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Buckling Measurements : Heavy Natural Uranium Tubular Fuel Assemblies

Description: One-region buckling measurements that were made on a series of D/sub 2/O- moderated lattices of heavy uranium metal tubes in the Process Development Pile at Savannah River Laboratory are presented. The purposes of these measurements are to provide normalization points for lattice bucklings and to extend the study of natural uranium- D/sub 2/O systems. The dependence of buckiing on the moderator-to-fuel ratio is studied for two types of lattices.
Date: November 20, 1963
Creator: Dunklee, A. E. & Graves, William E. (William Ernest), 1941-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Resonance Capture Approximations

Description: The program KRUDE, which solves the slowing down and adjoint equations for a mixture of resonance and nonresonance isotopes in an infinite homogeneous medium, was used to evaluate some resonance capture approximations (variational and successive) that use linear combinations of narrow and wide resonance fluxes. Results obtained for resonance capture in the 291-ev resonance of Zr/sup 91/ and the 192-ev resonance of U/sup 238/ are compared, and three methods for including Doppler effects in the variational method are considered.
Date: December 16, 1963
Creator: Edgar, K. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bucklings, Disadvantage Factors, and [Delta]28 Measurements in Some Undermoderated Slightly Enriched Cores

Description: The reactivity lifetime of a water-moderated, thermal, power reactor using a low enrichment fuel is, in part, dependent upon the conversion ratio. The High Conversion Critical Experiment (Hi-C) was initiated at Argonne to extend the rage of investigations with light water moderated, slightly enriched, oxide-fueled cores. Bucklings were obtained from the clean critical core size and reflector savings values. The so-called "integral" technique was used to measure the disadvantage factor.
Date: 1963
Creator: Baird, Q. L. & Boynton, A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Designs and Special Applications for Fast Breeders

Description: The purpose of this paper is to describe a few of the suggested advanced concepts for fast breeder reactors and to compare these with the standard approach as to their potential advantage. I have attempted to estimate the economic effect of full technical success with each of the proposed concepts. The proposed concepts include: (1) single sodium system, (2) steam-cooled core concept, (3) direct cycle reactor using potassium as reactor coolant and working fluid, (4) molten plutonium-fuel alloy circulated and cooled by a jet of sodium, (5) settled-bed core, (6) molten salt concept, and (7) paste-fuel system.
Date: November 11, 1963
Creator: Hammond, R. Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Studies on the Current Carrying Capacity of NbZr Wires Under Conditions of Fixed and Swept Magnetic Field

Description: Abstract: The current-carrying capacity of Nb- Zr wire has been studied under conditions of swept magnetic field and fixed wire current and of fixed magnetic field and swept wire current. The effects of wire movement, thermal environment, copper coating of the wire, and rate of sweep of wire current or magnetic field have been determined for these conditions of test.
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Laverick, Charles.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equilibrium Studies of Uranyl Complexes : II, Interaction of Uranyl Ion with Citric Acid

Description: Abstract: A potentiometric study of the complex formation between citric acid (H3L) and the uranyl ion at 25° and ionic strengths of 0.1 and 1.0 (KNO3) is reported From the concentration dependence of the formation constant, it is concluded that polynuclear complexes are formed in which bridging between metal ions occurs through carboxylate and hyroxyl groups of the ligand. The values of the logarithms of the formation constant of the metal checlate [UO2L-]/[UO2+][L3-] and of the dimerization constant [(UO2)xL22-]/[UO2+][L3-] are found to be 7.40 and 4.07 respectively. Infrared absorption measurements of protonated and dissociated carboxyl groups in aqueous uranyl citrte system indicated the presence of both carobxy-late and hydroxide bridging in the polynuclear complex. On the basis of the "core plus links" treatment of polynuclear complexes, the polymeric species in solution in the buffer region between 3 and 4 2/3 moles of base per mole of metal complex appears to be predominantly (U)2)2L2((OH)5(UO2)2L2)216-.
Date: January 1964
Creator: Rajan, K. S. & Martell, Arthur E. (Arthur Earl), 1916-2003.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion Exchange Absorption of Cesium by Potassium Hexacyanocobalt(II) Ferrate(II)

Description: Abstract: A description is given of the preparation and properties of a granular form of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) that is a highly selective absorbent for cesium ion. The material is suitable for use in a large-scale ion exchange column, and offers the possibility of isolating and concentrating Cs137 from fission product waste solutions that arise from the processing of nuclear fuels.
Date: October 23, 1963
Creator: Prout, William E., 1921-; Russell, E. R. & Groh, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on the Optical and Electrical Properties of the Alkali Halides : Presented at the American Society for Testing Materials, 66th Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, New Jersey, June 23-28, 1963.

