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Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II Without the SM-1 Core I High Burnup Elements and With the PM-1-M-2 Element

Description: Abstract: The removal of both SM-1 Core I high burnup elements from SM-1 Core II and the insertion of the PM-1-M-2 element and the SM-1 Core I spare element in SM-1 Core II is discussed. Nuclear and thermal characteristics of Core II with these changes are presented and conclusions related to the changes in the hazard potential are made. If the core change indicated by this report is made, local peaking factors will be decreased and burnout ratios will be increased. This, of course, in itself leads to a more conservative estimate of core safety. There is no conceivable reason why the perturbation may not be safely made in the SM-1 Core II.
Date: October 7, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Lee, D. H. & Mathews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Survey of the Effects of Neutron Irradiation on the Impact and Other Mechanical Properties of Pressure Vessel Steels for the SM-2 Reactor

Description: Abstract: This technical report summarizes the data obtained in a recent literature survey conducted to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the impact and other mechanical properties of both ferritic steels and austenitic stainless steels. The survey was primarily aimed at obtaining sufficient data on the behavior of pressure vessel steels at high integrated neutron flux levels in order that a reference material of construction could be selected for the SM-2 (APPR-1B) reactor vessel. Materials studied in this literature survey included carbon and low alloy steels such as: ASTM A-212B, ASTM A-201, ASTM A-301B (CR-Mo), ASTM A-106 (coarse and fine grained), ASTM A-285, ASTM A-302B (Mn-Mo), ASTM A-353, ASTM A-203 Grade D, E-7016 carbon steel weld metal, USS Carilloy T-1, HY-65 and HY-80. In addition, Types 304 and 347 stainless steels were also investigated as representative austenitic materials which might be used in pressure vessel construction. A careful evaluation was made of the irradiation induced changes in the mechanical properties of the above materials. The ferritic steels were evaluated primarily on the basis of increases in transition temperature due to irradiation and decreases in the amount of maximum energy absorbed prior to ductile failure. Factors such as industrial experience, changes in other mechanical properties and the susceptibility of these materials to temper embrittlement were also considered. Austenitic stainless steels were evaluated on the basis of post-irradiation and low temperature impact strength and on irradiation induced changes in other mechanical properties. Based on available data, it is concluded that austenitic stainless steels are capable of resisting harmful property damage at integrated neutron fluxes > 1 Mev of at least t to 2 x 10(21) nvt. However, with the application of special reactor operating procedures, ASTM A212B will be satisfactory at integrated neutron fluxes up to 5 x 10(19) nvt.
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Kelleman, Richard William.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim Report of Nuclear Analysis Performed on SM-2 Core and Vessel : September 1, 1958 to December 31, 1959.

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a description of the nuclear analysis performed upon the SM-2 core and vessel for the period September 1, 1958 to December 31, 1959. Calculations are given for core reactivity, power distributions, lifetime, reactor control, kinetics, radiation problems, fuel and poison burn-ups, and the nuclear effects of poisons, temperature, and geometry. Wherever possible, experimental data is included in order to test the validity of the analytical models. The SM-2 nuclear analysis was performed by Alco Products, in. under Tasks 1, 8, and 10 of Contract No. AT(30-2)-326 for the Atomic Energy Commission.
Date: May 27, 1960
Creator: Bobe, P. E.; Birken, S. H.; Byrne, B. J.; Clancy, E. F. & Fried, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Zero Power Experiments on SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I

Description: Abstract: An analysis of SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I zero power experiments was made by comparing these cores to each other and to AM-1 Core I on the basis of critical bank positions, bank calibrations and available chemical analyses of the fuel plate compositions. The effects of replacing boron absorbers by europium absorbers upon rod worth and stuck rod conditions were studied. Comparisons of measured and calculated power distributions were made. It was concluded that both SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I contain nearly identical B-10 loading of 17.79 grams, compared to the best estimate of 15.75 grams for SM-1 Core I. The available data indicates that all three cores possess similar nuclear characteristics.
Date: October 5, 1960
Creator: Paluszkiewicz, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-1 Research and Development Program: Long-lived Induced Activity Buildup During SM-1 Core I Lifetime. Task XVIII, Phase I

