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Hazards Summary Report for the Army Package Power Reactor : SM-1, Task XVII

Description: Preface. This technical report is an updated and revised version of the original SM-1 (APPR-1) Hazards Summary Report. The original report was issued July 1955, almost two years before construction of the SM-1 plant was completed. During that time interval there were numerous design changes. Consequently, the original report does not accurately describe the plant as built. This revision is written after the SM-1 has been operated 3 years. It describes the as-build plant and includes plant modifications and experience obtained during the first 3 years of SM-1 operation.
Date: May 1960
Creator: Rosen, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielding Requirements for the Army Package Power Reactor

Description: Abstract. The design, selection, and calculation of the Army Package Power Reactor shielding are described. The APPR-1, a prototype of a package reactor for remote locations, has a primary shield of iron and water. this shield has been adopted to permit fast erection and to provide low transported weight. economically, including transportation cost, the iron water shield is better than a lead water shield and is competitive with a concrete shield for a remote site. Because of the location at Fort Belvoir,Va., the shielding requirements for the APR-1 are considerably more stringent than those for a reactor at a remote base. Since the secondary shielding which surrounds the entire primary system must provide protection for personnel at any location outside the vapor container, concrete is provided for this need.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Meem, J. L. (James Lawrence). & Fairbanks, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor Analysis for the Army Package Power Reactor No. 1

Description: Abstract: The reactor analysis of the critical experiment and the APPR-1 resulted in a loading of the APPR-1 of 31.096 gm of B-10 with 22.5 kg U-335. This loading will result in adequate reactivity for a core life of 13 MWYR based on uniform burnup of U-335 and B-10. Calculations indicate that five of the seven control rods provided are more than adequate to shut the reactor down at any time. The temperature coefficient of reactivity should be at least -2 x 10-4 [delta] K/0F.
Date: May 29, 1956
Creator: Gallagher, J. G.; Giesler, H. W.; Johnson, W. R.; Fairbanks, F. B.; Oby, P. V. & Crouch, A. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor Analysis for the Army Package Power Reactor No. 1

Description: Abstract: The reactor analysis of the critical experiment and the APPR-1 resulted in a loading of the APPR-1 of 31.096 gm of B-10 with 22.5 kg U-335. This loading will result in adequate reactivity for a core life of 13 MWYR based on uniform burnup of U-335 and B-10. Calculations indicate that five of the seven control rods provided are more than adequate to shut the reactor down at any time. The temperature coefficient of reactivity should be at least -2 x 10-4 [delta] K/0F.
Date: May 29, 1956
Creator: Gallagher, J. G.; Giesler, H. W.; Johnson, W. R.; Fairbanks, F. B.; Oby, P. V. & Crouch, A. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiochemical Analysis of Crud from the Army Package Power Reactor

Description: Abstract: A study has been made of the radiochemical composition and the specific activity of insoluble corrosion products (crud) removed from the primary system of the APPR-1. This report presents the results of analysis of twelve crud samples collected during the interval from September 3, 1957 to December 1, 1957. The samples were radiochemically analyzed for long-lived gamma emitting nuclides only. Data are presented on the measured values of the specific activity of crud, the ratios of the nuclide specific activities, and the concentration of crud (crud level) in the circulating primary water. Also included in data, based on the analysis of a single sample, comparing the specific activity of the deposited and circulating corrosion products.
Date: February 15, 1958
Creator: Zegger, J. L.; Small, W. J. & Brown, W. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Extended Zero Power Experiments on the Army Package Power Reactor : ZPE-2

Description: Introduction: This report is principally concerned with analysis of measurements taken on the APPR-1 core during the course of the extended Zero Power Experiments (ZPE-2). The bulk of these measurements are reported in APAE No. 21. There are some additional measurements reported in APAE Memo 115. In addition to the analysis of the ZPE-2 data some re-evaluation has been made of a few of the results obtained from the first set of Zero Power Experiments (ZPE-1). The ZPE-1 measurements are reported in APAE No. 8. During the course of analysis work it became apparent that a considerable amount of basic experimental data had been taken on the APPR-1 core. It seemed worthwhile to organize this report in such a fashion that other investigators could make maximum use of this data. It provides excellent opportunity for individuals and groups interested in basic reactor reactor analysis problems to check calculational techniques. An attempt has been made to include all of the fundamental information concerning the material content and geometry of the APPR-1. This material is in included in the Appendices. In addition, cross-section files and group constants have been listed rather extensively in order that other investigators could compare results presented in this report with those obtained by other techniques. Listing are generally given to six places although not all of these places are significant. This was done so as to avoid round off error.
Date: May 7, 1958
Creator: Byrne, B. J. & Oby, P. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the Corrosion Product Radioactivity Program at the Army Package Power Reactor : Alco R & D report

