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Energy Deposition by Fast Neutrons. [Part] II, Yield of the Fricke Dosimeter at 14.6 Mev

Description: A measurement of the yield of the aerated, ferrous sulfate-sulfuric acid (Fricke) dosimeter for 14.6-Mev neutrons gave a value of GF /sub Fe/sup +5/= 11.5 plus or minus 1.8. G/sub Fe/ number of ferric ions produced per 100 ev deposited. The determination combined an analysis of the energy deposit by scattering and charged particle reactions with a determination of the neutron flux by two independent means: (1) a "long counter" method and (2) an activation technique. The result is in reasonable agreement with a prediction for G/sub Fe// sup plus or minus 5/ based on measured yields of the dosimeter to irradiations by monoenergetic charged particles.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Axtmann, Robert C. & Licari, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Analysis of PM Long Life Core 3

Description: Introduction. Under AEC contract the Martin Company has followed up the design and construction of the PM-1 and PM-3A nuclear power plants with R&D efforts seeking improved plant efficiency, increased core life and higher operating power. The Advanced PM cores have evolved step by step, with the addition of degrees of freedom to design latitude. A first replacement core, Core 2, has been designed to achieve 50 percent greater life than PM-1 through relatively minor design changes. Core 3 realizes the potential extensive modifications in the fuel element and control element configurations. This paper outlines an analysis effort undertaken to define what may be called a performance profile over a range of configurations of interest for Core 3. It should be emphasized that this is a parametric or concept study and not a final design effort. The results of this study clearly indicate that a lifetime of 100 Mw-yr can be obtained from a 7 ft pressurized water core. If employed as a 10-Mw heat source for present PM equipment, this core has a lifetime approaching that of the plant equipment, 90,000 full-power hours. Core 3 will be suitable for applications demanding up to 40-Mw operating thermal power.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Bagley, Raymond. & George, Critz.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Fluoride Ions on the Aqueous Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys

Description: Abstract. A review has been made of the effects of fluoride ions on the corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys in high-temperature water. Corrosion was found to occur as the result of contamination of the water or the zirconium surface. A major source of fluorides is undue delay in rinsing the HF-HNO3 pickling solution during surface preparation. The oxide on corrosion-resistant material has been found to contain up to 7600 ppm fluoride from this source. The threshold concentration of fluoride in the oxide film which produces poor corrosion resistance ranges from 8500 to 17,000 ppm. Accelerated corrosion from fluorides in water at 300 to 360 C occurs at about 100 ppm, although increased corrosion has been reported at 10 ppm fluoride in water at 300 C. Fluorocarbon plastics degrade and contribute fluorides to the high-temperature water or to the alloy surface when in direct contact with zirconium. Chlorides (1 to 10,000 ppm) and iodides (1270 ppm) do not adversely affect the corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys in water at 360 C. The mechanism of corrosion is not well understood but apparently is related to the formation of insoluble zirconium oxyfluorides during pickling and during exposure to fluoride-contaminated water.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Berry, Warren E., 1922-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A High Speed Readout for Multi-Channel Pulse Height Analyzers

Description: From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. In computer-coupled automated activation analysis such as in the Mark II system, conventional methods of data readout impose a serious restriction on the minimum handling time per sample. A data coupler for operating between the data accumulation system and the computer tape unit was developed which contributes nothing to the handling time per sample, does not distort the data, and prepares the data for direct computer entry. In addition to activation analysis, the coupler may be used to obtain successive spectra separated in time by 0.16 sec in the study of short-lived isotopes.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Wilkins, W. W.; Fite, L. E. & Wainerdi, Richard E., 1931-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic Exit Steam Quality Control for Boiling Water Reactors

Description: From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The need for control of the flow distribution and/or steam quality in boiling reactors is discussed. A quality control device is being developed which consists of an entrance venturi and an exit venturi for measuring the flow rates into and out of the channel, means for comparing the two flow rate signals, and a value for regulating the flow rate. This device can be used either as a constant quality device or as a controlled-quality device. Results are given of air-water studies of two-phase flow in a vertical venturi.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Gall, D. A. & Doyle, E. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of a Liquid Phase Chemonuclear Ozone Process

