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Detection and Identification of a Ruptured Fuel Element at the SM-1 (APR-1) Nuclear Power Plant

Description: Summary. In October 1960, increases in the fission product activity of the primary coolant of the SM-1 power plant indicated that a fuel element failure had occurred. Low power tests were run first to determine the nature and magnitude of the defect. Flux tilting experiments were then performed to determine the general location of the failed element. Finally, the primary coolant flowing through each of the fuel elements was sampled at low reactor power for relative iodine activity to determine the exact location of the defective element.. The element was found and replaced. Upon return to power, the fission product activity dropped back to its normal full power value.
Date: 1961
Creator: Misenheimer, Leo J.; Purple, Robert A. & Brown, Paul S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bovine Thyroid I 131 in the Absence of Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Tests

Description: Summary. Cattle in Reno, Nevada, exhibit a constant very low concentration of I 131 in their thyroid glands in the absence of known releases of I 131 to the atmosphere. This concentration is about 1 picocurie per gram of fresh thyroid tissue. ; This I 131 appears to originate below the tropopause
Date: 1962
Creator: Blincoe, Clifton & Bohman, V. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Talk on NMR Applied to Polymer Research Given at the Eastern Analytical Symposium - November 14, 1962

Description: The nature and types of internal molecular and thermal motions that polymer chains and polymer segments undergo have a great bearing on the physical behavior of polymeric solids. A relatively new tool is now available that permits us to observe and study internal thermally-induced motions directly at the atomic or molecular level rather than from macroscopic observations. this tool is nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This talk discusses (1) the nature of nuclear magnetic resonance, (2) NMR line shapes and the influence of temperature, (3) NMR line widths and second moments as a function of temperature, and (4) lists six general conclusions.
Date: November 14, 1962
Creator: Sauer, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic Data Processing an Application to Nuclear Materials Management

Description: Abstract: This report is concerned with the application of an electronic data processing system to the unique combination of scientific and commercial data processing requirement of nuclear materials management. The organization and flow of data from the plant through the data processing equipment to the final report is the principle topic of the report. Included in the discussion, however, are topics concerned with the impact of conversion to electronic data processing on personnel, materials management costs, and on other plant organizations. Portions of the report are devoted to programming systems and decision-making abilities of data processing equipment which make these systems readily adaptable to nuclear materials management.
Date: 1963
Creator: Hudson, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thin Film Measurements by X-Ray Emission Spectrography

Description: When a beam of X-rays penetrates through a layer of material, the intensity of the beam is reduced by absorption. some of the energy that has been absorbed may be re-emitted as X-ray quanta, by the atoms that absorbed it, at a wavelength characteristic of the emitting atom but longer than the quantum absorbed. Four methods of measuring thin films that use X-ray emission apparatus have been described, each of which is useful over a limited range of thickness, and for certain kinds of samples.
Date: 1963
Creator: Zemany, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Phase Radiolysis of Propane

Description: Abstract. the direct and inert-gas radiolysis, as well as the vacuum ultra-violet photolysis of CD3CH2CD3, CH3CD2CH3 and C3H2+C3D3 mixtures have been investigated in the presence of radical scavengers. The major conclusions are : (a) at atmospheric pressures, neutral propane decomposition contributes to the observed products although to a lesser extent than parent ion decompositions ; (b) a variation in pressure has a pronounced effect on the fragmentation of the parent ion ; (c) the hydrogen atoms in the ethyl ion are randomized in the direct as well as in the inert-gas sensitized radiolysis ; (d) rearrangement in the parent ion is of minor importance in the radiolysis ; (e) although the formation of propylene is related to the propyl ion, it is not necessarily produced by the neutralization of this ion.
Date: May 31, 1963
Creator: Ausloos, Pierre J.; Lias, Sharon G., 1935- & Sandoval, L. B., (Mrs.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions in Tracks of High Energy Particles

Description: Abstract. An a priori calculation of the radiolysis of oxygen gas in the pressure ; range 10-3 to 100 atm has been made. In the low background region (1- 100 atm) all track effects have been considered. The calculated G(O3) values seem to be in reasonable agreement with experiment if only one excited oxygen molecule is initially formed per ion pair. Effects of pressure, LET and dose rate have been discussed. The radiation-induced chain decomposition of O3 has not been considered.
Date: June 4, 1963
Creator: Fueki, Kenji & Magee, John L., 1914-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulse Radiolysis Studies of the Reactivity of the Solvated Electron in Ethanol and Methanol