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 performed during Core I lifetime (June 3, 1957 to April 28, 1960) are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as mathematical equations used to account for the observed activity levels. The data have shown that Co60 is the major contributor to radiation levels in the SM-1. Co60 activity arises from the cobalt in Haynes 25 alloy flux suppressors, and the cobalt impurity in stainless steel. After 35 months operation at an average power level of 55%, deposited Co60 activity accounted for approximately 83% of the total radiation level (mr/hr) contributed by the long-lived gamma emitting nuclides. The contribution of the primary coolant activity to the total radiation level is insignificant when compared to the contribution of the activity deposited on the walls of the system. The radiation level on the super-heater side of the steam generator was about 1400 mr/hr after 35 months of reactor operation. The percentages of Co60 activity in the coolant and in the deposits were not the same. This indicates either that nuclides are depositing irreversibly on the surface of the system, or that all nuclides are not exchanging at the same rate. The ratio of Co58/Co60 in the deposits shows that a major fraction of the nuclides are irreversibly deposited. Mathematical equations derived during the course of work were used to predict the observed activity buildup on SM-1 primary system surfaces. Certain constants in the the equations were obtained from the experimental data. Calculated values of activity levels based on the equations were in good agreement with the activity levels found on the primary system. The equations may be ...
Date: November 30, 1960
Creator: Bergmann, C. A.; Bergen, C.; Cox, J. F.; Chupak, J. & Grant, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for Insertion of the PM-1-M-2 Element in the SM-1 Core II

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the Martin Co. PM-1-M-2 test element and analyzes the potential hazard incurred by its inclusion in the SM-1 Core II. A nuclear analysis develops power distributions and reactivity effects. Hydraulic and thermal analyses develop anticipated burnout heat flux ratios. An evaluation of the risk involved with the inclusion of this element is presented. In view of the narrow margin by which the PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum burnout ratios as defined by Alco Products, Inc., it is recommended that if time permits that critical facility design verification be accomplished. The PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum requirements for insertion in SM-1 Core II and in view of the importance of this element to the PM-1 and PM-3A program, should be considered for insertion.
Date: September 1, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Scoles, J. F.; Brondel, J. O. & Lee, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV) Covering Special Test Procedures.

Description: Abstract: Test procedures for special tests involving in-core SM-1 temperature and flow instrumentation are described (Task XIV Package Tests). These tests involve in-core steady state flow and temperature measurements, loss of flow transients, load transients, reduced primary system pressure operations and reduced element flow. The thermal and hydraulic conditions prevailing in these tests, including steady state and transient burnout rations, are developed. The effects of reduced system pressure and flow on the burnout ratios are determined as are the expected stuck rod conditions when Task XIV test elements are installed. The effect on the maximum credible accident is included and a recommendation to conduct these Task XIV package tests is made.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Bradley, P. L. & Coombe, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Summary Report for the SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation: Task XIV

Description: Abstract; This technical report describes the changes in the SM-1 incurred by the experiment, Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV), and evaluates the possible hazard involved in these changes. Temperature and flow measurements will be taken on a Task XIV instrumented stationary fuel element, instrumented control rod fuel element and other selected points in the SM-1 core to provide data on the core steady state and transient performance. The hazards evaluation consists of a nuclear evaluation, thermal and hydraulic analysis, description of tests to be performed, and discussion of containment integrity and maximum accident considerations.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Brondel, J. O.; Lee, D. H. & Matthews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for the SM-1 Core II With Special Components

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the SM-1 by the insertion of the SM-1 Core II and special components. The special components consist of impact specimens, a boron gradient rod, SM-2 elements, a PM-1-M element, and high burnup SM-1 Core I elements. The change in hazards, due to operation of SM-1 with Core II and the special components is evaluated. The analysis indicates there is no change in hazards.
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J.; Lee, D.; Segalman, I. & Robertson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extended SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-2

