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Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station

Description: This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Massimino, R.J. & Williams, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of several hydraulic tests in support of the light water breeder reactor design

Description: As part of the Light Water Breeder Reactor development program, hydraulic tests of reactor components were performed. This report presents the results of several of those tests performed for components which are somewhat unique in their application to a pressurized water reactor design. The components tested include: triplate orifices used for flow distribution purposes, multiventuri type flowmeters, tight lattice triangular pitch rod support grids, fuel rod end support plates, and the balance piston which is a major component of the movable fuel balancing system. Test results include component pressure loss coefficients, flowmeter coefficients and fuel rod region pressure drop characteristics.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: McWilliams, K.D. & Turner, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of initial nuclear tests on LWBR

Description: This report presents and discusses the results of physics tests performed at beginning of life on the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). These tests have confirmed that movable seed assembly critical positions and reactivity worths, temperature coefficients, xenon transient characteristics, core symmetry, and core shutdown are within the range of values used in the design of the LWBR and its reactor protection analysis. Measured core physics parameters were found to be in good agreement with the calculated values.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Sarber, W. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AIRWAY: a fortran computer program to estimate radiation dose commitments to man from the atmospheric release of radionuclides

Description: The AIRWAY computer program was developed to estimate the radiation dose commitments accured by all the people affected by the atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear facility. This computer program provides dose commitment estimates for people on the boundary of the facility, in the immediate vicinity (i.e., within 80 to 100 km) and in the portios of the world beyond the immediate vicinity which are affected by the release. The AIRWAY program considers dose commitments resulting from immersion in the atmosphere containing the released radionuclides, ingestion of contaminated food, inhalation of gaseous and suspended radioactivity, and exposure to ground deposits. The dose commitments for each of these pathways is explicitly calculated for each radionuclide released into the atmosphere and for each daughter of each released radionuclide. This is accomplished by calculating the air and ground concentrations of each daughter in each of the regions of interest using the release rate of the parent radionuclide. The AIRWAY computer program is considered to be a significant improvement over other programs in which the effect of daughter radionuclides must be approximated by separate releases.
Date: June 1979
Creator: Rider, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model to estimate radiation dose commitments to the world population from the atmospheric release of radionuclides

Description: The equations developed for use in the LWBR environmental statement to estimate the dose commitment over a given time interval to a given organ of the population in the entire region affected by the atmospheric releases of a radionuclide are presented and may be used for any assessment of dose commitments in these regions. These equations define the dose commitments to the world resulting from a released radionuclide and each of its daughters and the sum of these dose commitments provides the total dose commitment accrued from the release of a given radionuclide. If more than one radionuclide is released from a facility, then the sum of the dose commitments from each released nuclide and from each daughter of each released nuclide is the total dose commitment to the world from that facility. Furthermore, if more than one facility is considered as part of an industry, then the sum of the dose commitments from the individual facilities represents the total world dose commitment associated with that industry. The actual solutions to these equations are carried out by the AIRWAY computer program. The writing of this computer program entailed defining in detail the specific representations of the various parameters such as scavenging coefficients, resuspension factors, deposition velocities, dose commitment conversion factors, and food uptake factors, in addition to providing specific numerical values for these types of parameters. The program permits the examination of more than one released nuclide at a time and performs the necessary summing to obtain the total dose commitment to the world accrued from the specified releases.
Date: February 1978
Creator: Rider, J.L. & Beal, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cladding corrosion and hydriding in irradiated defected zircaloy fuel rods

Description: Twenty-one LWBR irradiation test rods containing ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel and Zircaloy cladding with holes or cracks operated successfully. Zircaloy cladding corrosion on the inside and outside diameter surfaces and hydrogen pickup in the cladding were measured. The observed outer surface Zircaloy cladding corrosion oxide thicknesses of the test rods were similar to thicknesses measured for nondefected irradiation test rods. An analysis model, which was developed to calculate outer surface oxide thickness of non-defected rods, gave results which were in reasonable agreement with the outer surface oxide thicknesses of defected rods. When the analysis procedure was modified to account for additional corrosion proportional to fission rate and to time, the calculated values agreed well with measured inner oxide corrosion film values. Hydrogen pickup in the defected rods was not directly proportional to local corrosion oxide weight gain as was the case for non-defected rods. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Clayton, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Susceptibility of unirradiated recrystallized Zircaloy-4 tubing to stress corrosion cracking

Description: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in unirradiated recrystallized Zircaloy-4 internally pressurized tubing specimens in atmospheres containing iodine vapor, cesium, or combinations of iodine and cesium is evaluated experimentally in terms of the effects of internal surface flaw morphology, iodine and cesium concentrations, tubing hydrogen content, test temperature, and test atmosphere water vapor content on the time to failure. The iodine vapor SCC data are analyzed in the framework of a fracture mechanics model. Expressions are developed which relate the iodine SCC threshold stress and lifetime for stresses above threshold to temperature, iodine concentration, and surface flaw geometry.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Polan, N. W. & Tucker, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low strain diameter expansion of internally pressurized Zircaloy-4 tubing at high temperatures