Description: Abstract. By means of the pulse radiolysis technique a short-lived transient species has been observed in irradiated de-aerated ethanol and methanol, exhibiting an optical absorption throughout the visible and near infra-red. This transient is suggested to be the solvated electron on the basis of the nature of the spectrum, the reactivity with hydrogen ion and with various organic electron acceptors, and the formation of mononegative ions of some of these acceptors. The absolute rate constants have been determined for the reactions of the solvated electron with hydrogen ion, oxygen and benzyl chloride in ethanol and methanol. The diphenylide ion was found to be short-lived in ethanol. The absolute rate constant for the first-order decay of the diphenylide ion has been determined.
Date: June 10, 1963
Creator: Taub, Irwin A.; Sauer, Myran, C., Jr. & Dorfman, Leon M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions of the Hydrated Electron

Description: Abstract. The rate constants for the reaction of the hydrated electron eaq with a number of solutes and with radicals formed in water radiolysis are reported. Hydrated electrons were formed in the electron pulse irradiated solutions at concentrations in the range from 1 to 10 pM. Their reaction was followed by the decay of the optical absorption of eaq at 5780 A. Generally a 04 psec pulse of 15 MeV electrons was used. In the absence of eaq scavengers, second-order kinetics prevailed owing to the dominance of the reactions,eaq+eaq, eaq+H, and eaq+H202 when OH radical scavengers were present in alkaline solution. An analysis of the decay curves leads to values for keaq+eaq and keaq+H of 0.9~ 1010 and 3 x 1010 M-1 sec-1, respectively. With scavenger present in excess over [eaq], pseudo first-order kinetics were found and rate constants for a number of inorganic and organic compounds are reported. The agreement of these and other rate constants with diffusion-controlled reaction theory is discussed.
Date: June 17, 1963
Creator: Gordon, S.; Hart, E. J.; Matheson, Max S. & Rabani, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Spectra and Energy Exchange Kernels

Description: Many measurement of neutron spectra have been made in water assemblies. In these system a large part of the spectrum is given by an essentially Maxwellian distribution at the moderator temperature which is insensitive to the scattering model. Hence, the test of the energy exchange scattering kernel is in the difference of the spectrum and the fundamental or Maxwellian component. The figure shows the spectrum for the Nelkin model. Once the fundamental has been subtracted neither theoretical model seems to fit the data extremely well. Below kT the Nelkin model is a closer fit than the gas model but it underestimates the deviation from the Maxwellian whereas in the joining region it overestimates the distortion.
Date: July 11, 1963
Creator: Daitch, Paul B. (Paul Bernard), 1925- & Ohanian, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Pulses in Rapid Transient Boiling

Description: Investigation of whether the multi-thousand psi pressure pulses that occurred in the BORAX-I and SPERT-I destructive power excursion could have been generated by thermal mechanisms in the geometries of unmolten reactor cores. These pressure pulses were "at least as high as 6,000 psi, and probably higher than 10,000 psi " in BORAX I, and "between 3,000 and 4,000 lb/in" in SPERT I. An experimental investigation was undertaken of pressure pulse generation by purely thermal means.
Date: July 31, 1963
Creator: Wright, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Scattering of Lattice Vibrations by Vacancy Type Defects

Description: Abstract. A brief review of the development of the subject of lattice defects in solids is given. The relation of this problem to field theory methodology is discussed; the defect is regarded as a particle imbedded in the phonon field. One may then discuss scattering states in the field, or “dressed” states of the particle. Specific application is then made to a defect in a simple cubic crystal including interactions between the defect site and its six nearest neighbors. Scattering solutions and scattering cross-sections are calculated and show that vacancies can cause strong resonant scattering, or pseudo-localized modes, at frequencies well below the Debye frequency. Applications to thermal conductivity and other experiments are discussed briefly.
Date: August 1963
Creator: Krumhansi, James A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diffusion Parameters of Water for Various Scattering Kernels