Description: Abstract: Various mechanisms for the formation of point defects in ionic crystals are considered. Their probable importance as a function of the energy of the ionizing radiation and the temperature at which the irradiation takes place is discussed. Complex centers formed from aggregates of simple point defects are reviewed and their occurrence considered in terms of the expected spatial distribution of the point defects. The effect of high energy x rays and protons on the ionic conductivity is discussed in terms of a new interpretation of the conductivity curve as a function of temperature, and it is suggested that radiation-enhanced diffusion may be important in explaining the experimental data.
Date: 1963
Creator: Royce, B. S. H. (Barrie S. H.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies in Contact Microradiography : Presented at the American Society for Testing Materials, 66th Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, New Jersey, June 23-28, 1963.

Description: Abstract: Recent developments in techniques for low-voltage radiography have found application for the examination and evaluation of minute details in small or thin specimens. Utilization of x-ray tubes and helium chambers with thin windows for maximum transmission of soft x rays and bare film with dark-room exposure techniques have allowed very high contrast radiographs to be produced on low-contrast materials. These conditions, coupled with very high resolution photographic emulsion detectors, have resulted in the observation of detail approximately 1 {micron} in size. Useful examination of the plates and subsequent reproductions have been made at magnifications as high as 500X. This contact system offers the advantage of evaluation of a relatively large area, as compared to the restricted field of observation of projection microradiography. Included among the subjects have been graphite-coated UC₂ particles, graphite, beryllium, paper, and other organic specimens.
Date: 1963
Creator: McClung, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Deposition by Fast Neutrons. [Part] II, Yield of the Fricke Dosimeter at 14.6 Mev

Description: A measurement of the yield of the aerated, ferrous sulfate-sulfuric acid (Fricke) dosimeter for 14.6-Mev neutrons gave a value of GF /sub Fe/sup +5/= 11.5 plus or minus 1.8. G/sub Fe/ number of ferric ions produced per 100 ev deposited. The determination combined an analysis of the energy deposit by scattering and charged particle reactions with a determination of the neutron flux by two independent means: (1) a "long counter" method and (2) an activation technique. The result is in reasonable agreement with a prediction for G/sub Fe// sup plus or minus 5/ based on measured yields of the dosimeter to irradiations by monoenergetic charged particles.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Axtmann, Robert C. & Licari, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Analysis of PM Long Life Core 3

Description: Introduction. Under AEC contract the Martin Company has followed up the design and construction of the PM-1 and PM-3A nuclear power plants with R&D efforts seeking improved plant efficiency, increased core life and higher operating power. The Advanced PM cores have evolved step by step, with the addition of degrees of freedom to design latitude. A first replacement core, Core 2, has been designed to achieve 50 percent greater life than PM-1 through relatively minor design changes. Core 3 realizes the potential extensive modifications in the fuel element and control element configurations. This paper outlines an analysis effort undertaken to define what may be called a performance profile over a range of configurations of interest for Core 3. It should be emphasized that this is a parametric or concept study and not a final design effort. The results of this study clearly indicate that a lifetime of 100 Mw-yr can be obtained from a 7 ft pressurized water core. If employed as a 10-Mw heat source for present PM equipment, this core has a lifetime approaching that of the plant equipment, 90,000 full-power hours. Core 3 will be suitable for applications demanding up to 40-Mw operating thermal power.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Bagley, Raymond. & George, Critz.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Fluoride Ions on the Aqueous Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys

Description: Abstract. A review has been made of the effects of fluoride ions on the corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys in high-temperature water. Corrosion was found to occur as the result of contamination of the water or the zirconium surface. A major source of fluorides is undue delay in rinsing the HF-HNO3 pickling solution during surface preparation. The oxide on corrosion-resistant material has been found to contain up to 7600 ppm fluoride from this source. The threshold concentration of fluoride in the oxide film which produces poor corrosion resistance ranges from 8500 to 17,000 ppm. Accelerated corrosion from fluorides in water at 300 to 360 C occurs at about 100 ppm, although increased corrosion has been reported at 10 ppm fluoride in water at 300 C. Fluorocarbon plastics degrade and contribute fluorides to the high-temperature water or to the alloy surface when in direct contact with zirconium. Chlorides (1 to 10,000 ppm) and iodides (1270 ppm) do not adversely affect the corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys in water at 360 C. The mechanism of corrosion is not well understood but apparently is related to the formation of insoluble zirconium oxyfluorides during pickling and during exposure to fluoride-contaminated water.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Berry, Warren E., 1922-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A High Speed Readout for Multi-Channel Pulse Height Analyzers

