Search Results

Hydraulic and thermal properties of soil samples from the buried waste test facility

Description: In shallow land burial, the most common disposal method for low-level waste, waste containers are placed in shallow trenches and covered with natural sediment material. To design such a facility requires an in-depth understanding of the infiltration and evaporation processes taking place at the soil surface and the effect these processes have on the amount of water cycling through a burial zone. At the DOE Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, a field installation called the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) has been constructed to study unsaturated soil water and contaminant transport. PNL is collecting data at the BWTF to help explain soil water movement at shallow depths, and specifically evaporation from bare sols. The data presented here represent the initial phase of a cooperative effort between PNL and Washington State University to use data collected at the BWFT.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Cass, A.; Campbell, G.S. & Jones, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical techniques for measurement of high temperatures

Description: The availability of instrumentation to measure the high outlet gas temperature of a particle bed reactor is a topic of some concern. There are a number of possible techniques with advantages and disadvantages. In order to provide some baseline choice of instrumentation, a review has been conducted of these various technologies. This report summarizes the results of this review for a group of technologies loosely defined as optical techniques (excluding optical pyrometry). The review has concentrated on a number of questions for each technology investigated. These are: (1) Description of the technology, (2) Anticipated sensitivity and accuracy, (3) Requirements for implementation, (4) Necessary development time and costs, (5) Advantages and disadvantages of the technology. Each of these areas was considered for a technology and a large number of technologies were considered in a review of the literature. Based upon this review it was found that a large number of methods exist to measure temperatures in excess of 2000 K. None of the methods found were ideal. Four methods, however, appeared to warrant further consideration: opto-mechanical expansion thermometry, surface Raman spectroscopy, gas-phase Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). These techniques will be discussed further in this document.
Date: October 25, 1991
Creator: Veligdan, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of an Energy Source for Modeling Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents in Nuclear Reactors. First Interim Report. [LMFBR]

Description: The expansion characteristics of the detonation products of a high-explosive energy source used to simulate the pressure-volume change relationships for sodium-vapor expansions during hypothetical core disruptive accidents in a Fast Test Reactor were determined experimentally. Rigid cylinder-piston experiments performed at two scales (ratio 1:3) were undertaken to determine a pressure-volume relationship as a function of source mass and expansion environment. Some of these measurements were compared with code calculations for the source.
Date: October 1, 1972
Creator: Cagliostro, D. J. & Florence, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of asymmetric Stark profiles from plasmas created by a picosecond KrF laser

Description: High-resolution extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectra from solid targets irradiated by a picosecond KrF* laser focused to 10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/ have been recorded. The line profiles of transitions in Li-like fluorine and oxygen are asymmetric and up to 2 A in width. Calculations indicate the presence of transitions of the type 2p-3p and other forbidden Stark components. 11 refs., 6 figs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Nam, C.H.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.; Seely, J.F.; Feldman, U. & Woltz, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guiding-center Hamiltonian for large gyroexcursion particles in mirror configurations

Description: An explicit expression is derived for the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, valid for particles having gyroexcursion rho comparable to the system size, such as the high-energy ring particles in the Berta experiment at Cornell. The form of K is quite simple. It depends on the magnetic field strength B and its radial derivatives, evaluated at an average radius of the particle from the symmetry axis, and allows for a slow but otherwise arbitrary variation of B along the axis. The adiabatic invariant of the gyromotion is related not to the particle's full kinetic energy normal to the field, as is ..mu.. identical with (1/2 mv/sub perpendicular to//sup 2//B in small-rho theories, but rather to the small additional kinetic energy due to the radial wobble of the particle about a constant-radius orbit.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Mynick, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulse power for 0. 3 to 0. 5. mu. s durations

Description: Conceptual design studies indicate that the KrF lasers which would drive inertial confinement fusion reactors will obtain their energy from multi-megajoule electron beams with pulse durations of perhaps three to five tenths of a microsecond. This paper discusses the following related topics: (1) pulse forming lines, (2) pulse charged PFN's, (3) Marx PFN, (4) Marx peaking circuit, and (5) other approaches. (MOW)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Smith, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some recent silicon detector spectroscopy applications at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Description: The development and fabrication of specialized silicon detectors have long been an integral part of the LBL experimental capabilities. This silicon detector expertise utilizes two basic technologies, oxide-passivated diffused junction and lithium-ion drift. These technologies are complementary, with detectors of 10 {mu}m to 500 {mu}m thick fabricated using the diffused junction process and detectors 500 {mu}m to 10,000 {mu}m using the lithium-ion technique. Particle spectroscopy applications at LBL typically employ a thin diffused, dE/dx, detector followed by a thick lithium drifted, E, detector. Novel position-sensitive dE/dx and E detectors recently employed in two separate experiments conducted at LBL are described. In addition, the requirements for employing thick lithium drifted detectors in an ongoing LBL double beta decay experiment and a LBL dark matter search are also presented. 22 refs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Walton, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical scattering of laser light by fluid films and interfaces

Description: Analysis of results of coexistence curve measurements for films of a 2,6-lutidine + water critical mixture, has resulted in the first general confirmation of the scaling theory description of Ising class fluid film critical behavior. For example, we have shown that (3,1) to (2,1) universality class transitions occur in these films as a result of finite size constraints upon the evolution of the correlation length, xi. There exists a generalized law of corresponding states for films. The critical temperature-shift exponent and the crossover temperature critical exponent agree with the values predicted by scaling theory. The 2D regime coexistence curve amplitude dependence upon film thickness is consistent with scaling theory. There exists an unanticipated interaction between the fluid films and the interferometer mirrors in contact with them. This is manifested in a uniform, film thickness dependent, displacement of the entire coexistence curve structure in temperature. We have completed construction of an ellipsometer to be used in studies of the interface between a solid surface and a critical fluid. In addition, we have assembled, and are currently evaluating, a system for studying the intensity autocorrelation of light scattered from critical fluid films. Progress has been made toward developing mathematical techniques for analyzing nonexponential correlation functions in terms of expansions in orthogonal polynomials.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Mockler, R.C. & O'Sullivan, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A faster reactor transient analysis methodology for PCs

Description: The simplified ANL model for LMR transient analysis, in which point kinetics as well as lumped descriptions of the heat transfer equations in all components are applied, is converted from a differential into an integral formulation. All differential balance equations are implicitly solved in terms of convolution integrals. The prompt jump approximation is applied as the strong negative feedback effectively keeps the net reactivity well below prompt critical. After implicit finite differencing of the convolution integrals, the kinetics equation assumes the form of a quadratic equation, the quadratic dynamics equation.'' This model forms the basis for GW-BASIC program, LTC, for LMR Transient Calculation program, which can effectively be run on a PC. The GW-BASIC version of the LTC program is described in detail in Volume 2 of this report.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Ott, K.O. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kaon mass by critical absorption of kaonic atom x rays

Description: The energy of the kaonic 6h ..-->.. 5g transition has been determined using the calculated ..mu../rho curve. Because the detectors used could not resolve the noncircular transitions, the predictions from a calculated cascade program were used. According to the cascade results for potassium, the number of noncircular x-rays was about 10% of all the transitions between n = 6 to n = 5. Based on the available information, the mass of the kaon was measured to be 493.576/sub -0.069//sup +0.044/ MeV. (GHT)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Lum, G. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments to power plants

Description: This paper describes a simplified methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conserved energy. In addition, a screening curve contains information on competing supply technologies, such as annualized capital costs, variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The information in the screening curve allows policymakers to promptly and conveniently compare the relevant parameters affecting supply and demand-side investment decisions. While many sophisticated computer models have evolved to account for the load shape impacts of energy efficiency investments, this sophistication has, by and large, not trickled down to spreadsheet-level or back-of-the-envelope analyses. This methodology allows a simple summary of load shape characteristics based on the output of the more complicated models. It offers many advantages, principal of which is clarity in analyzing supply and demand-side investment choices. This paper first describes how supply-side screening curves have been used in the past, and develops the conceptual tools needed to apply integrated supply/demand screening curves in the least-cost utility planning process. It then presents examples of supply and demand-side technologies and plots them on a representative screening curve. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Koomey, J.; Rosenfeld, A.H. & Gadgil, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wood burning fireplace. Final technical report

Description: This project involved the construction of a fireplace to heat a commercial building. The project was successful in that it demonstrated that wood could be used to heat a commercial building in a properly constructed fireplace.
Date: October 5, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the non-histone proteins of the nucleo-chromatin complex. Progress report, May 1978-September 1979

Description: A study of the helix destabilizing protein (HDP) is presented. The purification and characterization of HDP from soluble and particulate phases of normal and regenerating rat liver are described. Parameters and specificities of the nucleic acid helix destabilizing activity of this protein are discussed. Interrelationships between amino acid side-chain modifications and sub-unit dissociations with the activity of the protein are described. The development and application of a radioimmunoassay and other immunological techniques for quantitation, cellular localization, and determination of tissue and species specificity of HDP are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Patel, G L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flibe/Be/He/FS concept (R = 1)

Description: The blanket concept is described. Beryllium, in the form of pebbles nominally 1 cm diameter in a 20 cm thick bed, is employed to multiply neutrons. The multiplier zone is followed by a zone of silicon carbide (SiC) which slows neutrons. Neutrons are captured in the Lithium-6 carried in the molten fluoride salt (LiF + BeF- melting point, 363/sup 0/C) to breed tritium and release extra energy in exothermic nuclear rections. The salt flows slowly through tubes in the blanket and out to a simple flash separator where the tritium is removed. Helium flows radially through the Be pebble bed and SiC region carrying the heat out to the thermal conversion plant. The tubes are coated either on the inside or outside with a 10 ..mu..m tungsten barrier by chemical vapor deposition to cut down tritium permeation to the helium coolant circuit. With the tungsten barrier on the inside the tritium inventory in the tube walls is small and tungsten will contribute to corrosion inhibition. A 1-mm aluminum jacket on the steam generator tubes keeps the tritium permeation to the steam down to 30 curies per day. The design can be converted into a fission-suppressed fissile breeder by thickening the beryllium zone by a factor of 2 or so and adding ThF/sub 4/ to the salt in which case 6 tonnes of uranium-233 would be produced per year.
Date: October 1, 1984
Creator: Moir, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposition on energy analysis and economic efficiency

Description: This report gives some analytical results of an attempt to simultaneously optimize economic and thermodynamic efficiency. The attempt to impose complete mathematical rationality and consistency on the pricing of energy commodities fails since it is not possible to consistently weigh purely physical efficiency measures, much less social factors. This means that energy or entropy theories of value must suffer the fate of other single-factor theories, such as the labor theory of value. Such a single-factor theory cannot adequately handle such questions as fixed capital, subjective utility, and contradictory constraints on economic choice. Nevertheless, the use of both material balance and entropy analysis is valuable for evaluating nonmarket decisions, as well as identifying opportunities for process improvements. That is, economic and thermodynamic analyses are complementary in that they ask different types of questions and express the answers in noncomparable dimensions. This complementarity is a type that avers that each mode of analysis asks different questions from different perspectives. 17 references.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Hertzmark, D.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommended revised sections to line focus solar central power systems

Description: The design requirements, subsystem characteristics, environmental requirements, and cost and performance evaluation techniques are defined for the Line Focus Solar Central Power Systems. Specific passages revised are enumerated. (LEW)
Date: October 18, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit: Modification, Operation, and Support Studies

Description: The objectives of this program are to implement and test the process improvements identified through the engineering studies of the current program to demonstrate the capability of long-term catalyst activity maintenance, and to perform process and design engineering work that can be applied to a scaled-up Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) facility. An optional series of PDU runs is offered to extend the testing of the process improvements. A parallel research program will be performed to enhance the LPMEOH technical data base to improve the likelihood of commercialization of the LPMEOH process. Activities this quarter include: Flow sheet development for La Porte PDU modifications continues. A preliminary P ID review was completed and flow sheet modifications were identified and are being incorporated. A preliminary hazards review was completed on 22 May. Some minor flow sheet modifications resulted and a number of action items were identified. The most significant action item is to develop a materials reactivity and compatibility grid for the different alcohols, ethers, and esters which will be produced at the PDU. Heat and material balances were completed for the maximum production case of the mixed DME/MEOH synthesis campaign. An improved rate expression was developed. 1 fig.
Date: October 23, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulation---Mechanisms and evaluation of electrochemical methods for assessing corrosion behavior

Description: An evaluation has been made of the corrosiveness of selected wet residential building thermal insulation materials in contact with low carbon steel. Investigations were conducted both in wet insulations and in filtered leachates from insulations derived from thirteen cellulosic, three mineral fiber and four foam products. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements are reported from which the overall corrosion response was assessed and then the techniques of Tafel and polarization resistance analysis applied to estimate corrosion rates. Corrosion rates were also estimated electrochemically using a direct reading instrument which performs the rate calculation based on the polarization resistance principle. Direct determinations of corrosion rate were based on weight loss measurements.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Stansbury, E.E. (Stansbury (E.E.), Knoxville, TN (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD activity and energy loss during beta saturation and collapse at high beta poloidal in PBX

Description: High-..beta.. experiments, in medium to high-q tokamak plasmas, exhibit a temporal ..beta.. saturation and collapse. This behavior has been attributed to ballooning, ideal kink, or tearing modes. In PBX, a unique diagnostic capability allowed studies of the relation between MHD and energy loss for neutral-beam-heated (<6 MW), mildly indented (10 to 15%), nearly steady I/sub p/ discharges that approached the Troyon-Gruber limit. Under these conditions, correlations between MHD activity and energy losses have shown that the latter can be almost fully accounted for by various long wavelength MHD instabilities and that there is no need to invoke high-n ballooning modes in PBX. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Kugel, H.W.; Sesnic, S.; Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

Description: The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Herborn, D.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT Research and development activities: fixation of radioactive residues. July-September 1965

Description: The calcined-waste containers produced during the Hot Cell Pilot Plant experiments in 1962 and 1963 have generated a maximum pressure of 3 psig. Design verification tests with the prototype spray calciner showed satisfactory performance when producing high melting point powders. Later tests on other feeds showed poor atomization and cake buildup in the calciner. Design of the prototype equipment is complete. Procurement and fabrication of prototype equipment is done except for a few cleanup items and final field-fitting of jumpers. Design verification tests on the pot storage station indicated satisfactory calorimeter performance. A GE-412 computer was successfully used in design verification tests for data collection, calculation, and correlations. Studies continued on fixation of sulfates from acid condensates generated in a glass-making process. Lead sulfate-borax melts produced by a continuous feed melter at 900/sup 0/C appear to be quite fluid, but exhibited a high (22%) evolution of sulfate. Studies were initiated on incorporation of the neutralized condensate into asphalt. Release rates of up to 2%/hr for /sup 137/Cs from a simulated phosphate ceramic waste material were observed from exposures to temperatures up to 1200/sup 0/C. Release rates of other isotopes which appear to be a thousand-fold lower than for cesium established volatilization as the predominant mode of cesium release. A technique for varying the phosphate content of the simulated ceramic wastes was developed.
Date: October 1, 1965
Creator: Platt, A.M. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

Description: The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Molton, P. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation and design of solar thermal processes

Description: Research on simulation using TRNSYS and FCHART methods is described including systems analysis, user services, design procedures, and model validation. (MHR)
Date: October 31, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Auditing measurement control programs

Description: Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Roberts, F.P. & Brouns, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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