Description: Tests of closed-end, internally pressurized, Zircaloy-4 tubing specimens were utilized to develop low strain creep characteristics as a function of time at temperatures in the range of 1475/sup 0/F to 2000/sup 0/F (802/sup 0/C to 1093/sup 0/C) and hoop stresses in the range of 250 to 2500 psi for use in loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) analyses. The strain rate above the start of the alpha to beta phase transformation region, approximately 1490/sup 0/F (810/sup 0/C), was found to be sensitive to the test procedure (stress-temperature history). This is believed to result from variations in the metallurgical structure. A prediction model is presented which provides a conservative upper bound to the low strain test data provided in this report and reported in the literature.
Date: March 1978
Creator: White, L.S. & Busby, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of statistically based design limits associated with engineering models.

Description: This report provides a usable reference of methods and procedures for the construction of both one-sided and two-sided ..gamma../P statistical tolerance limits for design application to both linear and nonlinear models in any number of variables.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Ginsburg, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thoria powder process development

Description: The development program to identify the critical parameters for the process of converting thorium nitrate solution into thoria powder is described. Thorium oxalate hexahydrate is precipitated from the reaction of thorium nitrate solution with oxalic acid. The resulting thorium oxalate hexahydrate slurry is filter pressed into a cake which is air calcined to form thoria powder. Changes in the critical processing parameters such as free nitric acid content of the thorium nitrate solution, precipitation temperature, and calcining temperature altered the thoria powder characteristics, and thus its capability for being fabricated into fuel pellets. The objective of the powder preparation effort was to obtain thoria powders which could be formed by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques into thoria and thoria-urania pellets of high density and high integrity having a nearly uniform large grain structure.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Hutchison, C.R. & Lloyd, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel rod-grid interaction wear: in-reactor tests

Description: Wear of the Zircaloy cladding of LWBR irradiation test fuel rods, resulting from relative motion between rod and rod support contacts, is reported. Measured wear depths were small, 0.0 to 2.7 mils, but are important in fuel element behavior assessment because of the local loss of cladding thickness, as well as the effect on grid spring forces that laterally restrain the rods. An empirical wear analysis model, based on out-of-pile tests, is presented. The model was used to calculate the wear on the irradiation test fuel rods attributed to a combination of up-and-down motions resulting from power and pressure/temperature cycling of the test reactor, flow-induced vibrations, and assembly handling scratches. The calculated depths are generally deeper than the measured depths.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Stackhouse, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model for incorporating fuel swelling and clad shrinkage effects in diffusion theory calculations

Description: A model has been devised for incorporating into the thermal feedback procedure of the PDQ few-group diffusion theory computer program the explicit calculation of depletion and temperature dependent fuel-rod shrinkage and swelling at each mesh point. The model determines the effect on reactivity of the change in hydrogen concentration caused by the variation in coolant channel area as the rods contract and expand. The calculation of fuel temperature, and hence of Doppler-broadened cross sections, is improved by correcting the heat transfer coefficient of the fuel-clad gap for the effects of clad creep, fuel densification and swelling, and release of fission-product gases into the gap. An approximate calculation of clad stress is also included in the model.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Schick, W.C. Jr.; Milani, S. & Duncombe, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Out-of-pile accelerated hydriding of Zircaloy fasteners

Description: Mechanical joints between Zircaloy and nickel-bearing alloys, mainly the Zircaloy-4/Inconel-600 combination, were exposed to water at 450/sup 0/F and 520/sup 0/F to study hydriding of Zircaloy in contact with a dissimilar metal. Accelerated hydriding of the Zircaloy occurred at both temperatures. At 450/sup 0/F the dissolved hydrogen level of the water was over ten times that at 520/sup 0/F. At 520/sup 0/F the initially high hydrogen ingress rate decreased rapidly as exposure time increased and was effectively shut off in about 25 days. Severely hydrided Zircaloy components successfully withstood thermal cycling and mechanical testing. Chromium plating of the nickel-bearing parts was found to be an effective and practical barrier in preventing nickel-alloy smearing and accelerated hydriding of Zircaloy.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Clayton, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

End-of-life destructive examination of light water breeder reactor fuel rods

Description: Destructive examination of 12 representative Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods was performed following successful operation in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station for 29,047 effective full power hours, about five years. Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods were unique in that the thorium oxide and uranium-233 oxide fuel was contained within Zircaloy-4 cladding. Destructive examinations included analysis of released fission gas; chemical analysis of the fuel to determine depletion, iodine, and cesium levels; chemical analysis of the cladding to determine hydrogen, iodine, and cesium levels; metallographic examination of the cladding, fuel, and other rod components to determine microstructural features and cladding corrosion features; and tensile testing of the irradiated cladding to determine mechanical strength. The examinations confirmed that Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rod performance was excellent. No evidence of fuel rod failure was observed, and the fuel operating temperature was low (below 2580/sup 0/F at which an increased percentage of fission gas is released). 21 refs., 80 figs., 20 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Richardson, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Out-of-pile hydriding and thermal relaxation of reactor fasteners using Zircaloy components: the REM-120 test.

