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Rare Earth Intermetallic Comounds

Description: From Abstract : "Some of the important properties of the rare earth intermetallic and semimetallic compounds are reviewed. ... A compilation of the crystal structures of these compounds is appended to this review."
Date: 1964
Creator: McMasters, O. D. & Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Treatment of a Cesium Ore by Sulfur Chloride and Chlorine

Description: From Abstract : "A Southern Rhodesian cesium ore containing essentially pollucite was chlorinated by a gaseous mixture of sulfur chloride and chlorine at temperatures between 550 and 770°C. The optimum conditions with the fixed bed reactor used in this study were chlorination at 650°C for 4 1/2 hr with an more particle size that passes a 150 mesh sieve."
Date: 1964
Creator: Hamilton, C. B.; Young, T. L. & Wilhelm, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tricarbalyllic Acid (Propane-1, 2, 3-Tricarboxylic Acid)

Description: From report : "Tricarbalyllic acid (propane-1, 2, 3-tricarboxylic acid) has a structure similar to that of citric acid, except that it lacks the hydroxyl group attached to the middle of the carbon atom. Properties of the rare earth citrates have been used very successfully in the separation of rare earths by ion exchange methods; consequently it was deemed advisable to study the rare-earth compounds which form with the anion if triarbalyllic acid."
Date: 1964
Creator: Gupta, A. K. & Powell, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Removal of Radioisotopes From Solution by Earth Materials From Eastern Idaho

Description: Abstract: Naturally occurring earth materials from Idaho, primarily from localities near the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), were used in laboratory tests for the removal of radioisotopes from aqueous solutions. These earth materials included lignitic deposits, clay-like materials, and specific minerals; ion exchange resins were also considered for a specific application. The aqueous solutions were low-level radioactive cooling water or synthetic solutions made up to represent low-level radioactive wastes at the NRTS. Cation exchange capacities and other properties which affect the removal of radioisotopes from solution were determined the cation exchange capacities varied from 0.006 to 1.0 meq/g of solid. Earth materials with cation exchange capacities greater than 0.3 meq/g, in general, had distribution coefficients in excess of 1000. The highest distribution coefficients for cesium and strontium occurred in the pH range from 6.0 to 9.0 The possible use of these materials for decontaminating low-level radioactive waste at the NRTS is discussed. The result of laboratory studies using these materials and an organic ion exchange resign for decontaminating a specific NRTS waste are given. A material high in clinoptilolite from a location near the NRTS was considered to be the most promising material for use in large beds or ion exchange-type columns.
Date: April 1964
Creator: Wilding, M. W. & Rhodes, D. W. (Donald Walter), 1919-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Planar Dynode Multipliers for High-Speed Counting

Description: Technical report discussing a new high-speed electron multiplier using a planar dynode configuration. This multiplier has a total transit time significantly shorter than available in conventional structures of equivalent gain. It also features rise-times generally less than three nanoseconds while providing the large sensitive area of an unfocused configuration. Two basic types of planar dynodes are employed: transmission secondary emission thin films as the early multiplier stages and silver-magnesium modified mesh multipliers as the high current output stages.The relevant gain and pulse-response data for these two types of dynodes are presented. The structure is quite flexible and permits the number and types of dynodes to be easily tailored to a specific application. In particular it will be shown how the number of mesh-type dynodes may be altered to effect a trade-off between current handling capabilities and rise-time characteristics. Several possible combinations of these planar dynods have been incorporated in photomultipliers whose gain, dark current, pulse response, and operating life are discussed.
Date: February 26, 1964
Creator: Sapp, W. W. & Sternglass, Ernest J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Y-Nd and Sc-Nd Phase Systems

Description: Technical report. From Introduction : "In a recent study by Spedding, et al. on some rare earth alloy systems, an intermediate phase was found to form when a light rare earth (ABAC stacking) was alloyed with a heavy rare earth (ABAC stacking). This intermediate phase was found to have the structure of samarium metal with the stacking ABABCBCAC and was designated "delta". Since the cause of this rather unusual structure occurring in either samarium metal or these alloys is not known the study of these phases as some of their properties is continuing in the Ames Laboratory. It was the purpose of the present study to extend our knowledge of the composition and more of formation of these phases."
Date: February 1964
Creator: Beaudry, B. J.; Michel, M.; Daane, A. H. & Spedding, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Isotope Shift of the Uranium Ka1 X Ray

