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Duration of Hydrothermal Activity at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, From Ages of Spatially Associated Volcanic Rocks

Description: Abstract: Steamboat Springs is a presently active equivalent of epithermal gold-silver ore-forming systems. Hot-spring sinter deposits contain small amounts of gold, silver, mercury, antimony, and arsenic. Hot-spring activity probably started before extrusion of the basaltic andesite of Steamboat Springs. Old sinter from the Steamboat Springs system occurs in gravels above and below the basaltic andesite. Intense hydrothermal alteration, including almost complete replacement by hydrothermal potassium-feldspar, has affected the basaltic andesite. Three plagioclase separates of differing potassium content from fresh basaltic andesite yielded potassium-argon ages of 2.52 to 2.55 m.y. Basaltic andesite almost completely replaced by potassium-feldspar yielded an age of 1.1 m.y. The source of energy for the thermal convection system is probably a large rhyolitic magma chamber that supplied the pumice and from which the rhyolite domes were emplaced. Sanidine and obsidian from four of the rhyolite domes yielded potassium-argon ages of 1.15 to 1.52 m.y. and obsidian from one of the northeastern domes yielded apparent ages of 2.97 and 3.03 m.y. The data indicate that hydrothermal activity has occurred at Steamboat Springs, possibly intermittently, for more than 2-1/2 m.y. These data agree with other radiogenic age studies indicating 1- and 2-m.y. lifetimes for the hydrothermal systems that generate epithermal gold-silver deposits.
Date: 1979
Creator: Silberman, M. L.; White, D. E.; Keith, T. E. C. & Dockter, R. D.
Location: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geology of the Kettleman Hills Oil Field, California: Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Structure

Description: From Introduction: The field work that furnished the basis for this report was begun in 1930 and was continued at intervals until 1934. The anticlinal character of the Kettleman Hills is apparent to even the casual observer, but the many structural complications due to an intricate network of minor faults, at least in North Dome and Middle Dome, are much less obvious. Though it is improbable that these faults have any relation to the occurrence of oil, an attempt was made to map them, not only to represent the structure adequately but also because the stratigraphy could not be understood if they were neglected. Faunal zones were particularly useful in mapping. On the other hand, some lithologic units proved to be more persistent than had been expected. The two sets of features-fossils and lithology-served as checks on each other.
Date: 1940
Creator: Woodring, W. P.; Stewart, Ralph & Richards, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mollusca From the Miocene and Lower Pliocene of Virginia and North Carolina: Part 2. Scaphopoda and Gastropoda

Description: Introduction: Part 2 of the Systematic Report continues and concludes the study of the Mollusca from the Miocene and lower Pliocene of Virginia and North Carolina. One hundred and nineteen species, only a fraction of the known fauna, are reviewed and 66 additional species are described and figured. (See faunal chart, pp. 180-183.) The report upon the gastropods suffers from the same shortcomings obvious in the work on the pelecypods. Most of the material is from old collections made before the importance of the exact placing of the fossil locality both areally and vertically was recognized. Many of the citations of outcrops are vague and the sections generalized. Detailed field studies, particularly on the zoning of the Yorktown formation in southern Virginia and northern North Carolina, were begun later by Wendell P. Mansfield, but he died in the summer of 1939 before the completion of the work.
Date: 1948
Creator: Gardner, Julia Anna & Mansfield, Wendell C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Foraminifera From the Northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

Description: From introduction: This report deals with the stratigraphic and ecologic significance of Foraminifera contained in a Tertiary sequence that crops out in the northern part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash. (pl. 1). The work was done as a part of a program of geologic investigations for oil and gas possibilities conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey.
Date: 1964
Creator: Rau, Weldon W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Bannock Thrust Zone Southeastern Idaho