Description: Six different fastened joints representing the various combinations of materials in contact with Zircaloy in the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) were tested in 520/sup 0/F water for 60 days to determine the out-of-pile hydriding tendencies of the Zircaloy components in the joints. No evidence of massive, accelerated hydriding was found in this test although other testing has shown that local hydriding can occur in one of the fasteners. The same six fastener designs were tested in 600/sup 0/F water for 60 days to assess their load retention capability (thermal relaxation). The measured relaxation of these fasteners confirmed the predicted values for the conditions of the test.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Duenkel, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLASH6 simulation of semiscale blowdown data, NRC Standard Problems 2 and 3

Description: FLASH6 computer program calculations are compared with experimental data from two simulated loss-of-coolant accident blowdown tests which are designated as numbers 2 and 3 in the Standard problem Series sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for reactor safety assessment. Both tests are isothermal blowdowns smulating a double-ended, cold-leg break and were conducted in the electrically-heated, 1-1/2 Loop Semiscale System at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The blowdown tests were initiated at nominal conditions of 575/sup 0/F, 2250 psia and 17.3 lbm/sec loop flow rate.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Harris, B.D.; Prelewicz, D.A. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor core.

Description: This report describes the operation of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during the LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) Core lifetime. It also summarizes the plant-oriented operations during the period preceding LWBR startup, which include the defueling of The Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 (PWR-2) and the installation of the LWBR Core, and the operations associated with the defueling of LWBR. The intent of this report is to examine LWBR experience in retrospect and present pertinent and significant aspects of LWBR operations that relate primarily to the nuclear portion of the Station. The nonnuclear portion of the Station is discussed only as it relates to overall plant operation or to unusual problems which result from the use of conventional equipment in radioactive environments. 30 refs., 69 figs., 27 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Budd, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ex-reactor deformation of externally pressurized short lengths of fuel rod cladding.

Description: The DECAG (Deformation of Cladding into Axial Gaps) ex-reactor test program evaluated deformation of Zircaloy-4 cladding into axial gaps in tubular fuel elements. These axial gaps are the result of cladding elongation and fuel stack shrinkage. The test program consisted of twelve series and subseries of both fully recrystallized and stress-relieved highly cold worked tubing tested under pressure-temperature combinations in autoclaves. The test program also verified the validity of achieving test acceleration through the use of elevated temperatures by correlating both ovality and diameter change at lower temperatures with the Larson--Miller Parameter.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Selsley, I.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of simulated thermal shield motion on nuclear instrument response: measurements and calculations

Description: An experiment has been performed to determine the effect of motion of a thermal shield on the neutron signal expected from ex-core detectors. Using a mockup of the LWBR reactor vessel, thermal shield, and core barrel in conjunction with a /sup 252/Cf neutron source, the change in detector signal with displacement of the various components was investigated. It was found that moving the thermal shield would produce a significant change in detector signal, although the effect was smaller than would be produced by moving the source and core barrel together. The results were substantiated by two-dimensional discrete-ordinate calculations.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Schick, W. C., Jr.; Emert, C. J.; Shure, K. & Natelson, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review

Description: Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Clayton, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iodine and cesium in oxide fuel pellets and zircaloy-4 cladding of irradiated fuel rods

Description: Measurements of fission product iodine and cesium are reported for thoria and binary (ThO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/) fuels with various irradiation histories. These volatile fission products were measured on the cladding surface or in the fuel by using specially developed radiochemical techniques. The radiochemical iodine measurements are found to be in general agreement with a theoretical iodine release model for irradiated fuel. Microprobe examinations of irradiated fuel rod cladding sections show fission product cesium to be located preferentially at the pellet to pellet interface region. Fission product iodine was detected in the interface region of one sample but generally remained below the microprobe limit of detection. 18 figures, 7 tables.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Ivak, D.M. & Waldman, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sources of internal hydriding in unirradiated thoria-fueled Zircaloy rods

Description: The low-temperature (less than or equal to 550/sup 0/C), low-pressure (less than or equal to 36 torr) hydrogen absorption characteristics of specific types of Zircaloy-4 internal cladding surfaces (pickled, machined and welded) were investigated. The highest hydrogen contents were found at the machined and abraded surfaces. Although the pickled surface film on Zircaloy-4 retarded hydrogen pickup, especially at lower temperatures (less than or equal to 400/sup 0/C) and very low hydrogen pressures (less than or equal to 3.5 torr), some hydrogen was absorbed through the film even under these conditions. More hydrogen penetrated the pickled surfaces at higher temperatures and pressures. The pickled surfaces absorbed the hydrogen uniformly and without localization even with some film imperfections present. Little hydriding occurred when etched and welded Zircaloy-4 surfaces were exposed to water vapor at corrosion temperatures.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Clayton, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department