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Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II Without the SM-1 Core I High Burnup Elements and With the PM-1-M-2 Element

Description: Abstract: The removal of both SM-1 Core I high burnup elements from SM-1 Core II and the insertion of the PM-1-M-2 element and the SM-1 Core I spare element in SM-1 Core II is discussed. Nuclear and thermal characteristics of Core II with these changes are presented and conclusions related to the changes in the hazard potential are made. If the core change indicated by this report is made, local peaking factors will be decreased and burnout ratios will be increased. This, of course, in itself leads to a more conservative estimate of core safety. There is no conceivable reason why the perturbation may not be safely made in the SM-1 Core II.
Date: October 7, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Lee, D. H. & Mathews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Survey of the Effects of Neutron Irradiation on the Impact and Other Mechanical Properties of Pressure Vessel Steels for the SM-2 Reactor

Description: Abstract: This technical report summarizes the data obtained in a recent literature survey conducted to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the impact and other mechanical properties of both ferritic steels and austenitic stainless steels. The survey was primarily aimed at obtaining sufficient data on the behavior of pressure vessel steels at high integrated neutron flux levels in order that a reference material of construction could be selected for the SM-2 (APPR-1B) reactor vessel. Materials studied in this literature survey included carbon and low alloy steels such as: ASTM A-212B, ASTM A-201, ASTM A-301B (CR-Mo), ASTM A-106 (coarse and fine grained), ASTM A-285, ASTM A-302B (Mn-Mo), ASTM A-353, ASTM A-203 Grade D, E-7016 carbon steel weld metal, USS Carilloy T-1, HY-65 and HY-80. In addition, Types 304 and 347 stainless steels were also investigated as representative austenitic materials which might be used in pressure vessel construction. A careful evaluation was made of the irradiation induced changes in the mechanical properties of the above materials. The ferritic steels were evaluated primarily on the basis of increases in transition temperature due to irradiation and decreases in the amount of maximum energy absorbed prior to ductile failure. Factors such as industrial experience, changes in other mechanical properties and the susceptibility of these materials to temper embrittlement were also considered. Austenitic stainless steels were evaluated on the basis of post-irradiation and low temperature impact strength and on irradiation induced changes in other mechanical properties. Based on available data, it is concluded that austenitic stainless steels are capable of resisting harmful property damage at integrated neutron fluxes > 1 Mev of at least t to 2 x 10(21) nvt. However, with the application of special reactor operating procedures, ASTM A212B will be satisfactory at integrated neutron fluxes up to 5 x 10(19) nvt.
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Kelleman, Richard William.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 1. Thermal & Mechanical Design

Description: This technical report represents the final design for a sodium to sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium to water steam generator. The intermediate heat exchanger is designed for operation in a nuclear power plant using liquid sodium as the primary and secondary coolant. Since the primary fluid coming fro the reactor is radioactive, the purpose of the IHX is to transfer heat to a nonradioactive fluid which then goes to the steam generator. Because of radioactivity the unit will be enclosed in a concrete pit and will not be accessible during periods of operation. Immediately after shutdown it will be necessary to allow time for radioactive decay before the unit will be accessible to personnel. Because of inaccessibility and possible long periods allowed for decay time, it is imperative that the unit give trouble free operation. During periods of shutdown, the internals should have easy access for inspection and repair if necessary so that down time is held to a minimum. The steam generator is designed to generate superheated steam using liquid sodium from the intermediate heat exchanger as the heat source. Its basic design is a shell and tube unit made up of three difference sections: (1) a boiler section, (2) a steam drum, and (3) a superheater section. These three sections are combined into a single unit construction with a large sphere as the steam drum connecting the boiler and superheater section. This design makes a relatively long unit but has the advantage of reducing costs since the steam drum acts a a closure for one end of the boiler and superheater and eliminates the need for external connecting piping.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 2. Chemical & Stress Analysis