Description: Technical report. From Introduction : "The nuclear volume dependent isotope shift of optical spectral lines has long been a very useful means for studying the changes in the nuclear size or shape for different isotopes of heavy elements."
Date: June 25, 1964
Creator: Brockmeier, R.; Boehm, F. & Hatch, E. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Experimental Approach to a Simplified Band Structure of the Rare Earth Metals

Description: Technical report. From Abstract : "A number of the physical properties from which we can obtain both direct and indirect information concerning the band structures of metals, have been measured for most of the rare earth metals. It was thought that it would be desirable to review ans examine these data and try to tie them together. For this purpose the very low and room temperature heat capacities, Hall coefficients, magnetic susceptibilities, spectral data and electrical resistivities were examined."
Date: February 1, 1964
Creator: Gschneider, Karl A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Education, Experience, Training, and Certification of Reactor Operators at AEC-Owned Reactors

Description: Results of a questionnaire survey are presented on reactor supervisor and operator education, experience, and training, and on certification procedures by reactor category. The questionnaires were obtained from 362 supervisors, 393 operators, 44 supervisor trainees, and 139 operator trainees.
Date: October 31, 1964
Creator: Wilgus, Walter S.; McCool, Whittie J. & Biles, Martin B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Wire Chamber -- Computer System

Description: First paragraph of report: M. Neumann and H. Sherrard reported the development of a wire spark chamber experiment toward receiving digitized spark information. Since late 1962 our effort has been directed toward a wire-chamber with a core memory, using standard ferrite cores, and toward an on-line operation between spark chamber and computer.
Date: June 1964
Creator: Bounin, J.; Miller, R.; Neumann, M.; Sarma, J. & Sherrard, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Equilibrium Studies of Uranyl Complexes : II, Interaction of Uranyl Ion with Citric Acid

Description: Abstract: A potentiometric study of the complex formation between citric acid (H3L) and the uranyl ion at 25° and ionic strengths of 0.1 and 1.0 (KNO3) is reported From the concentration dependence of the formation constant, it is concluded that polynuclear complexes are formed in which bridging between metal ions occurs through carboxylate and hyroxyl groups of the ligand. The values of the logarithms of the formation constant of the metal checlate [UO2L-]/[UO2+][L3-] and of the dimerization constant [(UO2)xL22-]/[UO2+][L3-] are found to be 7.40 and 4.07 respectively. Infrared absorption measurements of protonated and dissociated carboxyl groups in aqueous uranyl citrte system indicated the presence of both carobxy-late and hydroxide bridging in the polynuclear complex. On the basis of the "core plus links" treatment of polynuclear complexes, the polymeric species in solution in the buffer region between 3 and 4 2/3 moles of base per mole of metal complex appears to be predominantly (U)2)2L2((OH)5(UO2)2L2)216-.
Date: January 1964
Creator: Rajan, K. S. & Martell, Arthur E. (Arthur Earl), 1916-2003.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Critical Survey of Neutron Cross Sections

Description: From introductory paragraphs: "The central problems in neutron research are the understanding of nuclear structure and the study of the properties of nuclear particles, particularly the properties of the neutron. The most fruitful attack on these problems is the determination of the probability of interactions between neutrons and nuclei, i.e., the measurement of neutron cross sections. Ideally, this involves the study of all possible types of neutron interaction with all available nuclei at all neutron energies...The discussion in this paper will omit the interactions leading to neutron productions, and will be limited to the intersections of neutrons with stable nuclei."
Date: June 20, 1964
Creator: Goldsmith, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sodium Mass Transfer. [Part] 8. Corrosion of Stainless Steel in Isothermal Regions of a Flowing Sodium System

Description: Technical report describing an analytical investigation made on the mechanism of the "downstream" effect in the corrosion of stainless steel in sodium. A mechanism of iron alloy corrosion is assumed in which the controlling rate is diffusion of iron-oxygen species, probably a FeO-Na2O complex. A mathematical model is developed for the corrosion, and the predicted results agree with the experimental data. The corroding species is probably present in sodium at concentrations of ~10(-8) g Fe/g Na.
Date: February 1964
Creator: Mottley, J. D. & Epstein, Leo F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactor Pressure Vessel Material Surveillance Program at the Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant

Description: Abstract: A materials exposure program has been established in the Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant to measure the effect of neutron irradiation and time at temperate on the mechanical properties of the reactor pressure vessel steel. Base metal specimens were made from portions of the pressure vessel steel, and weld heat-affected zone and weld metal samples were taken from a weldment made from the pressure vessel steel and simulating a pressure vessel circumferential weld since there are no longitudinal welds in the forged ring shell. The specimens were sealed in helium-filled capsules and placed in the reactor vessel at locations where they will be exposed to a variety of conditions. Tensile property changes will be measured by pre- and post-irradiation tests on small tensile specimens. Fracture characteristic changes will be measured in similar fashion by Charpy V-notch impact tests. The program is planned to cover a 32-year period, with specimens to be removed for test at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 years.
Date: March 1964
Creator: Brandt, F. A. & Kobsa, I. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design and Fabrication of Pellet Fuel Rods Clad With Thin Wall Stainless Steel

Description: Summary: Stainless steel clad nuclear fuel cycle costs can be reduced to those associated with Zircaloy clad fuel or potentially lower by reducing the thickness of the clad tube wall until performance penalties offset the savings associated with the reduction in parasitic neutron absorption. To demonstrate the feasibility and investigate performance capabilities of thin clad fuel rods for power reactor application an assembly was fabricated with 0.0127 cm (5 mil) thick stainless steel cladding tubes for irradiation testing in the Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor (VBWR). The fuel bundle was placed in the VBWR and irradiation was begun in November, 1961. The irradiation is scheduled to continue until the target exposure of 2.74 x 10(20) fissions/cc (10,000 MWD/T of uranium) average burnup is reached. Destructive examinations of fuel rods will be performed at regular intervals throughout life to determine fuel rod performance.
Date: February 1964
Creator: Hoffmann, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AEC Fuel Cycle Program Design and Fabrication of Special Assembly 9-L : Irradiation Performance Test of UO2-Cermet Fuel

Description: Technical report describing a UO2-Mo cermet fuel assembly fabricated for long-term irradiation performance testing in the Vallecitos Boiling water Reactor. The design and fabrication histories of this assembly are described and pre-irradiation data on each individual rod are presented. Molybdenum was added to improve the bulk thermal conductivity of the fuel, so that fuel temperatures would remain comparatively low during high-power level operation of the fuel element. The molybdenum was incorporated into the compacts either as fibers or as a thin coating on individual UO2 particles. Fuel pellets were produced from these materials by vacuum hot pressing. The distribution of the molybdenum in both types of cermet fuels appeared favorable to good heat transfer. The fibers were oriented predominantly in the radial planes of the pellet as a result of the uni-directional compaction during the hot-pressing operation. In the pellets made from the coated particles, a continuous network of molybdenum occurred as a result of the coating welding together during the hot-pressing operation. The test assembly contains eight fuel rods; three contain UO2-Mo cermet, three contain the cermet produced from the coated particles, and two are for reference and contain the conventional sintered UO2 pellet fuel. The nominal outside diameter of the fuel rods is 1.308 cm (0.515 inch), and the clad wall thickness if 0.051 cm (0.020 inch). the cladding material is Type-304 stainless steel. The fuel pellets were all centerless ground to achieve a uniform outside diameter and thereby control the pellet-to-clad diametral clearance within a range of 0.076 to 0.102 mm (0.003 to 0.004 inch). Operation of the fuel rods will be at high specific power levels with surface heat fluxes of about 157 W/cm(2) (~500,000 Btu/h-ft(2)). The assembly was designed for a lifetime of 4.1 x 10(20) fission/cc (15,000 MWD/T) exposure.
Date: March 1964
Creator: Ogawa, S. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sodium Mass Transfer. [Part] XI. 1963 Test Run Reports (January - June)

Description: Technical report describing how corrosion data and exposure effects were obtained by subjecting metallic samples, during programmed test runs to flowing sodium in 6 test loops fabricated with various combinations of three selected materials, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo alloy steel, and 5 Cr-1/2 Mo-1/2 Ti alloy steel. Information produced by each test run, including operational and metallurgical data and analyses, is presented. Data are shown in tables, graphs, and drawings.
Date: February 1964
Creator: Lockhart, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High Power Density Development Project: Sixteenth Quarterly Progress Report, January-March 1964

Description: Development of nuclear reactor cores having high power density, long fuel life, and low fabrication costs is the objective of this program sponsored by the AEC. Five tasks are in progress: (1) Task 1A-High Power Density Fuel Development, (2) Task 1B-Fuel Fabrication Development. Assembly, (3) Task II-Stability, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, (4) Task III-Physics Development, and (5) Task IV-Co-Ordination and Test Planning.
Date: April 1, 1964
Creator: Holladay, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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UO2 Pellet Thermal Conductivity From Irradiations With Central Melting