Description: At the Chemonuclear Workshop held at Brookhaven National laboratory in November 1962 it was pointed out that the production of ozone from oxygen by a liquid phase fission fragment chemonuclear process appears to have reasonable economic potential. The maximum theoretical reaction yield for the formation of ozone from oxygen is a "G" value of 68 molecules for 100 ev based on heat of reaction data. The authors felt a "G" value of 15 to be reasonable for this study. the reactor system chosen has liquid oxygen as its moderator and the operating pressure and temperature were selected so as to allow boiling of the oxygen-ozone mixture. The total plant investment cost is estimated to be in the range of $100,000,000. Other system designs will be considered in the future.
Date: November 19, 1963
Creator: Cagnetta, J. P.; Goellner, D. & Steinberg, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluxes and Reaction Rates in the Presence of Interferring Resonances

Description: The effects of competition between resonances of different isotopes were investigated. Flux and reaction rate calculations on a Pu/sup 239/-- U/sup 238/ system revealed that U/sup 238/ exhibits both self-shielding and interference effects, the latter becoming noticeable at enrichment of a few per cent. Gold activation was also found to be depressed by the presence of U, but was insensitive at low enrichment values, Investigation of the Pu/sup 239/ resonance integral showed an asymmetric effect involving both interference between potential and resonant scattering and interference with resonance absorption in another isotope. The interference scattering arising in each resonance level had a notable effect on the average change in the Doppler coefficient. (D.C.W.)
Date: November 1963
Creator: Kelber, Charles N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions in Tracks of High Energy Particles

Description: Abstract. An a priori calculation of the radiolysis of oxygen gas in the pressure ; range 10-3 to 100 atm has been made. In the low background region (1- 100 atm) all track effects have been considered. The calculated G(O3) values seem to be in reasonable agreement with experiment if only one excited oxygen molecule is initially formed per ion pair. Effects of pressure, LET and dose rate have been discussed. The radiation-induced chain decomposition of O3 has not been considered.
Date: June 4, 1963
Creator: Fueki, Kenji & Magee, John L., 1914-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions of the Hydrated Electron

Description: Abstract. The rate constants for the reaction of the hydrated electron eaq with a number of solutes and with radicals formed in water radiolysis are reported. Hydrated electrons were formed in the electron pulse irradiated solutions at concentrations in the range from 1 to 10 pM. Their reaction was followed by the decay of the optical absorption of eaq at 5780 A. Generally a 04 psec pulse of 15 MeV electrons was used. In the absence of eaq scavengers, second-order kinetics prevailed owing to the dominance of the reactions,eaq+eaq, eaq+H, and eaq+H202 when OH radical scavengers were present in alkaline solution. An analysis of the decay curves leads to values for keaq+eaq and keaq+H of 0.9~ 1010 and 3 x 1010 M-1 sec-1, respectively. With scavenger present in excess over [eaq], pseudo first-order kinetics were found and rate constants for a number of inorganic and organic compounds are reported. The agreement of these and other rate constants with diffusion-controlled reaction theory is discussed.
Date: June 17, 1963
Creator: Gordon, S.; Hart, E. J.; Matheson, Max S. & Rabani, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulse Radiolysis Studies of the Reactivity of the Solvated Electron in Ethanol and Methanol

Description: Abstract. By means of the pulse radiolysis technique a short-lived transient species has been observed in irradiated de-aerated ethanol and methanol, exhibiting an optical absorption throughout the visible and near infra-red. This transient is suggested to be the solvated electron on the basis of the nature of the spectrum, the reactivity with hydrogen ion and with various organic electron acceptors, and the formation of mononegative ions of some of these acceptors. The absolute rate constants have been determined for the reactions of the solvated electron with hydrogen ion, oxygen and benzyl chloride in ethanol and methanol. The diphenylide ion was found to be short-lived in ethanol. The absolute rate constant for the first-order decay of the diphenylide ion has been determined.
Date: June 10, 1963
Creator: Taub, Irwin A.; Sauer, Myran, C., Jr. & Dorfman, Leon M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Phase Radiolysis of Propane

Description: Abstract. the direct and inert-gas radiolysis, as well as the vacuum ultra-violet photolysis of CD3CH2CD3, CH3CD2CH3 and C3H2+C3D3 mixtures have been investigated in the presence of radical scavengers. The major conclusions are : (a) at atmospheric pressures, neutral propane decomposition contributes to the observed products although to a lesser extent than parent ion decompositions ; (b) a variation in pressure has a pronounced effect on the fragmentation of the parent ion ; (c) the hydrogen atoms in the ethyl ion are randomized in the direct as well as in the inert-gas sensitized radiolysis ; (d) rearrangement in the parent ion is of minor importance in the radiolysis ; (e) although the formation of propylene is related to the propyl ion, it is not necessarily produced by the neutralization of this ion.
Date: May 31, 1963
Creator: Ausloos, Pierre J.; Lias, Sharon G., 1935- & Sandoval, L. B., (Mrs.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Scattering of Lattice Vibrations by Vacancy Type Defects

