Search Results

open access

A Preliminary Survey of Radioactive Constituents in Rainwater at ORNL

Description: Technical report surveying radio-chemical analyses by ORNL's Analytical Chemistry Division and Health-Physics Division of large volumes of rainwater for plutonium, uranium, and fission products. Overall, carrying efficiencies for Al(OH)3 scavenging of rainwater were determined for these elements, as well as for Pu and U. [From Abstract, Introduction]
Date: December 4, 1950
Creator: Booksbank, W. A., Jr.; Emmons, A. H.; Gost, J. W. & Reynolds, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Dissolution of Metals in Fused Fluorides

Description: In scouting tests, a number of metals used in nuclear reactor fuel elements were dissolved by 44.5-48.5-7.0 mole % ZrF4-KF-NaF fused salt at 675°C through which HF was being passed. These included type 304 stainless steel at 4 mils/hr; type 347Nb stainless steel at 7 mils/hr; thorium at 14 mils/hr; nonirradiated uranium at 17 mils/hr; zirconium at 22-35 mils/hr; titanium at 31 mils/hr; and Zircaloy-2 at 22-46 mils/hr. Only small amounts of volatile fission products formed when irradiated uranium was dissolved. Variables that appear to affect the dissolution rate are the composition of the fused fluoride, the fused fluoride temperature, the HF flow rate, the metallurgical characteristics of the material being dissolved, and the presence of other metals. The low dissolution rate of 0.001 mil/hr observed for nickel suggests that it may be suitable as a material of construction for reaction vessels.
Date: October 12, 1953
Creator: Leuze, R. E.; Cathers, G. I. & Schilling, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Metallurgy Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending October 10, 1955

Description: Progress report of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Metallurgy Division providing updates on various projects, experiments, and other work. This report includes a summary of nondestructive testing, physical chemistry of corrosion, fundamental physico-metallurgical research, HRP metallurgy, process metallurgy, metallurgical materials and processing, metallography, and ceramics research.
Date: June 14, 1954
Creator: Manly, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Investigation of Materials for a Water Cooled and Moderated Reactor [Declassified Version]

Description: An investigation of the materials for use in the water-moderated and cooled Aray Package Power Reactor (APPR) operating at about 500°F was made. The available literature was analyzed, and the results of the different investigators were compared and averaged. Twenty different materials, including stainless steels, nickel alloys, Stellites and others, were investigated from the point of view of physical properties, susceptibility to radiation damage, and corrosion resistance. Corrosion rates were established for all the materials under various conditions, such as irradiation, flow weld, stress, and various water conditions. Type-304 stainless steel was selected as the basic structural material. Operating conditions, to maintain minimum corrosion, were established also.
Date: August 1954
Creator: Scheib, Louis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Investigation of Materials for a Water Cooled and Moderated Reactor [Secret Version]

Description: An investigation of the materials for use in the water-moderated and cooled Aray Package Power Reactor (APPR) operating at about 500°F was made. The available literature was analyzed, and the results of the different investigators were compared and averaged. Twenty different materials, including stainless steels, nickel alloys, Stellites and others, were investigated from the point of view of physical properties, susceptibility to radiation damage, and corrosion resistance. Corrosion rates were established for all the materials under various conditions, such as irradiation, flow, weld, stress, and various water conditions. Type-304 stainless steel was selected as the basic structural material. Operating conditions, to maintain minimum corrosion, were established also.
Date: August 1954
Creator: Scheib, Louis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Safeguard Report

Description: The proposed ORNL Research Reactor is designed to serve as a general purpose research tool delivering a maximum thermal flux of 8x10^13 n/cm2-sec at the initial power level of five megawatts. Operation at power levels up to ten megawatts is proposed for such items as sufficient cooling capacity is available to handle the increased heat load. The reactor will use MTR-type fuel elements and beryllium reflector pieces in a 7 x 9 grid with moderation and cooling provided by forced circulation of demineralized water. The reactor tanks are submerged in a barytes concrete pool, filled with water, which serves as a biological shield. Experimental facilities include two 18" diameter "Engineering Test Facilities" and six 6" diameter beam holes. In addition, access to the core is available through the water of the pool. The result on the surrounding population of release to the atmosphere of a large fraction of the radioactive material in the core has been computed by two methods. It is shown that under certain conditions off-area personnel could be subjected to greater than the maximum permissible exposure. An analysis of the maximum hazard caused by the release of the entire contents of the core to the local watershed indicates that the resulting incident could be quite serious, but with proper monitoring and supervision would probably not constitute a lethal hazard. The probability of the occurrence of a catastrophic release of activity of sufficient magnitude to cause widespread hazard to life is quite small and it is believed that the measures taken to lessen this probability are adequate. An Appendix, Volume II, contains supporting information for this report, and is also intended to serve as a reference for future use.
Date: October 7, 1954
Creator: Binford, F. T.; Cole, T. E. & Gill, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Safeguard Report