Description: Introduction: This volume deals principally with the chemical analysis and the stress analysis for a sodium to sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium to water steam generator. The work presented is an extension and modification of the analysis presented in the preliminary design report. The chemical analysis covers the sodium cover gas system and the effects of sodium-water reactions in the event of a leak in the steam generator. Considerable design work was done in an effort to maintain the integrity of the steam generator vessel under maximum leak conditions. The method of sizing relief valves for each unit under varying leak rates is presented in this text and operation of the unit for the various leak rates is resented in the Operation and Maintenance volume. The stress analysis section covers those thermal transients which would be physically possible with this intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator design. Attention has been given to methods of operation which would minimize the magnitude and frequency of thermal shocks. Certain areas have been studied in detail where thermal stresses appear high. This report also includes a structural design basis for handling stress analysis of combined mechanical, hydrostatic and thermal stresses and conditions for using creep and stress rupture properties.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim Report of Nuclear Analysis Performed on SM-2 Core and Vessel : September 1, 1958 to December 31, 1959.

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a description of the nuclear analysis performed upon the SM-2 core and vessel for the period September 1, 1958 to December 31, 1959. Calculations are given for core reactivity, power distributions, lifetime, reactor control, kinetics, radiation problems, fuel and poison burn-ups, and the nuclear effects of poisons, temperature, and geometry. Wherever possible, experimental data is included in order to test the validity of the analytical models. The SM-2 nuclear analysis was performed by Alco Products, in. under Tasks 1, 8, and 10 of Contract No. AT(30-2)-326 for the Atomic Energy Commission.
Date: May 27, 1960
Creator: Bobe, P. E.; Birken, S. H.; Byrne, B. J.; Clancy, E. F. & Fried, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale "Up or Down" Analysis for Prototype Test

Description: Introduction: In conjunction with the final design and development of a 70 MW sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium steam generator, an analysis is required which can be used as a basis for a determination to scale up or scale down the designs. Included in this analysis are those considerations leading to the recommendation of the best prototype test unit and to some of the limits imposed on scaling up or down when considering future applications of designs other than those actually tested. In addition, these considerations include aspects required to accurately predict the performance, operation, mechanical reliability, and feasibility of fabrication of the 70 MW design.
Date: May 1, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Zero Power Experiments on SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I

Description: Abstract: An analysis of SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I zero power experiments was made by comparing these cores to each other and to AM-1 Core I on the basis of critical bank positions, bank calibrations and available chemical analyses of the fuel plate compositions. The effects of replacing boron absorbers by europium absorbers upon rod worth and stuck rod conditions were studied. Comparisons of measured and calculated power distributions were made. It was concluded that both SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I contain nearly identical B-10 loading of 17.79 grams, compared to the best estimate of 15.75 grams for SM-1 Core I. The available data indicates that all three cores possess similar nuclear characteristics.
Date: October 5, 1960
Creator: Paluszkiewicz, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-1 Research and Development Program: Long-lived Induced Activity Buildup During SM-1 Core I Lifetime. Task XVIII, Phase I

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 performed during Core I lifetime (June 3, 1957 to April 28, 1960) are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as mathematical equations used to account for the observed activity levels. The data have shown that Co60 is the major contributor to radiation levels in the SM-1. Co60 activity arises from the cobalt in Haynes 25 alloy flux suppressors, and the cobalt impurity in stainless steel. After 35 months operation at an average power level of 55%, deposited Co60 activity accounted for approximately 83% of the total radiation level (mr/hr) contributed by the long-lived gamma emitting nuclides. The contribution of the primary coolant activity to the total radiation level is insignificant when compared to the contribution of the activity deposited on the walls of the system. The radiation level on the super-heater side of the steam generator was about 1400 mr/hr after 35 months of reactor operation. The percentages of Co60 activity in the coolant and in the deposits were not the same. This indicates either that nuclides are depositing irreversibly on the surface of the system, or that all nuclides are not exchanging at the same rate. The ratio of Co58/Co60 in the deposits shows that a major fraction of the nuclides are irreversibly deposited. Mathematical equations derived during the course of work were used to predict the observed activity buildup on SM-1 primary system surfaces. Certain constants in the the equations were obtained from the experimental data. Calculated values of activity levels based on the equations were in good agreement with the activity levels found on the primary system. The equations may be ...
Date: November 30, 1960
Creator: Bergmann, C. A.; Bergen, C.; Cox, J. F.; Chupak, J. & Grant, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 4. Operation & Maintenance