Description: From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. In computer-coupled automated activation analysis such as in the Mark II system, conventional methods of data readout impose a serious restriction on the minimum handling time per sample. A data coupler for operating between the data accumulation system and the computer tape unit was developed which contributes nothing to the handling time per sample, does not distort the data, and prepares the data for direct computer entry. In addition to activation analysis, the coupler may be used to obtain successive spectra separated in time by 0.16 sec in the study of short-lived isotopes.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Wilkins, W. W.; Fite, L. E. & Wainerdi, Richard E., 1931-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic Exit Steam Quality Control for Boiling Water Reactors

Description: From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The need for control of the flow distribution and/or steam quality in boiling reactors is discussed. A quality control device is being developed which consists of an entrance venturi and an exit venturi for measuring the flow rates into and out of the channel, means for comparing the two flow rate signals, and a value for regulating the flow rate. This device can be used either as a constant quality device or as a controlled-quality device. Results are given of air-water studies of two-phase flow in a vertical venturi.
Date: November 1963
Creator: Gall, D. A. & Doyle, E. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scattering of a Velocity Selected Potassium Beam by Neon, Argon, and Xenon Gases at Different Temperatures

Description: Abstract: A thermal K beam was velocity selected, and scattered by Ne, Ar, and Xe gases. The dependence of the total cross section on relative velocity is approximately v/sup -0.4/ for K--Ar and K--Xe, and v/sup 0.8/ for K--Ne. The average relative velocity ranges were 400 to 1430 m/sec for Ne, 480 to 1350 m/sec for Ar, and 380 to 1320 m/sec for Xe. The dependence of the cross section on relative velocity was obtained by removing the cross section from the collision frequency integral. For the v/sup -0.4/ dependences, this gives results correct to 3%. For the v/sup -0.8/ dependences, the error is most likely greater. Three gas temperatures were used: liquid air, room, and 200 deg C. The results for a given gas at different temperatures are consistent with kinetic theory predictions.
Date: 1963
Creator: Brown, Howard H., Jr.; Lulla, Kotu. & Bederson, Benjamin.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wire Chamber -- Computer System

Description: First paragraph of report: M. Neumann and H. Sherrard reported the development of a wire spark chamber experiment toward receiving digitized spark information. Since late 1962 our effort has been directed toward a wire-chamber with a core memory, using standard ferrite cores, and toward an on-line operation between spark chamber and computer.
Date: June 1964
Creator: Bounin, J.; Miller, R.; Neumann, M.; Sarma, J. & Sherrard, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elastic Scattering of Atoms and Molecules in the Thermal Energy Range

Description: Abstract: the goal of research on elastic scattering of atomic (or molecular) beams is the elucidation of the interaction potential V(r). the present discussion is confined to thermal energy collisions ([less than]1 ev), sensitive primarily to the attractive part of the potential. Studies of the velocity dependence of the differential and total elastic scattering cross sections have yielded information as follows: (1) The functional form of the long-range attraction : V[tilde]-C/r6, from differential cross sections I(0), at low angles: I(0) oc 0-7/3. (2) The attractive potential constant C, from total cross sections: Q oc (C/v)2/5, (3) The depth of the potential well [epsilon], from the rainbow effect in I(0): 0r=f(1/2mv2/[epsilon). (4) The equilibrium separation rm, from de Broglie interference producing undulations in (I0). (5) the product [epsilon]rm, from extrema in Q(v), and thus rm (from absolute Q's). (6) Observations of m maxima in plots of vQ5/2 vx. v-1 (termed elastic impact spectra) implied the existence of at least m bound states (discrete vibrational levels of zero angular momentum for the composite system).
Date: 1963
Creator: Bernstein, Richard B. (Richard Barry), 1923-1990.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of a Liquid Phase Chemonuclear Ozone Process

Description: At the Chemonuclear Workshop held at Brookhaven National laboratory in November 1962 it was pointed out that the production of ozone from oxygen by a liquid phase fission fragment chemonuclear process appears to have reasonable economic potential. The maximum theoretical reaction yield for the formation of ozone from oxygen is a "G" value of 68 molecules for 100 ev based on heat of reaction data. The authors felt a "G" value of 15 to be reasonable for this study. the reactor system chosen has liquid oxygen as its moderator and the operating pressure and temperature were selected so as to allow boiling of the oxygen-ozone mixture. The total plant investment cost is estimated to be in the range of $100,000,000. Other system designs will be considered in the future.
Date: November 19, 1963
Creator: Cagnetta, J. P.; Goellner, D. & Steinberg, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluxes and Reaction Rates in the Presence of Interferring Resonances

