various symmetries in the lattice. / Consider a portion of the lattice whose planar cross-section is shown in Figure 5. If R is the region in which the flux is to be estimated and F the fuel rod in which the neutron originated, then flight path P results in an intercepted length whose reflection in the plane is L. On the other hand flight path P' intercepts R' with length L'. R' is not the region to be studied, but a translation of the flight path P' to F' would result in the neutron intercepting R. The origin in P was arbitrary. For each neutron originating in P another could, with equal probability, have originated in P' with parallel paths. Hence consulting L' in R' towards the total flux is equivalent to starting a neutron at P'. Thus consideration of all regions symmetric to R with respect to the fuel rod lattice is equivalent to originating neutrons at all rods and considering only their interceptions in R. / All neutrons are considering to originate in a plane disc at the center of a rod. Lengths of its flight path intercepted by a cylinder, parallel to the fuel rod, with radius equal to that of the region under investigation and whose length is the same as that of the fuel rod, are calculated. The same length is obtainable from parallel paths originating elsewhere in the fuel rod and passing through the specified region. / In summary, the general procedure …
Date: February 23, 1955
Creator: Moshman, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mathematics Panel Semiannual Progress Report

Description: From July through December, a total of 1750 hr of computer time was used by programmers in "debugging" and in running problems. With the acquisition of a second operator, the evening shift was initiated. A night-shift operator is presently being trained, and third-shifts operations will probably begin after completion of the magnetic-tape memory. / Engineering time is regularly scheduled for 4 hr each morning and 1/2 hr late in the afternoon. An electronic technician is on duty during evening-shift operations. / Installations of the magnetic-tape memory units is complete, and the units are expected to go into operation in the near future. Work is continuing on the new input-output system.
Date: March 2, 1955
Creator: Householder, A. S. & Sangren, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solid State Division Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending February 28, 1955

Description: This semiannual progress report and future reports will be published as two documents to permit a wider distribution of the unclassified material. The report numbers are assigned in sequence so that the two reports will fall together when filed by report number.
Date: July 12, 1960
Creator: Billington, D. S. & Crawford, J. H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Homogenous Reactor Project Quarterly Progress Report For Period Ending January 31, 1955

Description: The reactor equipment cell is expected to be completed by February 15. While filled with water, the tank was inspected for leaks, and the few leaks found will have been repaired by February 15. All orders for construction materials placed prior to this quarter have been received. New requisitions issued during the quarter total $16,000. Work orders were issued, and fabrication of all low-pressure-system components was begun in the ORNL shops. The thermal shield around the reactor vessel was specified as a 2-ft-thick cylindrical concrete wall. With this shield, the fast-neutron flux in the equipment area will be reduced to 7 x 109 neutrons/cm2/sec, the slow flux to 4 x 107 neutrons/cm2/sec, and the gamma intensity to less than 105 r/hr. The possible blast effects from a rupture of the pressure vessel were studied and are judged to be sufficient to justify the inclusion of a 1.5. to 2-in.-thick blast shield around the pressure vessel. The blast shield eliminates the danger of damaging the leak tight equipment-cell liner. Pressures in the reactor equipment cell, as a result of vessel failure, were calculated in order to arrive at a safe design pressure for the reactor equipment cell. For the case of instantaneous release of the core and pressure-vessel liquids and release of the heat-exchanger liquids through 6-in. steam lines, a maximum cell pressure of 29 psig is expected. A study was made of the problem of uranium peroxide precipitation at places where the reactor solution is cooled soon after leaving the reactor core. A curve is presented to show the temperatures, for various decay times, at which the peroxide might form.
Date: April 6, 1955
Creator: McDuffie, H. F. & Kelly, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of Plutonium and Uranium in Scrup Dissolver Solutions

Description: Methods for the determination of plutonium and uranium in highly radioactive scrup dissolver solutions have been developed. Plutonium was separated from the dissolver solutions by solvent-extraction and ion-exchange techniques and determined by potentiometric titration. Uranium was separated by ion exchange and determined by potentiometric titration. Solutions that were similar to the actual dissolver solutions and that contained known amounts of plutonium and uranium were analyzed by these methods. Evaluation of the data secured for the determination of plutonium and uranium by the methods given herein indicated that, within the limits of the precision of the methods, there was no bias. The precision of the data obtained for the determination of plutonium, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was better than 2% for plutonium in the concentration range of 0.27 to 0.64 mg/ml. The precision for uranium was estimated to be about 0.2% for uranium concentrations of 425 mg/ml. These methods and the data obtained by then are discussed in this report; the procedures are appended.
Date: July 14, 1955
Creator: Foster, R. W.; Cooper, J. H. & Raaen, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Isolation and Purification of Americium

Description: Gram amounts of americium were separated quantitatively from kilogram quantities of lanthanum to yield an americium product approaching 90% purity. The remaining impurity was chiefly yttrium. Elution of americium from 25% loaded Dowex 50 resin column with 0.15 M citric acid— 0.10 M diammonium citrate — 0.3 M ammonium nitrate, pH 3.3 gave a product containing 99% of the americium with a La/Am ratio of 1/100 or less in one fourth of a column volume, in this case about 1 100-fold volume reduction. Approximately 9 g of americium was purified by this method. Elution with 12.8 M hydrochloric acid from a 20 to 30% loaded column gave 90% of the americium in two column volumes of product with a La/Am ratio of about 1/4. About 1 g of americium was purified by this method.
Date: April 17, 1956
Creator: Campbell, D. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Disassembly and Postoperative Examination of the Aircraft Reactor Experiment

Description: The Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE)was successfully concluded in November of 1954, and a detailed report of the operation was published the following year. At that time it was thought that an extensive examination of the reactor and system components after disassembly was warranted. It was realized, of course, that the level of radioactivity of the components would necessitate extensive delays in the examinations. Since examination of a few critical ARE samples showed nothing unexpected, much of the planned hot-cell inspection was postponed and complete examination of all but a few specimens was indefinitely suspended. The few examinations that were completed are described in this report, along with a description of the disassembly of the ARE system. Diagrams of the fuel system, sodium system, and off-gas system are presented in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 for reference use in visualizing the disassembly process.
Date: April 15, 1958
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Crabtree, T. E.; Davis, A. L. & Piper, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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