Description: Abstract: An analysis and a summary are.given of the radioactivity buildup program at the Army Package Power Reactor during the last nine months. · Due to the wide fluctuation of water and crud results, only general interpretations can be made with this data. Metal test coupon data indicate a substantially greater buildup on Croloy 16-1 metal than on Type 304 stainless steel. Coupled with the decreased ability to remove the radioactivity buildup on Croloy 16-1 by conventional descaling techniques, the implication is that this metal might pose a serious problem for use as steam generator material. It was emphasized, however, that results to date ae only preliminary and extensive additional experimentation would be required to reach more definite conclusions.
Date: April 25, 1958
Creator: Medin, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor Analysis APPR-1 Core II

Description: Preface; Subsequent to the analysis in the body of this report metallurgical developments indicated that it would not be feasible to build the APPR-1 Core II with the increased boron loading specified herein. At the time of the issuance of this report the Core II boron loading is to be the same as that for Core I. At the time of procurement of the core in the fall, if metallurgical developments warrant, the increased boron loading will be employed. The loading discussed in the body of the report and the first three appendices is that designed to meet the specifications outlined in the introduction. Appendix IV discusses changes in the loading to account for the various methods of employing boron.
Date: July 15, 1958
Creator: Williamson, T. G.; Leibson, M. J. & Bryne, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielding Measurements at the SM-1 Reactor : June 1961

Description: Abstract: Neutron flux and gamma radiation measurements through the SM-1 primary shield were made at the startup of Core II in June 1961. They extend previous measurements (APAE-35) both vertically and horizontally in the primary shield and in the rod drive pit. Dose rate measurements on spent fuel elements under water are also reported.
Date: March 16, 1962
Creator: Moote, F. G. & Obrist, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-1 Shielding Analyses

Description: Abstract: This technical report analyzes gamma dose rate and neutron measurements in their relation to the SM-1 shield design and is a continuation of previous shielding measurements and analyses reported in APAE-35 and APAE-35 Supplement 2. The data reported herein are spent fuel element and rod drive pit gamma dose rates. An analysis of gamma dose rates off the core midplane is presented and compared with test data.
Date: June 20, 1962
Creator: Stephenson, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant Transient Analysis of the APPR-1 by Analog Computer Methods ; Task No. IV

Description: Phase I - Plant Transient Analysis. Behavior of the basic and refined kinetic models differs only slightly. It is therefore suggested that the basic model be used in any studies where the improvement in fidelity attainable fro the refined model is not warranted by the complexities introduced by the addition of function generator to the analog circuitry and derivation of the function to be programmed. The parameter responses of both kinetic models appear to be essentially similar to those of the plant with the exception of the primary pressure. In the pressurizer analysis it was noted that the primary system pressure surges of the model should be higher than those of the plant because of the adiabatic steam compression assumed in the model derivation. the fact that the mode surge is very much greater indicates that the compression process is far from adiabatic. A more detailed and complex model of the pressurizer, one that evaluates heat transfer in the steam pocket boundaries, would therefore reduce the costly conservatism otherwise necessary in the specification of pressurizer vessel size. Phase II - Xenon Reactivity Transients. On the basis of this study an analog computer circuit has been presented which accurately represents bank motion during Xe135 transients. In order to determine the adequacy of this model comparison was made with three sets of experiments conducted on the APPR-1. It was found that a weighting or distribution factor was necessary to obtain agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the weighting factor varies between 1.30 and 1.40 for equilibrium Xe125 and between 1.48 and 1.62 for transient Xe135 for the experiments compared. There is limited experimental evidence that the weighting factor is decreasing with core burn out.
Date: October 1, 1958
Creator: Brondel, J. O. & Tomonto, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger Preliminary Design. Vol. 1, IHX Preliminary Design