Description: The effects of competition between resonances of different isotopes were investigated. Flux and reaction rate calculations on a Pu/sup 239/-- U/sup 238/ system revealed that U/sup 238/ exhibits both self-shielding and interference effects, the latter becoming noticeable at enrichment of a few per cent. Gold activation was also found to be depressed by the presence of U, but was insensitive at low enrichment values, Investigation of the Pu/sup 239/ resonance integral showed an asymmetric effect involving both interference between potential and resonant scattering and interference with resonance absorption in another isotope. The interference scattering arising in each resonance level had a notable effect on the average change in the Doppler coefficient. (D.C.W.)
Date: November 1963
Creator: Kelber, Charles N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions in Tracks of High Energy Particles

Description: Abstract. An a priori calculation of the radiolysis of oxygen gas in the pressure ; range 10-3 to 100 atm has been made. In the low background region (1- 100 atm) all track effects have been considered. The calculated G(O3) values seem to be in reasonable agreement with experiment if only one excited oxygen molecule is initially formed per ion pair. Effects of pressure, LET and dose rate have been discussed. The radiation-induced chain decomposition of O3 has not been considered.
Date: June 4, 1963
Creator: Fueki, Kenji & Magee, John L., 1914-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions of the Hydrated Electron

Description: Abstract. The rate constants for the reaction of the hydrated electron eaq with a number of solutes and with radicals formed in water radiolysis are reported. Hydrated electrons were formed in the electron pulse irradiated solutions at concentrations in the range from 1 to 10 pM. Their reaction was followed by the decay of the optical absorption of eaq at 5780 A. Generally a 04 psec pulse of 15 MeV electrons was used. In the absence of eaq scavengers, second-order kinetics prevailed owing to the dominance of the reactions,eaq+eaq, eaq+H, and eaq+H202 when OH radical scavengers were present in alkaline solution. An analysis of the decay curves leads to values for keaq+eaq and keaq+H of 0.9~ 1010 and 3 x 1010 M-1 sec-1, respectively. With scavenger present in excess over [eaq], pseudo first-order kinetics were found and rate constants for a number of inorganic and organic compounds are reported. The agreement of these and other rate constants with diffusion-controlled reaction theory is discussed.
Date: June 17, 1963
Creator: Gordon, S.; Hart, E. J.; Matheson, Max S. & Rabani, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulse Radiolysis Studies of the Reactivity of the Solvated Electron in Ethanol and Methanol

Description: Abstract. By means of the pulse radiolysis technique a short-lived transient species has been observed in irradiated de-aerated ethanol and methanol, exhibiting an optical absorption throughout the visible and near infra-red. This transient is suggested to be the solvated electron on the basis of the nature of the spectrum, the reactivity with hydrogen ion and with various organic electron acceptors, and the formation of mononegative ions of some of these acceptors. The absolute rate constants have been determined for the reactions of the solvated electron with hydrogen ion, oxygen and benzyl chloride in ethanol and methanol. The diphenylide ion was found to be short-lived in ethanol. The absolute rate constant for the first-order decay of the diphenylide ion has been determined.
Date: June 10, 1963
Creator: Taub, Irwin A.; Sauer, Myran, C., Jr. & Dorfman, Leon M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Phase Radiolysis of Propane

Description: Abstract. the direct and inert-gas radiolysis, as well as the vacuum ultra-violet photolysis of CD3CH2CD3, CH3CD2CH3 and C3H2+C3D3 mixtures have been investigated in the presence of radical scavengers. The major conclusions are : (a) at atmospheric pressures, neutral propane decomposition contributes to the observed products although to a lesser extent than parent ion decompositions ; (b) a variation in pressure has a pronounced effect on the fragmentation of the parent ion ; (c) the hydrogen atoms in the ethyl ion are randomized in the direct as well as in the inert-gas sensitized radiolysis ; (d) rearrangement in the parent ion is of minor importance in the radiolysis ; (e) although the formation of propylene is related to the propyl ion, it is not necessarily produced by the neutralization of this ion.
Date: May 31, 1963
Creator: Ausloos, Pierre J.; Lias, Sharon G., 1935- & Sandoval, L. B., (Mrs.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department