Description: Abstract. A brief review of the development of the subject of lattice defects in solids is given. The relation of this problem to field theory methodology is discussed; the defect is regarded as a particle imbedded in the phonon field. One may then discuss scattering states in the field, or “dressed” states of the particle. Specific application is then made to a defect in a simple cubic crystal including interactions between the defect site and its six nearest neighbors. Scattering solutions and scattering cross-sections are calculated and show that vacancies can cause strong resonant scattering, or pseudo-localized modes, at frequencies well below the Debye frequency. Applications to thermal conductivity and other experiments are discussed briefly.
Date: August 1963
Creator: Krumhansi, James A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption Measurements in Ultrahigh Vacuum at Constant Pressure

Description: Introduction. Sorption of gases by surfaces is the primary step in many heterogeneous processes. Because sorption processes are in general pressure-dependent, and very fast at normal pressures, low pressure system are mandatory. In gas-metal interaction studies the flash filament technique with ribbons and filaments and Wagener's technique with evaporated films allow observations at the requisite low pressures. However, these method have two major drawbacks: (1) Since the pressure changes during the sorption experiment, pressure-dependent parameters can only be obtained from indirect evidence; (2) The pressure change in the sorption cell during the experiment may cause significant interaction between the sample and the rest of the system and thus experimental data must be corrected for this effect. These drawbacks have been eliminated in a new approach based on a flow system in which the sample is exposed to constant pressure. This new technique has been employed for the study of adsorption and absorption of gases by filaments and evaporated films. This method can also be used for studying gas-metal solution equilibria.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Gibson, Richard.; Bergsnov-Hansen, B.; Endow, Noboru. & Pasternak, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thin Film Measurements by X-Ray Emission Spectrography

Description: When a beam of X-rays penetrates through a layer of material, the intensity of the beam is reduced by absorption. some of the energy that has been absorbed may be re-emitted as X-ray quanta, by the atoms that absorbed it, at a wavelength characteristic of the emitting atom but longer than the quantum absorbed. Four methods of measuring thin films that use X-ray emission apparatus have been described, each of which is useful over a limited range of thickness, and for certain kinds of samples.
Date: 1963
Creator: Zemany, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Delta]I = 1/2 Rule for Non-Leptonic Strangeness-Changing Decay Processes

Description: Gell-Mann and Pais were the first to suggest that the non-leptonic decay processes of strange particles may be subject to an isospin selection rule, allowing only those decay transitions which involve a change [delta]I = 1/2 in to total isopin of the system. At present, however, there is really no theoretical framework for the description of weak interactions into which this selection rule fits in a natural and compelling way. The report includes sections on the 91) decay processes of the [caret] hyperon, (2) decay processes, (3) [complex conjugate] decay processes, and (6) K[pi]3 decay processes. We have considered the evidence on all of the known non-leeptonic non-radiative decay modes of strange particles. All of this evidence is in good qualitative accord with the [delta]I = 1/2 selection rule.
Date: December 2, 1963
Creator: Dalitz, R. H. (Richard Henry), 1925-2006.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diffusion Parameters of Water for Various Scattering Kernels

Description: Abstract. Some diffusion parameters of water are computed with various thermal-neutron scattering laws. It is found that the diffusion cooling coefficient, in particular, is reasonably sensitive to the scattering law, but that the diffusion cooling coefficients predicted by the Radkowsky and Nelkin kernels are in fortuitious agreement. The coefficients computed for the Nelkin kernel, when treated in a manner consistent with the way in which experimental data are treated, are in reasonable agreement with the results of a recent experiment.
Date: August 16, 1963
Creator: Calame, Gerald P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Failure Detection in the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

Description: The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) is a pressurized reactor, cooled and moderated with D2O, and has the capability of testing fuel assemblies under operating conditions of coolant flow, temperate, and pressure that are typical of those proposed for modern power reactors. The report contains (1) description of the four systems used for failed element detection, (2) discussion of the laboratory analyses of water samples used a as backup for the fuel failure instruments, (3) description of 3 monitors, Cyclic Air Sampling Monitor, Stack Gas Activity Monitor, Health Physics Building Monitors, (4) normal full power activity readings, (5) discussion of the experience during fuel failure.
Date: September 20, 1963
Creator: Kiger, E. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Physics Data from the HWCTR