Description: Abstract: The Bannock overthrust in southeastern Idaho and northcentral Utah was originally described by Richards and Mansfield (1912) as a single large thrust fault that formed at the close of the Laramide orogeny and was folded by renewed compression near the end of Pliocene time. Later Mansfield expanded and revised his interpretation of the Bannock overthrust so that at least the northern part of the overthrust was thought to be a thrust zone in which the individual faults originated in a folded sole thrust. Detailed mapping in areas critical to Richards and Mansfield's interpretations has shown that the faults thought by them to be parts of one large thrust are separate faults, and that, although some of the thrust surfaces are curved, they were not folded in Pliocene time but probably were folded during a late stage of the thrusting. Extensions of the Bannock thrust to the north, south, east, and west based upon extrapolation of a single large folded thrust surface are not warranted. The Bannock overthrust is reinterpreted as a westward-dipping imbricate thrust zone possibly several tens of miles wide extending at least from southwestern Montana to north-central Utah. It is recommended that the name "Bannock overthrust" no longer be used, and that this zone of imbricate thrusts in the southeast corner of Idaho be called the Bannock thrust zone. The thrusts range in age from Late Jurassic to post- Early Cretaceous and are progressively younger from west to east; strong regional compressive forces do not appear to have been active in the area as late as Pliocene time. The upper plates of the thrusts moved to the northeast in response to an unknown force. Steep eastward-trending tear faults formed during thrusting probably in response to differential movement among the eastward-moving thrust plates. In Tertiary and Quaternary time …
Date: 1963
Creator: Armstrong, Frank C. & Cressman, Earle Rupert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geology of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico

Description: From introduction: The present investigation is an attempt, by means of detailed areal mapping, to resolve the relations of the shelf-rock units to one another and to the reef and basin rocks and to clarify the confusing stratigraphic nomenclature.
Date: 1964
Creator: Hayes, Philip Thayer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geology of the Hot Sulphur Springs quadrangle, Grand County, Colorado

Description: Scope and Purpose of Work: The quadrangle was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey program of classifying and evaluating lands in the Public Domain. Mineral rights for coal had been retained in parts or all of Tps. 2 and 3 N., Rs. 77, 78, and 79 W. These areas are in part underlain by sedimentary rocks of Late Cretaceous(?) and early Tertiary age (Middle Park Formation), and in North Park these rocks are called the Coalmont Formation and contain coal. The chief purpose of the work was to map and study any coal beds found and to make a detailed geologic map that can be used as part of a geological atlas of the United States.
Date: 1968
Creator: Izett, Glen Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Descriptive Catalog of Selected Aerial Photographs of Geologic Features in Areas Outside the United States

Description: From introduction: The U.S. Geological Survey has selected and assembled 67 sets of aerial photographs that illustrate a variety of geologic features in Antarctica, South and Central America, the southwest Pacific, Iran, Japan, the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, and mainland China. Contact prints of the photographs composing these sets are available for purchase. Sets of photographs of geologic features in the United States and Puerto Rico are listed in a separate catalog (Denny, C. S., and others, 1968, A descriptive catalog of selected aerial photographs of geologic features in the United States: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 590).
Date: 1969
Creator: Warren, Charles R.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Denny, Charles Storrow & Dale, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Postglacial Volcanic Deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and Potential Hazards From Future Eruptions