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a description and results of a second series of critical experiments performed on the SM-2 core mock-up, as additional to the first series of experiments reported in APAE No. 54. The SM-2 core mock-up contains 36.4 kg U-235 and and estimated 67.9 gm B-10. The equivalent diameter and the active height are about 22 in.; the metal-to-water volume ration is 0.344. Data is presented on activation, reactivity, and stuck rod measurements. All measurements were conducted on the open seven control rod array employing 38 stationary fuel elements. Activation measurements consisted of neutron flux measurements using uranium fission foils for relative power distribution studies, the effect of flux suppressors on reducing power peaks, blocked coolant channel measurements, and gamma ray dose distribution. Reactivity measurements were performed to determine the effect f flow divider, flux suppressors and stimulated high temperature and pressure operation; b-10 loading in the SM-2 core; and core material coefficients. For the later, the worth in cents per gm or cents per cc was determined at simulated temperature of 510 degree F for B-10, U-235, stainless steel, and void. Stuck rod measurements were made to obtain an indication of the criticality margin in the event one or more control rods should stick in the operating position.
Date: June 30, 1961
Creator: McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; Raby, T. M.; Schrader, E. W. & Walthousen, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-1 Research and Development Program, Activity Buildup Program Task 1 : final report February 1958 to June 1959

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 (APPR-1) performed from February 1958 to January 1959 are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Mathematical equations to describe the activity buildup are derived. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as the predicted radiation levels at the end of core life.
Date: August 10, 1959
Creator: Brown, William S.; Bergen, C. Richard.; Bergmann, Carl A.; Chupak, Julius.; Fitzsimmons, Susanne R. & Grant, Louis G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-1

Description: Abstract: Critical experiment studies were performed, varying the parameters U235, B10 and metal to water ratio, in the SM-2 7 x 7 core configuration with 38 stationary elements and seven control rods of the SM-1 (APPR-1) type. An experimental mock-up of the SM-1 was assembled using the basic SM-2 fuel plates. Excellent agreement between the SM-1 boron loading, determined by chemical analysis, and the SM-1 mock-up boron loading, for equivalent bank positions, was noted. Several SM-2 mock-ups, cold clean and midlife, were assembled and studied with regard to reflector effects, flow divider effects, relative control rod array worths, critical rod configurations, and relative power distributions. The results of these experiments indicate as satisfactory a U235 loading of 36.4 Kg and a B10 loading of 63.4 grams for the SM-2. Attention is drawn to numerous power peaks present in the active core. The open seven control rod array has a slight reactivity advantage over the closed seven array and consequent minor disadvantage with respect to "stuck rod" criteria.
Date: November 30, 1959
Creator: Noaks, J. W.; McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Schrader, E. W. & Weiss, S. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielding Measurements at the SM-1 Reactor : June 1961

Description: Abstract: Neutron flux and gamma radiation measurements through the SM-1 primary shield were made at the startup of Core II in June 1961. They extend previous measurements (APAE-35) both vertically and horizontally in the primary shield and in the rod drive pit. Dose rate measurements on spent fuel elements under water are also reported.
Date: March 16, 1962
Creator: Moote, F. G. & Obrist, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-1 Reactor Core Inspection at 2/3 Core Life : March 7, 1959 to May 17, 1959

Description: Abstract: This technical report is concerned with the program and results of the SM-1 reactor vessel head removal and core inspection at Fort Belvoir, Virginia from the period March 7, 1969 to May 17, 1959. It covers the operating procedures in detail and records the conditions found and problems encountered in order to make a record for reference in future work of this nature. The major objective of the program, to obtain irradiation data on the SM-1 type core, has been met. The boron control rod elements were found unsatisfactory for full core life, and europium oxide elements were placed in the core for future irradiation stability data. A major problem was experienced with the cracked pressure vessel head studs. The methods developed for the removal of the broken studs are presented. The complete metallurgical study of the stud failure from stress corrosion is included as Appendix B.
Date: January 13, 1960
Creator: Obrist, C. H.; Byrne, B. J.; Connolly, T. F.; Foley, D. D.; Lichtenberger, R. V.; Mackay, S. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-1 Shielding Analyses