Description: This memorandum sets forth a recommended uniform basis for designing the ORN shield.This includes design values for power level and emergent radiation, standards values for various material properties, and basic radiation intensities.
Date: October 7, 1954
Creator: Binford, F. T.; Cole, T. E. & Gill, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Combination of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Platinum Catalyzed Flow Reactions

Description: An extension of the concepts advanced by Langmuir regarding the nature of the platinum catalyzed oxidation of hydrogen and the application of the resulting theory to the experimental data observed by Ranschoff and Spiewak for an HRE type recombiner indicates that their data are corrected by the dimensionless equation (see report) equally well, with a mean deviation of 3.8 percent. This expression is recommended as a basis for the design of catalytic recombiners. The catalytic combinations is pictured as consisting of two surface chemical mechanisms, one of which is oxygen diffusion controlled, the other hydrogen diffusion regulated, the mechanism "change-over" occurring at that point in the recombiner where the components are arriving at the catalyst surface by diffusion in stoichiometric proportions. The catalyst volume requirements for three two portions of the bed are shown to be (see report). The hydrogen mole fraction at the mechanism "change-over" point is (see report). And the relationship between the two mass transfer coefficients is (see report). Methods for evaluating the necessary transport properties of the ternary system steam-hydrogen-oxygen for carrying out design calculations are summarized, and the new significant parameters are tabulated and plotted to facilitate these calculations. The question of non-uniform velocity profiles in packed bed flow systems, as it applied to the recombiner problem, is considered, and it is indicated that small scale test data may be used directly as a basis for designing larger units. Finally, some of the questionable aspects of the analysis of the problem are reviewed, and further experiments that should be performed to settle the doubtful point are suggested.
Date: October 26, 1954
Creator: Garber, Harold J. & Peebles, Fred N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Homogeneous Reactor Project Quarterly Progress Report: For Period Ending October 31, 1954

Description: Part I. Experimental Reactors: The design has been completed for all the major high-pressure and low-pressure components except the reactor pressure vessel. Contained in this report are the most recent revisions of the low-pressure-system flow sheet, a description of important details of the reactor cell, and the final design of the main heat exchangers, the inner dump tanks and separator. the recombiner and recombiner-condenser, and the outer dump tank and reflux condenser. Part II. Thorium Breeder Reactor: An analysis of the relative effects of major process variables on the economics and characteristics of two-region thorium breeder reactors is nearing completion, and the results to date are presented in this report. From these results most of the major reactor characteristics have been determined; they are reported with certain other engineering studies pertinent to the early phases of the program. Part III. Corrosion: One loop was removed from service and cross sectioned for inspection of the internal surfaces. This loop was of type 347 stainless steel pipe and had a cumulative operating time of more than 12,000 hr with uranyl sulfate solutions varying in concentration from 0.004 to 1.34 m. No excessive or localized corrosion attack was noted except in one highly turbulent area immediately downstream from the in-line corrosion sample holder.
Date: November 1954
Creator: McDuffie, H. F. & Kelly, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Electronuclear Research Division Semiannual Progress Report

Description: Nuclear physics research with 22-Mev protons in the 86-in. cyclotron included angular-distribution measurements of neutrons from (p,n) reactions in nine target elements; measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments from proton-induced fission of U233, U225, U228, Th230, and Th232; measurement of alpha-particle angular distributions from (p,α) reactions a study of the neutron-deficient isotopes of terbium and completion of an extensive program of the measurement of activation cross sections. Two more targets for cyclotron production of isotopes were developed, and the production yields for 14 radioisotopes are summarized. A new record for continuous beam power on a production target, 36 kw for 5 hr, was achieved. The design of a beam-deflector system for the 86-in. cyclotron has been completed, and several of the components have been fabricated ; a shutdown for installation is scheduled for October 8. The deflected N+++ beam of the 63-in. cyclotron was used in a study of the gain and loss of electrons by nitrogen lens passing through thin foils, and the equilibrium charge distribution of lens as a function of energy was thus obtained. The excitation functions were measured for nitrogen-induced reactions on both nitrogen and oxygen. Assembly restrictions of the prepared 114-in. heavy-particle cyclotron were continued, and on investigation of the possibility of converting the 44-in. cyclotron was initiated.
Date: November 18, 1954
Creator: Livingston, R. S. & Howard, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Effect of Acidity and Reducing Agents on Ruthenium Solvent Extraction by Tributyl Phosphate in the 25 Process