Description: This technical report contains the operation and maintenance specifications for the intermediate heat exchanger and the steam generator. The report contains eight sections: (1) General Information, (2) Shipping and Installation, (3) Operation Procedures, (4) Scram and Casualty Shutdowns, (5) Leaks, (6) Instrumentation and Control, (7) Maintenance, and (8) four Appendixes (a) Boiler Water Chemistry Recommendations, (b) Final Concept Drawings, (c) Industrial Nucleonics Literature on Liquid Level Detector, and (d) Sodium Purity Control Recommendations.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for Insertion of the PM-1-M-2 Element in the SM-1 Core II

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the Martin Co. PM-1-M-2 test element and analyzes the potential hazard incurred by its inclusion in the SM-1 Core II. A nuclear analysis develops power distributions and reactivity effects. Hydraulic and thermal analyses develop anticipated burnout heat flux ratios. An evaluation of the risk involved with the inclusion of this element is presented. In view of the narrow margin by which the PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum burnout ratios as defined by Alco Products, Inc., it is recommended that if time permits that critical facility design verification be accomplished. The PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum requirements for insertion in SM-1 Core II and in view of the importance of this element to the PM-1 and PM-3A program, should be considered for insertion.
Date: September 1, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Scoles, J. F.; Brondel, J. O. & Lee, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Kanigen, Electroless Nickel Plating for Steam Side of a Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: Introduction: This is a final report on the evaluation of Kanigen electroless nickel plating for surfaces in contact with water and steam i a sodium heated AISI Type 316 stainless steel steam generator. The purpose of the coasting was to afford protection from stress corrosion cracking originating on the water-steam side of the unit. It has been concluded that the kanigen coating does not afford adequate protection for the services condition intended. This work was performed as part of the research and development program for the United States Atomic Energy Commission sodium Components Design Project.
Date: February 15, 1961
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 3. Specifications

Description: Introduction: Sodium Components Material Specifications. Twenty-three material, inspection and welding specification are presented for the various parts of both the intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator. Tables indicate the applicable parts and assemblies to which these specifications shall apply. For other parts, where the material requirements are not severe, the ASTM or other indicated specifications shall apply.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Evaluation of the SM-1 Penetrated Gasket

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the as-constructed SM-1 penetrated gasket designed for SM-1 Core and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV). This report supplements APAE No. 79, The Summary Hazards Report for Task XIV, and evaluates the effects of a postulated failure of this gasket. The effects of failure on the Maximum Credible Accident are determined and conclusions and recommendations for the use of this gasket are made.
Date: September 8, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Gebhardt, F. G. & James, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV) Covering Special Test Procedures.

Description: Abstract: Test procedures for special tests involving in-core SM-1 temperature and flow instrumentation are described (Task XIV Package Tests). These tests involve in-core steady state flow and temperature measurements, loss of flow transients, load transients, reduced primary system pressure operations and reduced element flow. The thermal and hydraulic conditions prevailing in these tests, including steady state and transient burnout rations, are developed. The effects of reduced system pressure and flow on the burnout ratios are determined as are the expected stuck rod conditions when Task XIV test elements are installed. The effect on the maximum credible accident is included and a recommendation to conduct these Task XIV package tests is made.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Bradley, P. L. & Coombe, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Summary Report for the SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation: Task XIV