Description: Abstract: This technical report analyzes gamma dose rate and neutron measurements in their relation to the SM-1 shield design and is a continuation of previous shielding measurements and analyses reported in APAE-35 and APAE-35 Supplement 2. The data reported herein are spent fuel element and rod drive pit gamma dose rates. An analysis of gamma dose rates off the core midplane is presented and compared with test data.
Date: June 20, 1962
Creator: Stephenson, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission Product Activity in SM-1 Core I Primary System and Surface Contamination on SM-1 Type Fuel Elements. Task XVIII, Phases 2 and 3

Description: Abstract; The fission product data obtained during SM-1 Core I operation (June 1957 - May 1960) is reviewed briefly and interpreted. Evidence is presented to indicate that a fuel element defect was responsible for the high fission product activity level observed in the primary coolant. Relative escape coefficients are calculated and the defect size estimated. Anticipated fission product levels during SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I operation are estimated from alpha surface contamination data on completed fuel elements. The importance of in-line sampling for monitoring fission product activity is stressed as well as the need for failed fuel element detection methods.
Date: February 29, 1961
Creator: Hasse, Robert A. & Zegger, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-2 Fuel Element Welding Development : Task 5.0

Description: Abstract: Development of welding processes for stainless steel fuel elements, previously initiated by Alco Products, was continued in Task 5. Three objectives were accomplished; (1) development of a suitable reference welding process, (2) evaluation by out-of-pile tests of the structural integrity of reference welded fuel elements, and (3) preparation of specifications and fabrication procedures for the reference welding process.
Date: August 11, 1960
Creator: Harris, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zero Power Experiments for the SM-1 Core II : Task XV

Description: Abstract: An element by element reactivity check for SM-1 Core II fuel elements and control rod absorber sections was performed and the burnable nuclear poison loading in the SM-1 Core II stationary fuel elements was established. An approach to criticality of the SM-1 Core II was performed by the inverse multiplication method and the critical rod bank position obtained as a function of fuel loading up to the full SM-1 Core II loading. Maximum and minimum core reactivity measurements were obtained by selective loading of stationary fuel elements and the total "excess K" for the core established. Power distribution measurements in the region of the core-reflector interface and the fuel-absorber interface in the control rod assemblies were performed. The effectiveness of europium flux suppressors in the top of control rod fuel elements and the power peaking in stationary elements adjacent to water gaps in control rod assemblies were measured. Survey measurements established the worth of spiking cold clean SM-1 cores with SM-2 elements, and of water holes in the SM-1 core which might be utilized as flux traps for materials irradiation.
Date: March 15, 1960
Creator: Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; McCool, W. J. & Schrader, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-1 Research and Development. Task XV, Zero Power Experiments for SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I

Description: Abstract: A zero power experiment on the SM-1 Core II included an element by element reactivity check of fuel elements and control rod absorber sections, and an estimate of burnable nuclear poison loading in stationary fuel elements. An approach to criticality was made by the inverse multiplication method, and critical rod bank position obtained as a function fuel loading up to full core loading. Minimum and maximum core reactivity measurements were obtained by selective loading of stationary fuel elements, and total excess K of the core was established. Power distribution measurements were taken in the regions of the core-reflector interface and the fuel-absorber interface in the control rod assemblies. The effectiveness of europium flux suppressors in the top of control rod fuel elements was determined, and power peaking was measured in stationary elements adjacent to control rod assembly water gaps. Survey measurements established the work of spiking clean, cold SM-1 cores with SM-2 elements and the work of water holes in the SM-1 Core. The reduced scope zero power experiment performed on SM-1A core I included an element by element uniformity check of stationary fuel elements, a core assembly test, comparison of Eu2O3 and B4C absorber sections, and development of initial core loading procedures for the SM-1A plant.
Date: October 12, 1960
Creator: Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; McCool, W. J. & Schrader, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II With the SM-1 Core II High Burnup Elements Replaced with SM-1 Core I Spare Elements