Description: Results of tracer studies suggest that, in tributyl phosphate extraction processes designed to recover and purify fissionable material, minimum ruthenium extraction should be obtained from feeds at least 2 M in nitric acid or at least 1 M acid-deficient. Ruthenium decontamination was decreased by preheating the feed and increased by pretreatment with reducing agents. A pretreatment using 0.06 M ferrous ion and 0.5 M urea with 1 hr simmering at 85°C should increase ruthenium decontamination about 10-fold in the 25 process. If other process considerations dictate the use of a low-acid feed, decontamination from ruthenium may be improved by using 3 M nitric acid as the scrubbing solution. Apparently, the scrubbing process is quite time-dependent; a solvent holdup time of about 15 min may be needed in the scrub section for maximum decontamination.
Date: December 15, 1954
Creator: Flanary, J. R. & Frashier, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Cost Analysis of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

Description: A capital cost breakdown of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, a directly maintained remotely operated plant for processing spent enriched uranium fuel assemblies from reactors, is presented. The capital investment in the plant, including design, construction, training, and preoperational costs, an estimate of the direct costs incurred by the Atomic Energy Commission, and a proportional part of the costs of Central Facilities, including the value of the land and improvements theorem when acquired by the Commision, was $31,105,899. The cost of design and construction was $25,212,231, of which $3,773,357 was expanded on design and inspection.
Date: January 4, 1955
Creator: Robertson, P. L. & Stockdale, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Homogeneous Reactor Test Summary Report for the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

Description: The Homogeneous Reactor Test (HRT) is the experimental reactor facility (Frontispiece) being designed and constructed at ORNL as the next step in homogeneous reactor development between the 1-Mv HRE and a "full-scale" power station. The HRT will provide an integrated test at 5 to 10 Mv for the flowsheet and equipment designs on which the full-scale effort will be based. Furthermore, its design is such that several homogeneous systems which require essentially the same operating equipment may be tested with comparatively minor modifications of the original reactor installation. The reactor will be assembled in the building which housed the HRE, located in the experimental reactor exclusion area approximately one mile south of the oak ridge laboratory. (See figure 1) / It is the purpose of this report to provide information with which the hazardous aspects of this reactor may be evaluated. Briefly, it will be shown after a statement of purpose and a general description of the reactor that: 1. The design characteristics and equipment requirements are such that escape of highly reactive material from the reactor piping is unlikely. 2. Should the entire core and blanket contents suddenly escape from the reactor system, a seal-welded steel tank surrounding the system will prevent the leakage of a significant quantity of activity into the building. The biological hazards resulting from the destruction of the reactor and shield by bombing or other remote causes are presented in detail.
Date: January 5, 1955
Creator: Beall, S. E. & Visner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Aircraft Reactor Test Hazards Summary Report

Description: The successful completion of a program of experiments, including the Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE), has demonstrated the high probability of producing militarily useful aircraft nuclear power plants employing reflector-moderated circulating-fuel reactors. Consequently, and accelerated program culminating in operation of the Aircraft Reactor Test (ART) is under way. In order to adhere to the compressed schedule of the accelerated program, it is essential that the Atomic Energy Commission approve the 7500 Area in Oak Ridge as the test site by February15, 1955. This report summarizes the hazards associated with operating the contained 60-Mv reactor of the ART at the proposed Oak Ridge test site.
Date: January 19, 1955
Creator: Cottrell, W. B.; Ergen, W. K.; Fraas, A. P.; McQuilkin, F. R. & Meem, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Stable Isotope Research and Production Division Semiannual Progress Report

Description: The Spectroscopy Research Laboratory is concerned with research and development in the fields of nuclear magnetic resonance, microwaves, infrared and optical spectroscopy, spectrochemistry, and x rays. Research is directed toward fruitful methods of isotope analysis; new element and compound analytical methods having application to immediate Laboratory or long-range commission needs; and fundamental research on isotopes, elements, and compounds. The work is reported on a project basis to give a more complete picture of the purpose, activity, and status of each program. More detailed information on reported or inactive projects may be obtained from the previous semiannual report.
Date: February 18, 1955
Creator: Keim, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Monte Carlo Estimation of the High Energy Neutron Flux Distribution in the ORNL Graphite Reactor