Description: Abstract; This technical report describes the changes in the SM-1 incurred by the experiment, Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV), and evaluates the possible hazard involved in these changes. Temperature and flow measurements will be taken on a Task XIV instrumented stationary fuel element, instrumented control rod fuel element and other selected points in the SM-1 core to provide data on the core steady state and transient performance. The hazards evaluation consists of a nuclear evaluation, thermal and hydraulic analysis, description of tests to be performed, and discussion of containment integrity and maximum accident considerations.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Brondel, J. O.; Lee, D. H. & Matthews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suitability of Inconel for Corrosion Protection on Water Side of Sodium Component Steam Generator

Description: Abstract; The heat exchanger and steam generator for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Sodium Components Project will be constructed entirely of type 316 stainless steel. Because of the susceptibility of this alloy to stress corrosion cracking, it is proposed to clad all areas of the steam generator with Inconel where the stainless steel will be exposed to water and steam. This report includes a discussion of the work by numerous investigators that justify the selection of Inconel for this service. A discussion of Inconel type welding alloys is also included.
Date: March 1, 1961
Creator: Phillips, Laurence E. & Vawter, Frank J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for the SM-1 Core II With Special Components

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the SM-1 by the insertion of the SM-1 Core II and special components. The special components consist of impact specimens, a boron gradient rod, SM-2 elements, a PM-1-M element, and high burnup SM-1 Core I elements. The change in hazards, due to operation of SM-1 with Core II and the special components is evaluated. The analysis indicates there is no change in hazards.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J.; Lee, D.; Segalman, I. & Robertson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for the SM-1 Core II Without Special Components

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the SM-1 by the insertion of the SM-1 Core II without special components. The SM-1 Core II components were made to specifications very nearly identical to those of SM-1 Core I. The differences consist of europium absorber sections, internal europium flux suppressors in the control rod fuel elements, and low impurity cladding. Each of the SM-1 Core II components with the exception of the five absorber sections new in SM-1 Core I were subjected to a Zero Power Experiment at the Alco Critical Facility. The results of this experiment indicate that the SM-1 Core II will have nuclear characteristics very similar to that of the SM-1 Core I. Since SM-1 Core II will be operated with the same mode of rod control, in the same core support structure, and with the same primary coolant flow conditions, the thermal characteristics should be essentially identical to that of SM-1 Core I. Also, all kinetic characteristics of SM-1 Core II should be identical to those of SM-1 Core I. This report demonstrates that there is no increase in potential for a hazardous situation at SM-1 due to the replacement of SM-1 Core I by SM-1 Core II.
Date: April 19, 1961
Creator: Gallagher, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger Preliminary Design. Vol. 1, IHX Preliminary Design

Description: Preface: The intermediate heat exchanger is designed for operation in a nuclear power plant using liquid sodium as the primary and secondary coolant. Since the primary fluid coming from the reactor is radioactive, the purpose of the IHX is to transfer heat to a nonradioactive fluid which then goes to a steam generator. Because of this activity the until will be enclosed in a concrete pit and will not be accessible during periods of operation. Immediately after shut down it will be necessary to allow time for radioactive decay before the unit will be accessible to personnel. Because of inaccessibility and possible long periods allowed for decay time, it is imperative that the unit give trouble free operation. During periods of shut down, the internals should have easy access for inspection and repair if necessary so that down time is held to a minimum. The general arrangement of the heat exchanger described in this report presents a conventional design utilizing known materials and existing methods of fabrication. In further consideration of all concepts, designs and analyses developed during this period of the program, it is felt that this preliminary design will provide an intermediate sodium heat exchanger of lower cost and more reliable operation.
Date: February 28, 1959
Creator: Alco Proucts (Firm)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of Asymmetric Arrays of Control Rods in Nuclear Reactors

Description: Introduction: Seldom does the actual arrangement of control elements in a nuclear reactor confers to the ideal and convenient mathematical array. In order to achieve shim control. safety and regulation, it is desirable to design with rods of different sizes and materials. With given fuel element arrangement, typically in square or hexagonal lattice spacing, there will be rods located at different distances form the center of the core and from each other. As the reactor operates, absorbers will be withdrawn, leaving further asymmetries in the location of those remaining. It is the purpose of this report to develop in detail a two-group diffusion theory with as complete generality as possible. The method is as yet restricted to the unreflected core, or to the reflected core by use of reflector savings and bare equivalent geometries.
Date: April 25, 1959
Creator: Murray, Raymond L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination Program Task II. Volume II, Evaluation of Chemical Agents for Nuclear Reactor Decontamination

