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Determination of statistically based design limits associated with engineering models.

Description: This report provides a usable reference of methods and procedures for the construction of both one-sided and two-sided ..gamma../P statistical tolerance limits for design application to both linear and nonlinear models in any number of variables.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Ginsburg, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of simulated thermal shield motion on nuclear instrument response: measurements and calculations

Description: An experiment has been performed to determine the effect of motion of a thermal shield on the neutron signal expected from ex-core detectors. Using a mockup of the LWBR reactor vessel, thermal shield, and core barrel in conjunction with a /sup 252/Cf neutron source, the change in detector signal with displacement of the various components was investigated. It was found that moving the thermal shield would produce a significant change in detector signal, although the effect was smaller than would be produced by moving the source and core barrel together. The results were substantiated by two-dimensional discrete-ordinate calculations.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Schick, W. C., Jr.; Emert, C. J.; Shure, K. & Natelson, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ex-reactor deformation of externally pressurized short lengths of fuel rod cladding.

Description: The DECAG (Deformation of Cladding into Axial Gaps) ex-reactor test program evaluated deformation of Zircaloy-4 cladding into axial gaps in tubular fuel elements. These axial gaps are the result of cladding elongation and fuel stack shrinkage. The test program consisted of twelve series and subseries of both fully recrystallized and stress-relieved highly cold worked tubing tested under pressure-temperature combinations in autoclaves. The test program also verified the validity of achieving test acceleration through the use of elevated temperatures by correlating both ovality and diameter change at lower temperatures with the Larson--Miller Parameter.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Selsley, I.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASBLT: a system of DATATRAN MODULES which process core fuel loading for use in as-built calculations

Description: ASBLT is a computer program consisting of DATATRAN MODULES which was used during the manufacturing phase of LWBR to collect and evaluate as-built data. The program was part of the LWBR fuel rod inspection process and produced sections of module assembly certification reports. ASBLT used fuel pellet, fuel rod and module assembly data to compute core inventories and to supply input to nuclear design programs for as-built core calculations.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Beaudoin, B.R.; Beggs, W.J.; Case, C.R. & Wilczynski, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion of Zircaloy-4 tubing in 68OF water

Description: Seamless Zircaloy-4 tubing is utilized as fuel rod cladding in light water reactors. Water corrosion tests at 68OF have been performed to determine the corrosion and hydriding characteristics of Zircaloy-4 tubing, fabricated by cold reduction and finished in two metallurgical conditions: a stress-relief anneal (SRA) and a recrystallization anneal (RXA). These corrosion tests revealed differences in the post-transition corrosion product weight gains of the two materials. A computer corrosion model, designated CHORT, was developed from the test data and ascribes the observed difference in material weight gain to an assumed difference in the periodicity of a postulated cyclic buckling of the oxide.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Marino, G.P. & Fischer, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical heat flux experiments with a local hot patch in an internally heated annulus

Description: Critical heat flux experiments were conducted for upflow of water in a vertical 84 inch annular flow channel, 0.303 inch heated I.D. and 0.500 inch unheated O.D. Test data were obtained at pressures from 1200 to 2000 psia, mass velocities from 0.25 x 10/sup 6/ to 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ lb/hr-ft/sup 2/ and inlet temperatures ranging from 200 to 600/sup 0/F. Three different test sections were employed with (1) axially uniform heat flux over the 84 inch length to serve as a no-hot-patch data base, (2) axially uniform heat flux over 82 inches with a 1.5 heat flux ratio hot patch over the last two inches, and (3) axially uniform heat flux over 82 inches with a 2.25 heat flux ratio hot patch over the last two inches.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Mortimore, E.P. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo simulation using the meter system with application related to LWBR

Description: METER is a Monte Carlo computer program which can be used to simulate the interaction between independent random variables and their effects on one or more dependent random variables. The program is easy to use for simple simulations but is capable of accommodating complex simulations. METER processes input, generates random numbers from several common frequency distributions under user control, performs the simulation which the user has coded in FORTRAN, and displays results.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Beaudoin, B. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Out-of-pile accelerated hydriding of Zircaloy fasteners

Description: Mechanical joints between Zircaloy and nickel-bearing alloys, mainly the Zircaloy-4/Inconel-600 combination, were exposed to water at 450/sup 0/F and 520/sup 0/F to study hydriding of Zircaloy in contact with a dissimilar metal. Accelerated hydriding of the Zircaloy occurred at both temperatures. At 450/sup 0/F the dissolved hydrogen level of the water was over ten times that at 520/sup 0/F. At 520/sup 0/F the initially high hydrogen ingress rate decreased rapidly as exposure time increased and was effectively shut off in about 25 days. Severely hydrided Zircaloy components successfully withstood thermal cycling and mechanical testing. Chromium plating of the nickel-bearing parts was found to be an effective and practical barrier in preventing nickel-alloy smearing and accelerated hydriding of Zircaloy.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Clayton, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of initial nuclear tests on LWBR

Description: This report presents and discusses the results of physics tests performed at beginning of life on the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). These tests have confirmed that movable seed assembly critical positions and reactivity worths, temperature coefficients, xenon transient characteristics, core symmetry, and core shutdown are within the range of values used in the design of the LWBR and its reactor protection analysis. Measured core physics parameters were found to be in good agreement with the calculated values.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Sarber, W. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor core.