Description: The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) was built for the Atomic Energy Commission by the Du Pont Company to satisfy a need for fuel testing in the AEC's Heavy Water Power Reactor Program. The reactor was designed to provide a realistic test environment for full size fuel candidates. The report contains sections on (1) the containment building, (2) vertical cross section of the reactor vessel, (3) core layout, (4) low power physics tests and comparison with calculations, (5) rod worths, (6) temperature coefficients, (7) flux shapes, and (8) the operating philosophy of a test reactor.
Date: September 20, 1963
Creator: Rusche, Benard Clements, 1931-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asymptotic Neutron Spectra in Multiplying Media

Description: Asymptotic low energy neutron spectra have been measured for two multiplying systems. The reentrant hold spectrum (scalar flux) and the surface leakage spectrum were obtained for both assemblies using the pulsed-source chopper technique at the RPI linear accelerator.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Slovacek, R. E.; Fullwood, R. R.; Gaerttner, Erwin Rudolf, 1911- & Bach, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of Irradiated Metallic Fuel Elements Exposed to Nuclear Excursion in TREAT

Description: In fast reactor safety studies, it is imperative to know the effects of temperature excursions on the fuel elements. Previous controlled out-of-pile experiments on the behavior of uranium fuel elements under meltdown or near-meltdown conditions have been performed using direct electrical resistance heating or furnace heating. As a step toward obtaining more complete information on reactivity effects accompanying fuel meltdown, the behavior of irradiated EBR II and Fermi A samples under transient nuclear heating in TREAT has been studied. The experiment results obtained indicate that effects of prior irradiation can produce significant effects upon reactivity changes produced by meltdown of metallic fast reactor fuel pins.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Monaweck, J. H.; Dickerman, Charles Edward, 1932- & Sowa, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Radiation on Mechanical Properties of CVTR Pressure Tube Material

Description: An essential part of establishing the acceptability of warm extruded Zircaloy-4 for the CVTR pressure tube application was the determination of irradiation effects on mechanical properties of the alloy. Representative specimens were irradiated in low temperature process water in the WTR for simulated two, three and five year exposure. The effects of this irradiation were then evaluated in terms of changes in tensile, impact and creep properties. The experiment results concluded that the irradiation-induced changes in mechanical proprieties will not introduce any operational hazard to the CVTR pressure tube under anticipated operating conditions.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Smalley, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Determination of k∞ From Measurements on a Small Test Sample in a Critical Assembly

Description: Abstract. The determination of the infinite multiplication factor, k∞ , from measurement son a small test sample was investigated by both theoretical and experimental techniques. Theoretical relations were developed to calculate the error in the measurement due to a mismatch between the flux ratios in the critical assembly and those of the test sample. Experiments were carried out at the Hanford Laboratory of the General Electric Company with the PCTR, to obtain values of the multiplication factor for comparison with the theoretical results. Calculations with two-group theory gave results that agreed with the experimental results when the test sample, with natural uranium fuel, was surrounded by a buffer region of the same material. When this buffer region was loaded with highly enriched fuel, the errors in the measured values were not predicted by the two-group theory. Three-group theory relations were derived which gave calculated values in agreement with the experimental values and indicated that a mismatch of the epithermal neutron group leads to the measured differences in the value of k∞ for the two buffer types.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Lanning, David Dayton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Pulses in Rapid Transient Boiling

Description: Investigation of whether the multi-thousand psi pressure pulses that occurred in the BORAX-I and SPERT-I destructive power excursion could have been generated by thermal mechanisms in the geometries of unmolten reactor cores. These pressure pulses were "at least as high as 6,000 psi, and probably higher than 10,000 psi " in BORAX I, and "between 3,000 and 4,000 lb/in" in SPERT I. An experimental investigation was undertaken of pressure pulse generation by purely thermal means.
Date: July 31, 1963
Creator: Wright, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium Separation From Biological Material

Description: This study is part of a research into trace element physiology of fresh water snails. As an average, biological materials contain [approximately] o.0% (fresh weight) NaCl ; this means [approximately] 3540 mg Na/1 (in snails, 0.4% NaCl [approximately] ms/1). Under these conditions, the application of neutron activation plus gamma spectrum analysis for the study of most trace elements as a routine method, is difficult. We will narrow down the scope some more and consider only the interference between Na24 and Cu64.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Spronk, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department