Description: Preface: The intermediate heat exchanger is designed for operation in a nuclear power plant using liquid sodium as the primary and secondary coolant. Since the primary fluid coming from the reactor is radioactive, the purpose of the IHX is to transfer heat to a nonradioactive fluid which then goes to a steam generator. Because of this activity the until will be enclosed in a concrete pit and will not be accessible during periods of operation. Immediately after shut down it will be necessary to allow time for radioactive decay before the unit will be accessible to personnel. Because of inaccessibility and possible long periods allowed for decay time, it is imperative that the unit give trouble free operation. During periods of shut down, the internals should have easy access for inspection and repair if necessary so that down time is held to a minimum. The general arrangement of the heat exchanger described in this report presents a conventional design utilizing known materials and existing methods of fabrication. In further consideration of all concepts, designs and analyses developed during this period of the program, it is felt that this preliminary design will provide an intermediate sodium heat exchanger of lower cost and more reliable operation.
Date: February 28, 1959
Creator: Alco Proucts (Firm)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination Program Task II. Volume II, Evaluation of Chemical Agents for Nuclear Reactor Decontamination

Description: Abstract: The caustic permanganate-rinse decontamination treatment was investigated. Loop and metallurgical studies were performed to determine optimum operating conditions as well as the metallurgical effects of the treatment. A treatment with 10 percent sodium hydroxide and 5 percent potassium permanganate solution followed by a rinse with a 5 percent ammonium citrate, 2 percent citric acid and 1/2 percent Versene solution was chosen for the decontamination of a stainless steel steam generator. Decontamination factors of greater than 50 were obtained in loop tests using the above treatment. Corrosion and metallurgical results indicated a total penetration of less than 0.01 mil on annealed Type 304 stainless steel with no evidence of any deleterious effects.
Date: February 15, 1959
Creator: Zegger, John L. & Pancer, Guyon P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination Program Task II. Volume 1, Contamination and Decontamination in Nuclear Power Reactors

Description: Abstract: A survey of the problem of reactor system contamination by radioactive material and methods that have been employed to remove the material was carried out. Following this survey, an investigation of chemical solutions was undertaken to find one which might be successfully employed in the decontamination of a stainless steel steam generator. From a preliminary screening, the most promising chemical method from the view point of minimum corrosion and maximum decontamination is a caustic permanganate treatment followed by and acid rinse.
Date: February 13, 1959
Creator: Zegger, John L. & Pancer, Guyon P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination Program Task II. Volume III, Recommended Procedure for Decontamination of a Stainless Steel Steam Generator

Description: Abstract: A decontamination procedure for a stainless steel steam generator similar to the APPR-1 using a fill-flush application of a caustic permanganate-citrate combination solution is recommended. The isolation of the steam generator is to be accomplished by means of specially designed plugs at the reactor vessel outlet and at the primary coolant pumps. Anticipated results, including corrosion rates and decontamination factors, are presented.
Date: February 13, 1959
Creator: Pancer, Guyon P. & Zegger, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 1. Thermal & Mechanical Design

Description: This technical report represents the final design for a sodium to sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium to water steam generator. The intermediate heat exchanger is designed for operation in a nuclear power plant using liquid sodium as the primary and secondary coolant. Since the primary fluid coming fro the reactor is radioactive, the purpose of the IHX is to transfer heat to a nonradioactive fluid which then goes to the steam generator. Because of radioactivity the unit will be enclosed in a concrete pit and will not be accessible during periods of operation. Immediately after shutdown it will be necessary to allow time for radioactive decay before the unit will be accessible to personnel. Because of inaccessibility and possible long periods allowed for decay time, it is imperative that the unit give trouble free operation. During periods of shutdown, the internals should have easy access for inspection and repair if necessary so that down time is held to a minimum. The steam generator is designed to generate superheated steam using liquid sodium from the intermediate heat exchanger as the heat source. Its basic design is a shell and tube unit made up of three difference sections: (1) a boiler section, (2) a steam drum, and (3) a superheater section. These three sections are combined into a single unit construction with a large sphere as the steam drum connecting the boiler and superheater section. This design makes a relatively long unit but has the advantage of reducing costs since the steam drum acts a a closure for one end of the boiler and superheater and eliminates the need for external connecting piping.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 2. Chemical & Stress Analysis