Description: Abstract. Some diffusion parameters of water are computed with various thermal-neutron scattering laws. It is found that the diffusion cooling coefficient, in particular, is reasonably sensitive to the scattering law, but that the diffusion cooling coefficients predicted by the Radkowsky and Nelkin kernels are in fortuitious agreement. The coefficients computed for the Nelkin kernel, when treated in a manner consistent with the way in which experimental data are treated, are in reasonable agreement with the results of a recent experiment.
Date: August 16, 1963
Creator: Calame, Gerald P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approximate Models for Distributed-Parameter Heat-Transfer Systems

Description: Summary: The use of dimensionless-parameter frequency response diagrams to determine accuracies of lumped-parameter approximations is demonstrated by two examples: calculation of the heat flux at the surface of a semi-infinite solid due to temperature fluctuations of an adjacent fluid; and the response of a counterflow heat exchanger to inlet fluid temperature perturbations. Dimensionless system parameters make it possible to use general-purpose plots to find the error in particular approximations as a function of the frequency of perturbation. Such plots are directly applicable to control-system stability problems, where the highest frequency of interest is usually apparent.
Date: August 20, 1963
Creator: Ball, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Facility for the Production of Pu238

Description: Abstract: A pilot plant facility for recovering Pu238 and unconverted neptunium from irradiated neptunium target elements was operated for 17 months at the Savannah River Laboratory. The process required that the irradiated target elements be dissolved and the solution be processed through three anion exchange cycles for removal of undesirable fission products and cations, recovery of unconverted neptunium, and concentration of Pu238 solution. The process equipment was enclosed in three stainless steel boxes that were installed in two general-purpose cells of a ten-cell complex. The basic cells were not modified. The two cells were not separated from from the adjacent 8 cells. Containment of the high-specific-activity alpha emitters was accomplished by ventilation, development of handling techniques, use of procedures, and close Radiation Control coverage. The facility was dismantled, and the cells were decontaminated and returned to normal use. With the exception of an accidental overexposure, all personnel exposures were kept below the administrative level of 3 R/yr. None of the personnel assimilated detectable amounts of he material handled.
Date: September 1963
Creator: Tetzlaff, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current-Carrying Capacity and Transition State of Superconducting Solenoids

Description: Montgomery and Chandrasekhar and Hulm suggested models for predicting Im and Hm of high-field superconducting solenoids. Montgomery's model for predicting the degradation effect of superconducting solenoids leads to a unique coil quenching characteristics if geometrically similar solenoids are considered. Experiments do not verify these predicted results. Chandrasekhar and Hulm's model leads to one unique coil quenching characteristic for all solenoids with identical wire type and turn distance; coils with identical load factor should display identical values im and Hm. An analysis of the surface currents in an ideal superconducting infinitely long solenoid demonstrated possible forms of shielding currents. Experiments with Pb coils with and without NbZr and compensation agree with results expected from this analysis, but contradict Chandrasekhar and Hulm's model. Measurements of individual turn resistances show behavior of a soft superconductor solenoid in the intermediate state.
Date: September 3, 1963
Creator: Gauster, W. F. & Coffey, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Usefulness of the Kangaroo Rat

Description: Abstract. The kangaroo rat is readily tamed and has certain characteristics that make it unique and of interest in highly specialized research programs. Studies were conducted on its ability to exist on a dried diet with only a bare minimum of water and that obtained from succulent plants. Hematological studies indicate that the kangaroo rat exhibits a different hematological distribution of cells than the mouse or rat. The lymphocyte constitutes 81.4% of the total leuokocytes. The hematocrit has a value of 46 to 48 in spite of the high degree of water conservation practiced by the animal. The response to ionizing radiation of this species does not differ from that reported for the mouse or rat. Behavior studies indicate that the digging characteristics of the kangaroo rat are similar to those of the gerbil. Furthermore, the animal shows definite psychotic tendencies under the influence of psychotomimetics like LSD-25 and psilocybin. An evaluation of the physiological responses of isolated tissues from this animal as well as its responses to anesthetics is being undertaken to evaluate its further usefulness in the laboratory.
Date: September 13, 1963
Creator: Haley, Thomas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of the Dissolved Gases in the Moderator of the HWCTR