Description: This report describes the operation of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during the LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) Core lifetime. It also summarizes the plant-oriented operations during the period preceding LWBR startup, which include the defueling of The Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 (PWR-2) and the installation of the LWBR Core, and the operations associated with the defueling of LWBR. The intent of this report is to examine LWBR experience in retrospect and present pertinent and significant aspects of LWBR operations that relate primarily to the nuclear portion of the Station. The nonnuclear portion of the Station is discussed only as it relates to overall plant operation or to unusual problems which result from the use of conventional equipment in radioactive environments. 30 refs., 69 figs., 27 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Budd, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the hydraulic evaluation of LWBR

Description: The principal hydraulic performance features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor are summarized in this report. The calculational models and procedures used for prediction of reactor flow and pressure distributions under steady-state and transient operating conditions are described. Likewise, the analysis models for evaluation of the static and dynamic performance characteristics of the hydraulically-balanced and hydraulically-buffered movable-fuel reactivity-control system are outlined. An extensive test program was conducted for qualification of the subject LWBR hydraulic evaluation models. The projected LWBR hydraulic performance is shown to fulfill design objectives and functional requirements.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Stout, J.W.; Lerner, S.; McWilliams, K.D. & Turner, J.R. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thoria powder process development

Description: The development program to identify the critical parameters for the process of converting thorium nitrate solution into thoria powder is described. Thorium oxalate hexahydrate is precipitated from the reaction of thorium nitrate solution with oxalic acid. The resulting thorium oxalate hexahydrate slurry is filter pressed into a cake which is air calcined to form thoria powder. Changes in the critical processing parameters such as free nitric acid content of the thorium nitrate solution, precipitation temperature, and calcining temperature altered the thoria powder characteristics, and thus its capability for being fabricated into fuel pellets. The objective of the powder preparation effort was to obtain thoria powders which could be formed by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques into thoria and thoria-urania pellets of high density and high integrity having a nearly uniform large grain structure.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Hutchison, C.R. & Lloyd, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water cooled breeder program summary report

Description: The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.
Date: October 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Densification related pellet diameter shrinkage in low burnup thoria-base fuels

Description: In-reactor densification of ThO/sub 2/ and ThO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel of low burnup and low power operation (hence low temperature) was assessed by measuring fuel pellet diameter changes. Pellet diameter changes ranged from nil in a large grain, low temperature thoria pellet (98.9 percent theoretical density) to -1.06 percent in a small grain, moderate temperature ThO/sub 2/-30 w/o UO/sub 2/ pellet (93.8 percent theoretical density). A correlation was established between quantity of small pores (<2.3 ..mu..m diameter) and as-fabricated fuel grain size. An empirical equation, based on densification (pore closure) plus fuel swelling, was formulated for pellet diameter change as a function of initial grain size and fuel burnup.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Spahr, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and control of the process for the manufacture of zircaloy-4 tubing for LWBR fuel rods

Description: The technical requirements for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel elements (fuel rods) imposed certain unique requirements for the low hafnium Zircaloy-4 tubing used as fuel rod cladding. This report describes, in detail, the tube manufacturing process, the product and process controls used, the inspections and tests performed, and the efforts involved in refining a commercial tube reducing process to produce tubes that would satisfy the requirements for LWBR fuel rod cladding.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Eyler, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

End-of-life destructive examination of light water breeder reactor fuel rods

Description: Destructive examination of 12 representative Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods was performed following successful operation in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station for 29,047 effective full power hours, about five years. Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods were unique in that the thorium oxide and uranium-233 oxide fuel was contained within Zircaloy-4 cladding. Destructive examinations included analysis of released fission gas; chemical analysis of the fuel to determine depletion, iodine, and cesium levels; chemical analysis of the cladding to determine hydrogen, iodine, and cesium levels; metallographic examination of the cladding, fuel, and other rod components to determine microstructural features and cladding corrosion features; and tensile testing of the irradiated cladding to determine mechanical strength. The examinations confirmed that Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rod performance was excellent. No evidence of fuel rod failure was observed, and the fuel operating temperature was low (below 2580/sup 0/F at which an increased percentage of fission gas is released). 21 refs., 80 figs., 20 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Richardson, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission gas release from ThO/sub 2/ and ThO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuels

Description: Fission gas release data are presented from 51 fuel rods irradiated as part of the LWBR irradiations test program. The fuel rods were Zircaloy-4 clad and contained ThO/sub 2/ or ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel pellets, with UO/sub 2/ compositions ranging from 2.0 to 24.7 weight percent and fuel densities ranging from 77.8 to 98.7 percent of theoretical. Rod diameters ranged from 0.25 to 0.71 inches and fuel active lengths ranged from 3 to 84 inches. Peak linear power outputs ranged from 2 to 22 kw/ft for peak fuel burnups up to 56,000 MWD/MTM. Measured fission gas release was quite low, ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 percent. Fission gas release was higher at higher temperature and burnup and was lower at higher initial fuel density. No sensitivity to UO/sub 2/ composition was evidenced.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Goldberg, I.; Spahr, G.L.; White, L.S.; Waldman, L.A.; Giovengo, J.F.; Pfennigwerth, P.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLASH-6: simulation of top injection emergency core cooling heat transfer tests

Description: Data from top injection ECCS tests conducted at Columbia University have been analyzed as part of an effort to qualify the FLASH-6 computer program for performing post-blowdown heat transfer calculations for the LWBR Safety Analysis. These experiments, which employed a full-scale fuel assembly with electrical heater rods to simulate an inlet rupture for a pressurized water reactor, provided test conditions and rod cooling mechanisms quite similar to those encountered in the postulated LWBR cold leg break loss-of-coolant accident. Clad temperature predictions were obtained using both the modified Dittus-Boelter and the Dougall-Rohsenow correlations to evaluate beyond CHF heat transfer coefficients. Overall comparisons using the FLASH calculated flow rates indicated that the rod temperature calculations were conservative using either of the heat transfer correlations because virtually none of the coolant was calculated to penetrate the heated test assembly. Heat transfer model comparisons were also performed by adjusting the calculation so that coolant was injected directly into the top of the rod bundle to simulate the experimentally observed flow conditions. Once this downflow was forced, conservative temperature predictions were obtained using the Dougall-Rohsenow correlation, whereas the modified Dittus-Boelter beyond CHF option yielded non-conservative results.
Date: May 1, 1977
Creator: Lincoln, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel rod-grid interaction wear: in-reactor tests

Description: Wear of the Zircaloy cladding of LWBR irradiation test fuel rods, resulting from relative motion between rod and rod support contacts, is reported. Measured wear depths were small, 0.0 to 2.7 mils, but are important in fuel element behavior assessment because of the local loss of cladding thickness, as well as the effect on grid spring forces that laterally restrain the rods. An empirical wear analysis model, based on out-of-pile tests, is presented. The model was used to calculate the wear on the irradiation test fuel rods attributed to a combination of up-and-down motions resulting from power and pressure/temperature cycling of the test reactor, flow-induced vibrations, and assembly handling scratches. The calculated depths are generally deeper than the measured depths.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Stackhouse, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for assessing homogeneity in ThO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuels

Description: ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ solid solutions fabricated as LWBR fuel pellets are examined for uniform uranium distribution by means of autoradiography. Kodak NTA plates are used. Images of inhomogeneities are 29 +- 10 microns larger in diameter than the high-urania segregations that caused them, due to the range of alpha particles in the emulsion, and an appropriate correction must be made. Photographic density is approximately linear with urania content in the region between underexposure and overexposure, but the slope of the calibration curve varies with aging and growth of alpha activity from the parasitic /sup 232/U and its decomposition products. A calibration must therefore be performed using two known points--the average photographic density (corresponding to the average composition) and an extrapolated background (corresponding to zero urania). As part of production pellet inspection, plates are evaluated by inspectors, who count segregations by size classes. This is supplemented by microdensitometer scans of the autoradiograph and by electron probe studies of the original sample if apparent homogeneity is marginal.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Berman, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLASH6 simulation of semiscale blowdown data, NRC Standard Problems 2 and 3

Description: FLASH6 computer program calculations are compared with experimental data from two simulated loss-of-coolant accident blowdown tests which are designated as numbers 2 and 3 in the Standard problem Series sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for reactor safety assessment. Both tests are isothermal blowdowns smulating a double-ended, cold-leg break and were conducted in the electrically-heated, 1-1/2 Loop Semiscale System at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The blowdown tests were initiated at nominal conditions of 575/sup 0/F, 2250 psia and 17.3 lbm/sec loop flow rate.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Harris, B.D.; Prelewicz, D.A. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review

Description: Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Clayton, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forces in bolted joints: analysis methods and test results utilized for nuclear core applications

Description: Analytical methods and test data employed in the core design of bolted joints for the LWBR core are presented. The effects of external working loads, thermal expansion, and material stress relaxation are considered in the formulation developed to analyze joint performance. Extensions of these methods are also provided for bolted joints having both axial and bending flexibilities, and for the effect of plastic deformation on internal forces developed in a bolted joint. Design applications are illustrated by examples.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Crescimanno, P.J. & Keller, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station

Description: This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Massimino, R.J. & Williams, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department