Search Results

Results of bulk sediment analysis and bioassay testing on selected sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor and Alcatraz disposal site, San Francisco, California

Description: The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, to perform bulk sediment analysis and oyster larvae bioassays (elutriate) on sediments from Inner Oakland Harbor, California. Analysis of sediment characteristics by MSL indicated elevated priority pollutants, PAHs, pesticides, metals, organotins, and oil and grease concentrations, when compared to Alcatraz Island Dredged Material Disposal Site sediment concentrations. Larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to seawater collected from the Alcatraz Island Site water, and a series of controls using water and sediments collected from Sequim Bay, Washington. Exposure of larvae to the Alcatraz seawater and the 50% and 100% elutriate concentrations from each Oakland sediment resulted in low survival and a high proportion of abnormal larvae compared to Sequim Bay control exposures. MSL identified that field sample collection, preservation, and storage protocols used by Port of Oakland contractors were inconsistent with standard accepted practices. 23 refs., 10 figs., 40 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Word, J Q; Ward, J A & Woodruff, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ALT-I Pump Limiter Experiments

Description: Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Goebel, D. M.; Conn, R. W.; Campbell, G. A.; Leung, W. K.; Dippel, K. H.; Finken, K. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VTI: VME/CIPRICO Interface routines

Description: This document details the VME/CIPRICO Interface routines (VII). These routines where designed to allow programs written in PILS running on a MVME 101 under Valet-plus to control a CIPRICO tape controller. The routines fall into two general types. The low level routines, such as vti-make-pb, create the data structures used by the CIPRICO as well as manipulate the CIPRICO's control registers. The high level routines, such as vti-rewind, use the lower level routines to carry out complete functions on tape drives. Most tape operations are implemented except for ring buffer record routines. The creation of ring buffer record lists linked to parameter blocks is possible, but no high level routines are implemented to work with these lists. Memory utilization, parameter block creation and linking, polling and interrupts, status reporting, and the VTI routines are discussed. 2 refs.
Date: September 4, 1987
Creator: Alleva, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil Shale Commercialization Study

Description: Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Warner, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Uniform Contractor Reporting System: use of data handbook

Description: This handbook is intended as an aid to project management within DOE by delineating ways in which data provided by the Uniform Contractor Reporting System (UCRS) can be evaluated and analyzed. Such evaluation and analysis can serve as one of the bases for the review of contractors' progress and of project status, and for forecasting future performance trends. The various methods for analysis, interpretation, display, and evaluation of UCRS data suggested in the handbook can be tailored or combined to fit specific cases. This handbook is not all-encompassing. 22 figures.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronics for the LAMPF neutrino experiment's veto counter system

Description: A cosmic-ray veto detector has been constructed in the neutrino cave at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report describes the electronic readout system designed to buffer and compact the data from the detector.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Dalton, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

Description: The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/.
Date: September 4, 1979
Creator: Terhune, R. W.; Snell, C. M. & Rodean, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GAMMON activation library

Description: The GAMMON activation library is specifically designed for fusion reaction application, but is also adequate for many other design studies. The library contains multigroup cross sections (in 100 energy groups) for 420 neutron-induced reactions, multigroup gamma-ray spectra (in 25 energy groups) for 107 unique daughter products, maximum permissible concentrations (MPC's) for 200 reaction products, and absorbable decay energy (sensible heat) for 85 products. 3 tables.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J. & Muir, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy-section steel technology program. Volume 1. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1983. [PWR; BWR]

Description: A thermal-strain modification was made to the deformation-plasticity model in the ADINA-ORVIRT fracture-mechanics analysis system in order to be more applicable to combined pressure and thermal loadings. Subcontractors continued studies on crack arrest, cleavage fracture transition, and environmentally assisted crack growth. Charpy testing of state-of-the-art weld specimens in the Fourth HSST Irradiation Series was performed on unirradiated specimens and on a few irradiated specimens for scoping purposes. Finite-flaw capabilities were incorporated into the OCA-II computer code, and parametric studies were carried out to compare fracture predictions with two-dimensional and specific finite flaws. Preparations continued for thermal-shock experiment TSE-7 to be conducted in May. Preparations for the first pressurized-thermal-shock experiment continued.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Pugh, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leaching Mechanisms Program. Annual report

Description: The primary goal of this work is to determine the leaching mechanisms of a variety of matrix materials either in use or being considered for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes by defense and commercial waste generators. Since this program is new and did not formally begin until May of FY 84, the results reported here are few and preliminary. Efforts were concentrated in the following activities: (1) The literature search for leaching data and proposed leaching models and mechanisms for low-level waste. (2) Data base development for leaching data being compiled from the literature and from the leaching experiments in this program. (3) The selection of solidification agents for the experimental part of the program. (4) Fabrication of leach samples and initiation of leach testing. 28 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Dougherty, D.; Colombo, P.; Doty, R. & Fuhrmann, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular beam photoionization and gas-surface scattering

Description: The energetics of the ethylene ion-molecule reactions was investigated in more detail than previously possible in two body collision experiments by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals ethylene dimer. The stability of the (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/)/sup +/C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ ion-molecule collision complex has been determined to be 18.2 +- 0.5 kcal. The highest potential barriers along the reaction coordinate for decomposition of this collision complex into C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup +/ + H and C/sub 3/H/sub 5//sup +/ + CH/sub 3/ have been determined to be 0 +- 1.5 and 8.7 +- 1.5 kcal. In a similar manner, the energetics of the solvated ethylene dimer ion was investigated by the photoionization of the ethylene trimer. The absolute proton affinity of NH/sub 3/ (203.6 +- 1.3 kcal/mole) and the proton solvation energies by more than one NH/sub 3/ have been determined by molecular beam photoionization. In addition, the NH/sub 3//sup +/-NH/sub 3/ interaction energy (0.79 +- 0.05 eV) was measured by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals dimer. These experiments have shown that photoionization of van der Waals clusters is a very powerful method of determining the energetics of gas phase proton solvation. The scattering of helium atomic beams from a high Miller index platinum surface that exhibits ordered, periodic steps on the atomic scale to probe the effect of atomic steps on the scattering distribution is explored. Rainbow scattering is observed when the step edges are perpendicular to the incident helium atoms. The design, construction and operation of a beam-surface scattering apparatus are described. The first data obtained in this apparatus are presented and the interesting dynamical aspects of the oxidation of D, D/sub 2/ and CO are discussed. 75 references.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Ceyer, S.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix E: Transmission Reinforcement Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

Description: Five transmission line options and several reactive (voltage support) options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAERP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. These options were derived from earlier study work that was summarized in Puget Sound Reinforcement Transmission Options'' and New Cross Mountain Transmission Line Alternative: The Crosstie'', which are attached. The initial Transmission Options study report recognized the value to system performance of adding an entirely new circuit rather than rebuilding an existing one. However, siting realities require that rebuild options be considered. Typically, the most attractive rebuild options would be the lowest capacity (lowest voltage) circuits. But because of corridor location, length and terminal proximity, the rebuild options listed below appear to be the most promising. Schematic diagrams and QV Curves of each option are also attached. It should be noted that Snoqualmie and Echo Lake refer to the same station east of Puget Sound and Naneum and Kittitas refer to the same station in the Ellensburg area. 100 figs., 20 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response characteristics of selected personnel neutron dosimeters

Description: Performance characteristics of selected personnel neutron dosimeters in current use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were determined from their evaluation of neutron dose equivalent received after irradiations with specific neutron sources at either the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The characteristics assessed included: lower detection level, energy response, precision and accuracy. It was found that when all of the laboratories employed a common set of calibrations, the overall accuracy was approximately +-20%, which is within uncertainty expected for these dosimeters. For doses above 80 mrem, the accuracy improved to better than 10% when a common calibration was used. Individual differences found in this study may reflect differences in calibration technique rather than differences in the dose rates of actual calibration standards. Second, at dose rates above 100 mrem, the precision for the best participants was generally below +-10% which is also within expected limits for these types of dosimeters. The poorest results had a standard deviation of about +-25%. At the lowest doses, which were sometimes below the lower detection limit, the precision often approached or exceeded +-100%. Third, the lower level of detection for free field /sup 252/Cf neutrons generally ranged between 20 and 50 mrem. Fourth, the energy dependence study provided a characterization of the response of the dosimeters to neutron energies far from the calibration energy. 11 references, 22 figures, 26 tables.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: McDonald, J.C.; Fix, J.J.; Hadley, R.T.; Holbrook, K.L.; Yoder, R.C.; Roberson, P.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Palladium Catalyzed Coupling Reactions: Mechanism of Reductive Elimination. Progress Report, June 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

Description: The coupling reaction of benzyl halides and organolithium, organotin, or Grignard Reagents is catalyzed by palladium. The sequence of events in the catalytic cycle is oxidative addition of the benzyl halide to palladium(0), methathesis by the organometallic reagent to give a benzyl methyl palladium(II) complex, oxidative addition of the benzyl halide to give a palladium(IV) complex, and reductive elimination of benzyl and methyl to give ethylbenzene. The reductive elimination from palladium bearing an optically active ..cap alpha..-deuteriobenzyl group takes place with retention of configuration at carbon, and is therefore concerted or nearly concerted. Since rho is positive in the catalytic reaction with substituted aryl halides, an oxidative addition, probably during the Pd(II) to Pd(IV) reaction, is the slow step in the catalytic cycle. The intermediate diorganopalladium species can be isolated when the two groups attached to palladium are both methyl or methyl and either cis or trans-..beta..-styryl. The decomposition of these species can be followed by NMR. In the case of methylstyrylpalladium(II) complexes, the reductive elimination gives propenyl benzene with stereospecific retention of double bond geometry. Cis-dimethylbis(diphenylmethylphosphine)palladium(II) does not undergo isomerization to the more stable trans isomer in an inert solvent, and is stable toward reductive elimination up to 50/sup 0/. In the presence of added phosphine, or in a coordinating solvent, rapid cis to trans isomerization and reductive elimination to give ethane is observed. An associative mechanism is apparently operative in this case.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Stille, J. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring the absolute disintegration rate of a radioactive gas with a moveable endplate discharge counter (MEP) and theoretical calculation of wall effect

Description: A precision built moveable endplate Geiger-Mueller counter was used to measure the absolute disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radioactive gas. A Geiger-Mueller counter used for measuring gaseous radioactivity has <100% counting efficiency owing to two factors: (1) ''end effect,'' due to decreased and distorted fields at the ends where wire-insulator joints are placed, and (2) ''wall effect,'' due to non-ionization by beta particles emitted near to and heading into the wall. The end effect was evaluated by making one end of the counter movable and measuring counting rates at a number of endplate positions. Much of the wall effect was calculated theoretically, based on known data for primary ionization of electrons as a function of energy and gas composition. Corrections were then made for the ''shakeoff'' effect in beta decay and for backscattering of electrons from the counter wall. Measurements and calculations were made for a sample of /sup 85/Kr (beta energy, 0.67 MeV). The wall effect calculation is readily extendable to other beta energies.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Jaffey, A.H.; Gray, J.; Bentley, W.C. & Lerner, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

Description: On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Allison, L. J.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Huston, M. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Time Domain PARET to the measured responses of a building

Description: The application of the Time Domain PARET (TDP) algorithm to data obtained from the measured responses of a three story reinforced concrete building approximately 465 feet long by 220 feet wide by 40 feet high, with 12 to 18 inch thick walls, is described. The measurements were taken by Agbabian Associates, El Segundo, California. The structure was excited by a device developed at Agbabian that uses a mass sliding down a rod to cut metal disks attached to the rod. The result is a series of impulse forces driving the building at the attachment point of the rod. The responses measured were the accelerations at two locations on the structure. A constraint imposed was that the equipment in the building must remain operating during the time the measurements were made.
Date: September 18, 1979
Creator: Lager, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Final report

Description: A conventional waterflood in the North Stanley Field, Osage County, Oklahoma, nearing the economic limit, was modified by substituting an aqueous solution of polyacrylamides for brine as the intected fluid. Remedial operations on existing facilities were performed before polymer injection began. Positive oil production response was achieved from this 1000-acre project, a maximum EOR production rate of about 200 barrels per day being achieved within 1-1/2 years after the start of polymer injection. Based on performance to January 1979, ultimate EOR recovery is estimated at 500,000 barrels.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Pease, R.W.; Durham, E.N. & Watson, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

Description: A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Barnes, P. R.; Rizy, D. T.; McConnell, B. W.; Taylor, E. R., Jr. & Tesche, F. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of compactible waste

Description: This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III & Colombo, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of RBE. Progress report, 1 January-31 December 1978

Description: The shapes of the blackness-exposure curves of special nuclear emulsions after exposure to x-rays of 15-150 kvp have been found to remain constant, at all applied voltages. Since the shapes of these curves mimic those of biological cells (for cell killing vs. exposure), no change is expected in the RBE of low LET radiations at low dose levels. This finding disagrees with radiobiological findings in which the RBE of gamma-rays relative to x-rays increased at low dose, and was expected to approach 4. A minimal model of a heavy ion beam incorporating secondary and tertiary particle production has been constructed, in support of our investigations of relative effectiveness. The model gives good agreement with depth-dose curves from He to Ar for 8-30 cm of penetration in water. When applied to the survival of T-1 kidney cells using the parameters of the theory of RBE assigned from earlier work and slightly modified to accomodate recently attained levels of hypoxia, good agreement is found with measured values of the RBE and OER in Ar beams, for these cells. Secondary particle distribution alters the depth dose distribution dramatically, but has a much smaller effect on these biological parameters. To illustrate the potential application of the model to heavy particle therapy, we have designed a ridge filter, and find once again that it will be impossible to achieve isoeffect volumes for both oxic and hypoxic cells in a single port irradiation. Where possible, the preferred mode for heavy ion therapy must be symmetric cross-firing, where it is relatively simple to achieve isoeffect volumes for both oxic and hypoxic cells.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Katz, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Specific heat and thermal conductivity of explosives, mixtures, and plastic-bonded explosives determined experimentally

Description: The specific heat and thermal conductivity of explosives and plastic-bonded explosives of interest to WX operations, determined experimentally, are reported in three tables. Specific heat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry against sapphire standards. Thermal conductivity was determined by two means: the guarded hot-plate method or the differential scanning calorimeter comparative method on miniature samples.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Baytos, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train

Description: This report uses risk analyses to analyze the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel for commercial rail shipping systems. The rail systems analyzed are those expected to be used in the United States when the total electricity-generating capacity by nuclear reactors is 100 GW in the late 1980s. Risk as used in this report is the product of the probability of a release of material to the environment and the consequences resulting from the release. The analysis includes risks in terms of expected fatalities from release of radioactive materials due to transportation accidents involving PWR spent fuel shipped in rail casks. The expected total risk from such shipments is 1.3 x 10/sup -4/ fatalities per year. Risk spectrums are developed for shipments of spent fuel that are 180 days and 4 years out-of-reactor. The risk from transporting spent fuel by train is much less (by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude) than the risk to society from other man-caused events such as dam failure.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Elder, H. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

Description: In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Barber, E. J.; Butler, T. R.; DeVan, J. H.; Googin, J. M.; Taylor, M. S.; Dyer, R. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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