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Effect of Choice of Electrical Conductor on Power Requirements of Low Temperature Magnets

Description: Introduction. As has been shown by Post, the total power required to produce a strong, steady-state magnetic field is strongly dependent upon the temperature at which the electrical conductor of the magnet operates. The power required for operation at very low temperature can, in some cases, be much less than that required for ambient temperature operation. The power required for low temperature operation depends on many system characteristics which include the metal chosen for the electrical conductor, the purity of this metal, and efficiency of the refrigeration equipment. This paper shows the relative power requirement, as a function of temperature, of a magnet with a particular shape and with a field strength of 100,000 gauss. Data is shown for three electrical conductors: copper, aluminum, and sodium.
Date: November 13, 1959
Creator: Mallon, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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General Reactor-Engineering Research Quarterly Progress Report [for] Period Ending August 31, 1950

Description: Technical report describing results on work which cannot be ascribed to one reactor program. Outlines the results of miscellaneous corrosion testing, the development of new shielding materials, the testing of irradiated plastics, and general heat transfer investigation. [From Preface]
Date: November 13, 1950
Creator: Lyon, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

Description: In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has …
Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: Marrs, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

Description: Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.
Date: November 13, 2003
Creator: Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C & Zavarin, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Lame Duck Sessions of Congress Following a Majority-Changing Election: In Brief

Description: This report describes "lame duck" sessions of Congress, which take place whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected but before the term of the current Congress ends. It specifically provides additional information on the 1954, 1994, and 2010 lame duck sessions.
Date: November 13, 2018
Creator: Hudiburg, Jane A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defense Primer: RDT&E

Description: This report describes the appropriations structure and funding levels for the U.S. Department of Defense's (DOD's) research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). The DOD relies on scientific and technical research funded by the department and performed by industry, universities, federal laboratories, and others; the DOD also relies on technology developed by the private sector for commercial markets.
Date: November 13, 2018
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Separation of Climate Signals

Description: Understanding changes in global climate is a challenging scientific problem. Simulated and observed data include signals from many sources, and untangling their respective effects is difficult. In order to make meaningful comparisons between different models, and to understand human effects on global climate, we need to isolate the effects of different sources. Recent eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo volcanoes coincided with large El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which complicates the separation of their contributions on global temperatures. Current approaches for separating volcano and ENSO signals in global mean data involve parametric models and iterative techniques [3]. We investigate alternative methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) [2] and independent component analysis (ICA) [1]. Our goal is to determine if such techniques can automatically identify the signals corresponding to the different sources, without relying on parametric models.
Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: Kamath, C & Fodor, I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Results of experimental tests simulating supply pressure decrease in a K process tube

Description: Simultaneous reduction of coolant to several or all reactor tubes raises concern not only for the adequacy of protection in the individual process tube but also the reactor as a whole. In event of such flow reduction, the heat generation does not decrease until at least 1.4 seconds have elapsed following the accident. Thus, the water temperature from each tube will rise, and result in an increase in the bulk water temperature. If the increase in bulk water temperature is such that saturation temperature at the top of downcomer is reached, pressurization may occur at that point and exceed the maximum recommended working pressure limit (approximately 1 to 2 psig). The purpose of this report is to present experimental data on a series of tests which were made to simulate flow reductions to a K type process tube by simulated front header pressure decreases.
Date: November 13, 1957
Creator: Toyoda, K. G. & Calkin, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tank 241-AX-101 grab samples 1AX-97-1 through 1AX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

Description: This document is the final report for tank 241-AX-101 grab samples. Four grab samples were collected from riser 5B on July 29, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystals that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. Less than 25 % settled solids were present in the first three samples, therefore only the supernate was sampled and analyzed. Sample 1AX-97-4 contained approximately 25.3 % settled solids. Compatibility analyses were not performed on this sample. Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystal that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. The settled solids in samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 were less than 25% by volume. Therefore, for these three samples, two 15-mL subsamples were pipetted to the surface of the liquid and submitted to the laboratory for analysis. In addition, a portion of the liquid was taken from each of the these three samples to perform an acidified ammonia analysis. No analysis was performed on the settled solid portion of the samples. Sample 1AX-97-4 was reserved for the Process Chemistry group to perform boil down and dissolution testing in accordance with Letter of Instruction for Non-Routine Analysis of Single-Shell Tank 241-AX-101 Grab Samples (Field, 1997) (Correspondence 1). However, prior to the analysis, …
Date: November 13, 1997
Creator: Esch, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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UO{sub 3} Plant cold shakedown run plan: No. C-1

Description: This report presents the cold shakedown run for the UO{sub 3} plan. One complete batch conversion will be made in each of the eighteen Calcining Pots using unirradiated uranium food solution. The objectives of this series of conversions are as follows. A mechanical test of the conversion units; a shakedown of the unloading, pulverizing and material handling equipment; a functional test of the Nitro Acid Absorber system operating at approximately 5 to 20% of its design capacity; the determination of the optimum temperature and time cycle conditions for 60% UNH feed solution. These conditions may be based upon calcination of the initial charge of 60% UNH solution to form UO{sub 3}, in one pot; a confirmation of the calibration of instruments; and to provide operating experience and process know-how.
Date: November 13, 1951
Creator: Raab, G. J. & Oberg, G. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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E-N super fuel elements

Description: The current E-N demonstration program began during mid-November 1962 in the AlSi Shop. Man meetings and conferences were held prior to this time to determine various methods by which the ultimate quality of the uranium portion of an E-N load could be enhanced at the expense of the material yield, if necessary. As a result of these meetings, it was decided that a superior grade fuel element could be manufactured by raising or lowering, as the cause may be, certain limitations that were currently governing the normal ``F`` process production. The new limitations were presented in Process Work Request 116 (1962), and the program began with fuel lot KY-312-E on November 19, 1962.
Date: November 13, 1963
Creator: Wick, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Estimating the dose from atmospheric releases of HT

Description: Measurements of uptake of tritium by humans and laboratory animals following exposure to tritiated hydrogen gas, HT, suggest that the radiotoxicity of HT is four orders of magnitude less than that of tritiated water, HTO. However, this analysis does not take into account the conversion of HT into HTO following release into the environment. Experimental releases of HT have demonstrated that HT release to the environment is converted to HTO by soil microorganisms. In this report two methods are used to estimate the effect of HT to HTO conversion on the inhalation dose of individuals exposed to tritium downwind of a release of HT. From this analysis it is predicted that the ratio of dose from inhalation of tritium following an atmospheric release of HT, as compared to inhalation of HTO, is closer to 0.01 than the 0.0001 attributed to simple HT inhalation. Under meteorologic conditions which keep the HT release near the surface and promote optimum soil microbial activity, the analysis suggests that the ratio of dose from an atmospheric HT release could be as high as 25% of that from an atmospheric HTO release.
Date: November 13, 1990
Creator: Murphy, C. E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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North Alaska Oil and Related Issues

Description: This report outlines the effects of the discovery of oil in the North Slope of Alaska in February of 1968.
Date: November 13, 1972
Creator: Dyas, Norma W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Land Grants to Canals and Railroads

Description: This report is an attempt to compile and coordinate data concerning the land grants for canals and railroads made by the federal government and, in the case of the railroads, also by the State Governments.
Date: November 13, 1962
Creator: Dudgeon, Esther J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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