Description: Abstract: The caustic permanganate-rinse decontamination treatment was investigated. Loop and metallurgical studies were performed to determine optimum operating conditions as well as the metallurgical effects of the treatment. A treatment with 10 percent sodium hydroxide and 5 percent potassium permanganate solution followed by a rinse with a 5 percent ammonium citrate, 2 percent citric acid and 1/2 percent Versene solution was chosen for the decontamination of a stainless steel steam generator. Decontamination factors of greater than 50 were obtained in loop tests using the above treatment. Corrosion and metallurgical results indicated a total penetration of less than 0.01 mil on annealed Type 304 stainless steel with no evidence of any deleterious effects.
Date: February 15, 1959
Creator: Zegger, John L. & Pancer, Guyon P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DuPont Prototype Safety and Control Rod Drive Testing

Description: Summary: Prototype testing of the safety and control rod drives indicated that both units functioned properly. No major problems were encountered during testing. Seal leakage data collected indicated that the seal units were performing satisfactorily. Scram times during both cold and hot testing were excellent and actually better than expected.
Date: April 25, 1960
Creator: VandeMark, G. M. & Krause, P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Extended Zero Power Experiments on the Army Package Power Reactor : ZPE-2

Description: Introduction: This report is principally concerned with analysis of measurements taken on the APPR-1 core during the course of the extended Zero Power Experiments (ZPE-2). The bulk of these measurements are reported in APAE No. 21. There are some additional measurements reported in APAE Memo 115. In addition to the analysis of the ZPE-2 data some re-evaluation has been made of a few of the results obtained from the first set of Zero Power Experiments (ZPE-1). The ZPE-1 measurements are reported in APAE No. 8. During the course of analysis work it became apparent that a considerable amount of basic experimental data had been taken on the APPR-1 core. It seemed worthwhile to organize this report in such a fashion that other investigators could make maximum use of this data. It provides excellent opportunity for individuals and groups interested in basic reactor reactor analysis problems to check calculational techniques. An attempt has been made to include all of the fundamental information concerning the material content and geometry of the APPR-1. This material is in included in the Appendices. In addition, cross-section files and group constants have been listed rather extensively in order that other investigators could compare results presented in this report with those obtained by other techniques. Listing are generally given to six places although not all of these places are significant. This was done so as to avoid round off error.
Date: May 7, 1958
Creator: Byrne, B. J. & Oby, P. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extended SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-2

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a description and results of a second series of critical experiments performed on the SM-2 core mock-up, as additional to the first series of experiments reported in APAE No. 54. The SM-2 core mock-up contains 36.4 kg U-235 and and estimated 67.9 gm B-10. The equivalent diameter and the active height are about 22 in.; the metal-to-water volume ration is 0.344. Data is presented on activation, reactivity, and stuck rod measurements. All measurements were conducted on the open seven control rod array employing 38 stationary fuel elements. Activation measurements consisted of neutron flux measurements using uranium fission foils for relative power distribution studies, the effect of flux suppressors on reducing power peaks, blocked coolant channel measurements, and gamma ray dose distribution. Reactivity measurements were performed to determine the effect f flow divider, flux suppressors and stimulated high temperature and pressure operation; b-10 loading in the SM-2 core; and core material coefficients. For the later, the worth in cents per gm or cents per cc was determined at simulated temperature of 510 degree F for B-10, U-235, stainless steel, and void. Stuck rod measurements were made to obtain an indication of the criticality margin in the event one or more control rods should stick in the operating position.
Date: June 30, 1961
Creator: McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; Raby, T. M.; Schrader, E. W. & Walthousen, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department