Description: Abstract: Continued irradiation experience under the AEC - Euratom, UO2 High Performance Program provided five separate and distinct sets of data on UO2 thermal conductivity. Four of these results are expressed in terms of the value of the thermal conductivity. The first two of these measurements were applicable -- strictly -- to poly crystalline UO2. Recently, three additional sets of measurements have been obtained -- all pertinent to UO2 after the formation of large columnar grains. The extent of melting in the experiments on which the results are based ranges from slight, to greater than 70 percent of the fuel cross section. The conclusions from all of these thermal conductivity measurements considered together are: (1) The true value of the UO2 conductivity integral form 0 degrees C to melting (2805 - 15 degrees C) lies in the range from 90 to 96 W/cm. The most probable value is closer to 90 W/cm. To ensure no central melting and the associated clad swelling the maximum thermal performance level for solid pellet, UO2 fuel rods should not exceed 90 W/cm. (2) Any improvement in thermal conductivity due to the formation of large, columnar UO2 grains is small and not detectable within the experimental accuracy of the measurement, i.e., 3 to 4 W/cm.
Date: July 1964
Creator: Lyons, M. F.; Coplin, D. H.; Pashos, T. J. & Weidenbaum, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Program for the Development of Plutonium Recycle for Use in Light Water Moderated Reactors Quarterly Progress Report: April 1 - June 30, 1964

Description: A research program is being conducted to obtain experimental data in the irradiation of plutonium-enriched fuel to confirm a theoretical model for predicting isotopic composition and reactivity changes in plutonium-enriched, light-water-moderated reactors. Quarterly progress: Project fuel fins irradiated to 1860, 3000, and 5300 MWD/T have been successfully sampled in the Radioactive Materials Laboratory. The samples have been dissolved and aliquots delivered to Chemistry for Mass Spectrometry and burnup determination. The first Stanford Pool Irradiation indicated that there was some inconsistency in the thermal flux and the near thermal epithermal flux. The experiment was repeated, increasing the number of foil wheel positions from two to three. The data from the second measurement are being reduced. The EPITHERMOS code modification has been completed. Comparisons between the results computed by the code and experimental data show much improved agreement. The metallographic photomicrographs of a polished half-pellet from rod F, irradiated to 5000 MWD/T, show structure very similar to that shown by the pellet from rod S, irradiated to 1860 MWD/T.
Date: July 15, 1964
Creator: Robkin, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development Program for Increased Output in the Garigliano Nuclear Reactor. Quarterly Report No. 7

Description: The United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), on May 29, and June 18, 1958, signed an agreement which provides a basis for co-operation in programs for the advancement of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. The work described in this report represents the Joint U.S.-Euratom effort. The over-all development program is designed to obtain the test data and operating experience necessary to eventually realize a 50 percent increase in the output of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station located at Sessa Aurunca (Campania, Italy). One task is in progress: Task I - Data Logging and Computer System. The work on the other tasks is being planned and initiated.
Date: July 1, 1964
Creator: Howard, C. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Transition Boiling Heat Transfer Program; Sixth Quarterly Progress Report, April - June 1964

Description: Summary: Transition boiling data was taken with an improved flow loop, to explore the influence of loop characteristics on rod temperature fluctuations the transition region was found to be much smaller than for comparable conditions with a different loop. Also the amplitude, and frequency of the temperature oscillations, were significantly less than before. These results indicate that loop characteristic and flow disturbance parameters play a prominent part in governing the transition temperature fluctuations. Additional two-rod transition boiling data are presented. The results include data taken at high wall temperature levels during a demonstration test at low steam qualities, and the effect of a change in rod spacing on heat transfer performance.
Date: July 1, 1964
Creator: Quinn, E. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Design and Fabrication of Fuel Rods Containing Sintered UO2 Extrusions - Assembly 11L

Description: The extrusion forming of ceramic powders may be economically interesting in the field of nuclear fuel fabrication. When applied to the forming of rod-type uranium dioxide fuel, extrusion processes have been able to produce cylindrical bodies with length-to-diameter ratios much greater than those of the conventional die-pressed pellets. Furthermore, after being sintered, the extrusions have exhibited densities at least as high as those of sintered pellets. Thus, extrusion forming may offer reductions in handling during fabrication and, at the same time, provide a fuel with improved performance characteristics by decreasing the number of discontinuities in the fuel column. This report reviews the production of these extrusions, sets forth some of their characteristics, describes the materials and processes employed in cladding them, and records the pre-irradiation data pertaining to the finished fuel rods and fuel assembly. Irradiation of the fuel assembly in the VBWR was initiated on July 17, 1962.
Date: February 1964
Creator: Megerth, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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