Description: Abstract: Eruptions and other geologic events at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, especially the valleys that head on the south and east sides of the volcano. Small volumes of tephra were erupted at least four times during the past 10,000 years. Future eruptions like these could cause as much as 35 centimeters of tephra to be deposited at sites 17 kilometers from the volcano, 15 centimeters of tephra to be deposited 29 kilometers from the volcano, and 5 centimeters, 44 kilometers from the volcano. Lava flows were erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years and moved down two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because lava typically moves so slowly that escape is possible. Hot pyroclastic flows evidently occurred during only one period and were confined to the Boulder Creek valley. Such flows can move at speeds of as much as 150 kilometers per hour and can bury valley floors under tens of meters of hot rock debris for at least 15 kilometers from the volcano. Large mudflows, most of which contain hydrothermally altered rock debris, originated at Mount Baker at least eight times during the last 10,000 years. The largest mudflow reached 29 kilometers or more down the valley of the Middle Fork Nooksack River, west of the volcano, about 6,000 years ago. Extensive masses of hydrothermally altered rock that are potentially unstable exist today near the summit of the volcano, especially in the Sherman Crater-Sherman Peak area. Avalanches of this material could be triggered by stream explosions, earthquakes, or eruptions, or may occur because of slow-acting forces or processes that gradually decrease stability. Large avalanches could move downslope at high speed and could grade downvalley into mudflows. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice …
Date: 1978
Creator: Hyde, Jack H. & Crandell, Dwight Raymond
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mollusca From the Miocene and Lower Pliocene of Virginia and North Carolina: Part 1. Pelecypoda

Description: Abstract: A brief sketch of the stratigraphy of the Miocene of Virginia and the Miocene and Pliocene of North Carolina was prepared by Dr. W. C. Mansfield before his death in July 1939. His purpose was "to provide a background of formational nomenclature" for the taxonomic treatment of the molluscan faunas. The physical nature and distribution of the upper Tertiary formations within those States are discussed, characteristic sections given, and diagnostic molluscan species listed. Part 1 of the systematic report covers the Pelecypoda. A monographic treatment is not attempted, but 132 previously known species are considered, and 62 new species and subspecies are described and figured.
Date: 1943
Creator: Gardner, Julia Anna
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stratigraphy of the Pierre Shale, Valley City and Pembina Mountain Areas, North Dakota

Description: From abstract: Reconnaissance examination of widely scattered outcrops of Upper Cretaceous rocks in the heavily glaciated areas of eastern North Dakota provides the basis for the first formal subdivision of the Pierre Shale in these areas.
Date: 1965
Creator: Gill, James R. & Cobban, William Aubrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stratigraphy and Microfaunas of the Oquirrh Group in the Southern East Tintic Mountains, Utah

Description: Abstract: The Oquirrh Group of Pennsylvanian and Permian age in the southern East Tintic Mountains, Utah, is more than 15,000 feet (4,572 m) thick and consists of an incomplete section of the West Canyon Limestone (Morrowan) 960 feet (293 m) thick, a nearly complete section of the Butterfield Peaks Formation (Atokan(?) and Des Moinesian) about 5,800 feet (1,768 m) thick, a complete section of the Bingham Mine Formation (Missourian) 3,200-3,400 feet thick (975-1,036 m), and a complete section of the newly named Furner Valley Limestone (Missourian to Wolfcampian) 5,000-6,000 feet (1,524-1,829 m) thick. The formations below the Furner Valley Limestone are generally similar to their counterparts in their type areas in the central and southern Oquirrh Mountains but are somewhat thinner and less arenaceous. The Furner Valley Limestone, more than 90 percent carbonate, is apparently unique. Strata of the same age in the Wasatch, Stansbury, Cedar, Hogup, and Promontory Mountains in Utah are all considerably arenaceous; in the southern Oquirrh Mountains in the upper plate of the Midas thrust fault they have been largely removed by erosion. The Oquirrh Group in the East Tintic Mountains is overlain by the Diamond Creek Sandstone; the latter, in turn, is overlain by the Park City Formation. No units lithologically resembling the Kirkman Limestone of the Wasatch Mountains are recognized. Fusulinids are common in the Butterfield Peaks and Bingham Mine Formations and are present throughout the Furner Valley Limestone. The faunas are comparable to those of the Oquirrh Group in the Oquirrh and Cedar Mountains to the west and in the Wasatch Mountains to the east.
Date: 1977
Creator: Morris, H. T.; Douglass, Raymond C. & Kopf, Rudolph W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Jurassic (Bathonian and Callovian) Ammonites in Eastern Oregon and Western Idaho