Description: The flux through a given region is proportional to the total lengths of the neutron flight paths that intersect that region. The analytical Monte Carlo procedure manufactured neutron flight paths and totaled the lengths of all paths intercepted by the regions illustrated in Figure 1. The procedure was designed to utilize the various symmetries in the lattice. / Consider a portion of the lattice whose planar cross-section is shown in Figure 5. If R is the region in which the flux is to be estimated and F the fuel rod in which the neutron originated, then flight path P results in an intercepted length whose reflection in the plane is L. On the other hand flight path P' intercepts R' with length L'. R' is not the region to be studied, but a translation of the flight path P' to F' would result in the neutron intercepting R. The origin in P was arbitrary. For each neutron originating in P another could, with equal probability, have originated in P' with parallel paths. Hence consulting L' in R' towards the total flux is equivalent to starting a neutron at P'. Thus consideration of all regions symmetric to R with respect to the fuel rod lattice is equivalent to originating neutrons at all rods and considering only their interceptions in R. / All neutrons are considering to originate in a plane disc at the center of a rod. Lengths of its flight path intercepted by a cylinder, parallel to the fuel rod, with radius equal to that of the region under investigation and whose length is the same as that of the fuel rod, are calculated. The same length is obtainable from parallel paths originating elsewhere in the fuel rod and passing through the specified region. / In summary, the general procedure …
Date: February 23, 1955
Creator: Moshman, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Mathematics Panel Semiannual Progress Report

Description: From July through December, a total of 1750 hr of computer time was used by programmers in "debugging" and in running problems. With the acquisition of a second operator, the evening shift was initiated. A night-shift operator is presently being trained, and third-shifts operations will probably begin after completion of the magnetic-tape memory. / Engineering time is regularly scheduled for 4 hr each morning and 1/2 hr late in the afternoon. An electronic technician is on duty during evening-shift operations. / Installations of the magnetic-tape memory units is complete, and the units are expected to go into operation in the near future. Work is continuing on the new input-output system.
Date: March 2, 1955
Creator: Householder, A. S. & Sangren, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Homogenous Reactor Project Quarterly Progress Report For Period Ending January 31, 1955

Description: The reactor equipment cell is expected to be completed by February 15. While filled with water, the tank was inspected for leaks, and the few leaks found will have been repaired by February 15. All orders for construction materials placed prior to this quarter have been received. New requisitions issued during the quarter total $16,000. Work orders were issued, and fabrication of all low-pressure-system components was begun in the ORNL shops. The thermal shield around the reactor vessel was specified as a 2-ft-thick cylindrical concrete wall. With this shield, the fast-neutron flux in the equipment area will be reduced to 7 x 109 neutrons/cm2/sec, the slow flux to 4 x 107 neutrons/cm2/sec, and the gamma intensity to less than 105 r/hr. The possible blast effects from a rupture of the pressure vessel were studied and are judged to be sufficient to justify the inclusion of a 1.5. to 2-in.-thick blast shield around the pressure vessel. The blast shield eliminates the danger of damaging the leak tight equipment-cell liner. Pressures in the reactor equipment cell, as a result of vessel failure, were calculated in order to arrive at a safe design pressure for the reactor equipment cell. For the case of instantaneous release of the core and pressure-vessel liquids and release of the heat-exchanger liquids through 6-in. steam lines, a maximum cell pressure of 29 psig is expected. A study was made of the problem of uranium peroxide precipitation at places where the reactor solution is cooled soon after leaving the reactor core. A curve is presented to show the temperatures, for various decay times, at which the peroxide might form.
Date: April 6, 1955
Creator: McDuffie, H. F. & Kelly, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analytical Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending April 20,1955

Description: The development of ionic methods for the determination of corrosion products in the highly radioactive Homogeneous Reactor (HR) fuels has been of major interest in the work of the Ionic Analyses Laboratory. Methods for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum and for the polarographic determination of iron in HR fuels have been developed. The polarographic determination of molybdenum in uranyl sulfate solutions was studied. A polarographic method for the determination of zinc was developed. A fluorometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of fluoride was studied. Three organic reagents were investigated as precipitants for microgram quantities of zirconium in HR fuel. The automatic photometric titration technique was applied to the determination of thorium and of sulfate. A method was developed for the ionexchange separation and potentiometric titration of cobalt. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of technetium and rhenium were studied.
Date: May 6, 1955
Creator: Kelley, M. T.; Susano, C. D. & Raaen, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Extraction and Recovery of Uranium (and Vanadium) from Acidic Liquors with DI (2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid and Some Other Organophosphorus Acids