Description: Abstract: The removal of both SM-1 Core I high burnup elements from the SM-1 Core II and the insertion of two SM-1 Core I spare elements i their places are discussed. Nuclear and thermal characteristics of Core II with the change are presented and conclusion related to the change in hazard potential are made. If the core change indicated by this report is made, local peaking factors will be decreased and burnout ratios will be increased. This, of course, in itself leads to a more conservative estimate of core safety. There is no conceivable reason why this perturbation may not be safely made in the SM-1 Core II.
Date: October 9, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Lee, D. H. & Matthews, F. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Startup Testing of the PM-2A Nuclear Power Plant

Description: Abstract: A detailed description of the PM-2A reactor, primary system and instrumentation is presented. A general description of the secondary system and plant arrangement at Camp Century, Greenland is included. The results of the startup physics, shielding, thermal and hydraulics and radiochemistry test are presented. the analysis performed on the shielding and thermal and hydraulic tests is included. The shielding problem at startup and the shielding modification made to the plant are described along with the radiation measurements made in these areas.
Date: March 31, 1962
Creator: McCool, W. J.; Ryan, R. M.; Richards, W. M. S.; Bradley, P. L.; Stephenson, L. D. & Cox, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design Criteria for Irradiated Vessels Task 6.0 Summary Report

Description: Abstract: This technical report presents design criteria to prevent the brittle fracture of ferritic reactor vessels that cold occur as a result of the rise in NDT caused by fast neutron irradiation. The criteria require that maximum principal stress in the vessel does not exceed 18 percent of yield stress at temperatures below NDT + 60 degree F. Under certain conditions the allowable stress may be based on the irradiated yield stress. A discussion of brittle fracture and an explanation of the criteria are included.
Date: September 29, 1961
Creator: McLaughlin, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Local Boiling of SM-1

Description: Abstract; SM-1 Reactor Core I Rearranged and Spiked, and Core II with Special Components were analyzed under various off-design conditions to induce nucleate boiling. The steady state code, STDY-3, written for the thermal analysis of pressurized water cores, was employed for the analysis. The code performs a complete steady state parallel channel thermal analysis for both nominal and hot channels. Thermal characteristics of individual elements were investigated while changing the parameters of primary pressure or inlet temperature to introduce the phenomenon of nucleate boiling in the the core. Reduction of system pressures to 1000, 800, and 600 psia and increasing core inlet temperatures to 465 and 500 degree F were studied as the means to induce boiling in the core. This analysis indicates that SM-1 Core I Rearranged and Spiked can be safely operated at the reduced pressure of 910 psia without introducing extensive boiling in the core. SM-1 Core II with Special Components can be operated at 800 psia or at an inlet temperature of 500 degree F at 1200 psia.
Date: June 20, 1961
Creator: Bradley, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-2 Full Scale Flow Studies Termination Report

Description: Abstract: Hydrodynamic flow studies were conducted on a full scale model of the SM-2 reactor vessel and core. Test fluid was water at 200 psi and 200 degree F. Test facilities, model, and instrumentation design are discussed. Flow distribution in the stationary fuel elements, lattices, and control rods of the second pass was investigated. Pressure losses through the various core components were measured and are compared with calculated values. Observed over-all pressure drop was 71 feet of water at 200 degree F, 31% higher than predicted, part of which was due to presence of instrument leads. Element to element flow distribution varied approximately +-8% from pass average. Channel-to-channel stationary element flow distribution varied approximately +-10% from element average and control rod flow distribution varied from +-8.9% to +-6.4 and -11.6% depending upon rod locations. These variations exceed the original goals of a +-10% and +-12% combined deviation for stationary and control rod elements respectively, but are satisfactory in relation to thermal design. There was no indication of unsatisfactory structural performance of any components under hydrodynamic loadings up to 130% of design values. The test program was terminated after determining flow distribution in the reference core design, omitting any work on the less critical first pass. Based on present understanding of the causes for the observed non-uniformity in distribution, achievement of the target tolerances throughout the reactor should be possible if the test program is to be continued. Recommendations for some of the modifications are contained in this report.
Date: July 30, 1961
Creator: Christenson, J. A.; Richards, W. M. S. & Davidson, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department