Description: The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) is used to test prototype fuel elements for power reactors that are moderated with heavy water and fueled with natural or slightly enriched uranium. During the initial critical experiments in the HWCTR, it was observed that there were unexpected variations in nuclear reactivity. Investigations revealed that this effect was due to bubble of helium gas appearing and disappearing in the moderator. An examination of the expected operating conditions of the HWCTR and the solubility of helium in D2O showed that it was possible during normal operation for the helium content of the moderator to exceed saturation and thus for helium to appear as bubbles in the moderator. The possibility of helium bubbles appearing in the moderator because of solubility characteristics was eliminated by modifications to the process system so as to maintain the gas content of the moderator appreciably below saturation.
Date: September 20, 1963
Creator: Arnett, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Failure Detection in the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

Description: The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) is a pressurized reactor, cooled and moderated with D2O, and has the capability of testing fuel assemblies under operating conditions of coolant flow, temperate, and pressure that are typical of those proposed for modern power reactors. The report contains (1) description of the four systems used for failed element detection, (2) discussion of the laboratory analyses of water samples used a as backup for the fuel failure instruments, (3) description of 3 monitors, Cyclic Air Sampling Monitor, Stack Gas Activity Monitor, Health Physics Building Monitors, (4) normal full power activity readings, (5) discussion of the experience during fuel failure.
Date: September 20, 1963
Creator: Kiger, E. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Physics Data from the HWCTR

Description: The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) was built for the Atomic Energy Commission by the Du Pont Company to satisfy a need for fuel testing in the AEC's Heavy Water Power Reactor Program. The reactor was designed to provide a realistic test environment for full size fuel candidates. The report contains sections on (1) the containment building, (2) vertical cross section of the reactor vessel, (3) core layout, (4) low power physics tests and comparison with calculations, (5) rod worths, (6) temperature coefficients, (7) flux shapes, and (8) the operating philosophy of a test reactor.
Date: September 20, 1963
Creator: Rusche, Benard Clements, 1931-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation Chemistry of Ammonia Synthesis of Hydrazine

Description: The radiation chemistry of ammonia, pure or with various additives, was studied by Co60 gamma radiation. The kinetics of aniline formation by the irradiation of homogeneous benzene-ammonia mixtures was determined together with the kinetics of hydrazine formation in the case of pure ammonia. The effects of dose, intensity, temperature, and specific additives were determined.
Date: September 23, 1963
Creator: Puig, J. R. & Schwarz, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Staffing Experience for Operation of the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor

Description: The Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor is a research and development tool supporting the Plutonium Recycle Program and the research activities at Hanford. The present organization directly associated with the PRTR is composed of Operating, Technical Assistance, Maintenance, and Engineering Groups. Liaison with research groups utilizing PRTR facilities is accomplished through the Technical Assistance Group. the other three groups serve the PRTR in the manner suggest by the group name. This paper limits its interest to the staffing experience of the Operating Group.
Date: September 23, 1963
Creator: Koberg, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Cladding Failure Monitor for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Systems

Description: A cladding failure monitor using the principle of detection of rare gas fission products in the cover gas system of liquid metal-cooled reactors, was developed which efficiently discriminates against AR41. This discrimination is accomplished by electrostatic precipitation of the rare gas daughter nuclides; since K41, the daughter of Ar41, is not radioactive, the activity of the precipitation is chiefly due to decay of various Rb and Cs fission products. The monitor equipment is described. Results of monitor testing in EBR-1 are reported; a simulated fuel road failure experiment was made which shows that the charged-wire cover gas monitoring principle should be useful in other sodium-cooled fast reactors systems.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Smith, R. R. & Doe, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design Review and Safety Analysis of Experiments in ORNL Research Reactors

Description: Since 1943 when the oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was put into operation, literally thousands of individual irradiation have been performed in this reactor and in other ORNL research reactors. Over the years there have been many minor incidents caused by experiments. Such incidents have provided a basis cor continued improvement in experiment design review and safety-analysis procedures. The reports lists the Design Review and Safety Analysis (1) objectives, (2) principles and rules of design, and (3) limits of application of the review process. The report includes a review of 19 incidents at ORNL research reactors.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Stanford, L. E. & Costner, R. A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department