Description: From abstract: Jurassic ammonites of late Bathonian to middle Callovian Age have been found in 12,000-13,000 feet (3,660-3,960 m) of strata exposed in the area near and south of Izee and Seneca in east-central Oregon. Ammonites of early Callovian Age and possibly also late Bathonian Age occur in several hundred feet of black shale exposed along Dennett Creek near Mineral, Idaho. Early Callovian ammonites also occur in similar black shale exposed on the Oregon side of Snake River Canyon about 32 miles (52 km) south of the northeast corner of Oregon.
Date: 1981
Creator: Imlay, Ralph W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geology and Ore Deposits of the Picher Field, Oklahoma and Kansas

Description: From Purpose and Scope of Report: This report presents a detailed description of the ore deposits of the Picher field and all phases of geology having a bearing on their localization, origin, and the search for them. It is based mainly on work done by the U.S. Geological Survey, but it also incorporates pertinent data from published literature, especially from the outstanding work of George M. Fowler and associates, and some unpublished data obtained from the geologic staffs of the mining companies.
Date: 1970
Creator: McKnight, Edwin Thor & Fischer, Richard P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary Report on the Ketchikan Mining District, Alaska, with an Introductory Sketch of the Geology of Southeastern Alaska

Description: From introduction: Since 1898 the United States Geological Survey has been carrying on a systematic investigation of the mineral resources of Alaska.As the northern mining districts of southeastern Alaska had already been the subject of an investigation by Dr. Becker in 1895,a and as the Ketchikan district was being rapidly developed, it was decided to spend the greater part of the short season in the Ketchikan district and in the fall to make a more hasty reconnaissance of the northern belt, in order to obtain a general familiarity with the region and, if possible, to establish some correlations. This plan was carried out, and the results of the work are embodied in the following report.
Date: 1902
Creator: Brooks, Alfred Hulse
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Platinum Deposits of the Goodnews Bay District, Alaska

Description: From abstract: Platinum placers were discovered in 1926 in a small area south of Goodnews Bay, in southwestern Alaska. Beginning in 1927, the placers were worked for 7 years by small-scale mining methods; in later years dragline excavators and a dredge were utilized. These deposits are important, not only because they are of high grade but because they are the only commercial source of platinum metals in the United States. This report details the deposits in this district.
Date: 1976
Creator: Mertie, John Beaver, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Paleozoic-Mesozoic Boundary in the Berry Creek Quadrangle, Northwestern Sierra Nevada, California

Description: Abstract: Structural and petrologic studies in the Berry Creek quadrangle at the north end of the western metamorphic belt of the Sierra Nevada have yielded new information that helps in distinguishing between the chemically similar Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. The distinguishing features are structural and textural and result from different degrees of deformation. Most Paleozoic rocks are strongly deformed and thoroughly recrystallized. Phenocrysts in metavolcanic rocks are granulated and drawn out into lenses that have sutured outlines. In contrast, the phenocrysts in the Mesozoic metavolcanic rocks show well-preserved straight crystal faces, are only slightly or not at all granulated, and contain fewer mineral inclusions than do those in the Paleozoic rocks. The groundmass in the Paleozoic rocks is recrystallized to a fairly coarse grained albite-epidote-amphibole-chlorite rock, whereas in the Mesozoic rocks the groundmass is a very fine grained feltlike mesh with only spotty occurrence of well-recrystallized finegrained albite-epidote-chlorite-actinolite rock. Primary minerals, such as augite, are locally preserved in the Mesozoic rocks but are altered to a mixture of amphibole, chlorite, and epidote in the Paleozoic rocks. In the contact aureoles of the plutons, and within the Big Bend fault zone, which crosses the area parallel to the structural trends, all rocks are thoroughly recrystallized and strongly deformed. Identification of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in these parts of the area was based on the continuity of the rock units in the field and on gradual changes in microscopic textures toward the plutons.
Date: 1977
Creator: Hietanen, Anna Martta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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