Description: Introduction: This volume deals principally with the chemical analysis and the stress analysis for a sodium to sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium to water steam generator. The work presented is an extension and modification of the analysis presented in the preliminary design report. The chemical analysis covers the sodium cover gas system and the effects of sodium-water reactions in the event of a leak in the steam generator. Considerable design work was done in an effort to maintain the integrity of the steam generator vessel under maximum leak conditions. The method of sizing relief valves for each unit under varying leak rates is presented in this text and operation of the unit for the various leak rates is resented in the Operation and Maintenance volume. The stress analysis section covers those thermal transients which would be physically possible with this intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator design. Attention has been given to methods of operation which would minimize the magnitude and frequency of thermal shocks. Certain areas have been studied in detail where thermal stresses appear high. This report also includes a structural design basis for handling stress analysis of combined mechanical, hydrostatic and thermal stresses and conditions for using creep and stress rupture properties.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 3. Specifications

Description: Introduction: Sodium Components Material Specifications. Twenty-three material, inspection and welding specification are presented for the various parts of both the intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator. Tables indicate the applicable parts and assemblies to which these specifications shall apply. For other parts, where the material requirements are not severe, the ASTM or other indicated specifications shall apply.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 4. Operation & Maintenance

Description: This technical report contains the operation and maintenance specifications for the intermediate heat exchanger and the steam generator. The report contains eight sections: (1) General Information, (2) Shipping and Installation, (3) Operation Procedures, (4) Scram and Casualty Shutdowns, (5) Leaks, (6) Instrumentation and Control, (7) Maintenance, and (8) four Appendixes (a) Boiler Water Chemistry Recommendations, (b) Final Concept Drawings, (c) Industrial Nucleonics Literature on Liquid Level Detector, and (d) Sodium Purity Control Recommendations.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Summary Report for the SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation: Task XIV

Description: Abstract; This technical report describes the changes in the SM-1 incurred by the experiment, Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV), and evaluates the possible hazard involved in these changes. Temperature and flow measurements will be taken on a Task XIV instrumented stationary fuel element, instrumented control rod fuel element and other selected points in the SM-1 core to provide data on the core steady state and transient performance. The hazards evaluation consists of a nuclear evaluation, thermal and hydraulic analysis, description of tests to be performed, and discussion of containment integrity and maximum accident considerations.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Brondel, J. O.; Lee, D. H. & Matthews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Evaluation of the SM-1 Penetrated Gasket

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the as-constructed SM-1 penetrated gasket designed for SM-1 Core and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV). This report supplements APAE No. 79, The Summary Hazards Report for Task XIV, and evaluates the effects of a postulated failure of this gasket. The effects of failure on the Maximum Credible Accident are determined and conclusions and recommendations for the use of this gasket are made.
Date: September 8, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Gebhardt, F. G. & James, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV) Covering Special Test Procedures.

Description: Abstract: Test procedures for special tests involving in-core SM-1 temperature and flow instrumentation are described (Task XIV Package Tests). These tests involve in-core steady state flow and temperature measurements, loss of flow transients, load transients, reduced primary system pressure operations and reduced element flow. The thermal and hydraulic conditions prevailing in these tests, including steady state and transient burnout rations, are developed. The effects of reduced system pressure and flow on the burnout ratios are determined as are the expected stuck rod conditions when Task XIV test elements are installed. The effect on the maximum credible accident is included and a recommendation to conduct these Task XIV package tests is made.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Bradley, P. L. & Coombe, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suitability of Inconel for Corrosion Protection on Water Side of Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: Abstract; The heat exchanger and steam generator for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Sodium Components Project will be constructed entirely of type 316 stainless steel. Because of the susceptibility of this alloy to stress corrosion cracking, it is proposed to clad all areas of the steam generator with Inconel where the stainless steel will be exposed to water and steam. This report includes a discussion of the work by numerous investigators that justify the selection of Inconel for this service. A discussion of Inconel type welding alloys is also included.
Date: March 1, 1961
Creator: Phillips, Laurence E. & Vawter, Frank J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for the SM-1 Core II With Special Components

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the SM-1 by the insertion of the SM-1 Core II and special components. The special components consist of impact specimens, a boron gradient rod, SM-2 elements, a PM-1-M element, and high burnup SM-1 Core I elements. The change in hazards, due to operation of SM-1 with Core II and the special components is evaluated. The analysis indicates there is no change in hazards.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J.; Lee, D.; Segalman, I. & Robertson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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