Description: Bench scale studies have been made of the recovery of uranium from acid leach liquors (and slurries) by solvent extracting with di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid in an organic diluent. Uranium may be stripped from the organic solvent by either alkaline or acidic reagents, the former having been studied in greater detail. On the basis of these tests, a recovery process may be considered which shows promise both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Under proper conditions, vanadium can also be extracted by the di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and stripping again may be accomplished with either acidic or alkaline reagents. Preliminary studies have been made of these possibilities. In addition to di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, some other organophosphorus acids, have been cursorily examined in respect to their extraction and/or stripping performance.
Date: May 13, 1955
Creator: Blake, C. A.; Brown, K. B.; Coleman, C. F.; Horner, D. E. & Schmitt, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Chemical Separation of Isotopes Section Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending December 31, 1954

Description: New systems involving the exchange of boron between boron trifluoride and boron trifluoride addition compounds have been explored. These systems have large separation factors and potentially simple reflux mechanisms. A precise determination of this separation factor for the anisole-boron trifluoride system gave the value (see report). Boron exchange was found to occur between BF and BCl3. Several homogenous catalysts have been found which activate the hydrogen-water exchange, but none are adoptable to the production of deuterium because of the slow exchange rate. Platinum or platinum oxide may be usable as a heterogeneous catalyst with proper support or dispersion techniques. The high-pressure solubility of hydrogen in several amalgams was investigated in connection with a unique countercurrent exchange system. A proposed system involving isotopic exchange between lithium dipivaloylmethane in diethyl ether and lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution was shown to give little or no isotopic separation. Column studies of the carbonate system exchange reaction were concluded with a 40°C run. Slightly higher enrichment of N15 was obtained than at 30°C . The temperature dependence of all in this system was measured between 15 and 45°C. The factor increases with temperature, showing a tendency toward a maximum near 45°C. Isotopic exchange appears to be complete in less than 3 min. A qualitative examination was made of the carbonate system waste reflux reaction in laboratory equipment. No insurmountable difficulties are anticipated in connection with this reaction. The critical product-reflux reaction is being studied in pilot-scale equipment. Preliminary data are encouraging. Additional nitrogen exchange reactions have been studied to provide a broader basis for selecting a system for large-scale production of enriched nitrogen isotopes. A proposed system for enriching potassium isotopes was found to have a single stage separation factor of (see report). The single-stage fractionation factor between uranyl ion on Dowex 50 resin and …
Date: May 20, 1955
Creator: Clewett, G. H & Drury, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Interim Evaluation of the Fluorox Process for UF4 and UF6 Manufacture

Description: The conversion of UNH to UF4 and UF6, utilizing moving-bed techniques, is being studied; sufficient progress has been made that an evaluation of the process is warranted. The procedures under study, the Fluorox Process, have three major advantages: (1) substitution of HF for high-cost fluorine, (2) considerable reduction in HF requirements, and (3) marked reduction in plant-size and mechanical complexity.
Date: May 26, 1955
Creator: Moore, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Chemistry Division Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending June 20, 1955

Description: Continued work on the adsorbability of metal complexes from concentrated LiCl solutions and LiCl-HCl mixtures on a strong-base anion-exchange resin further demonstrated the much higher adsorbability of these complexes from LiCl solutions than from HCl solutions. The effect is believed to be due to the formation of less strongly adsorbed undissociated chloro-complex acids in the case of the HCl solutions.
Date: June 20, 1955
Creator: Taylor, E. H. & Bredig, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Electronuclear Research Division Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending March 20, 1955

Description: The ORNL 86-in. cyclotron is being modified to provide for deflection of the proton beam. It is expected that operation will be resumed late in the spring. Nuclear physics work was limited, for the most part, to interpretation of previously collected data and to making preparations for utilizing the deflected beam. It was found that for certain isotopes the production rates could be almost doubled by operating at a slightly reduced energy and a much larger current. With the use of the ORNL 63-in. cyclotron, the absolute values of the electron capture and loss cross sections for 26-Mev nitrogen ions were obtained. The angular distribution of the cross sections for elastic scattering of nitrogen by nitrogen was measured at energies from 13 to 22 Mev. A double-focusing 90-deg magnet is being planned for use in identifying stable reaction products from nitrogen-induced reactions. The major components of the revised 44-in. test cyclotron were assembled and are being tested. Consideration is being given to the use of these components, along with a new 20,000-oersted magnet and a shielded cyclotron room, and if the tests are satisfactory the Laboratory will have available a machine which will accelerate N5+ ions to 81 Mev.
Date: June 24, 1955
Creator: Livingston, Robert S. & Howard, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen