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Annual progress report

Description: The research topics covered include a study of the nonlinear behavior of the drift cyclotron loss-cone instability in mirror machines and a study of the longer time behavior of the nonlinear O'Neil trapped particle saturation. The saturation amplitude for a single dominant mode near the stability onset boundary was determined for the drift cyclotron loss-cone instability for a variety of mirror-like distributions. The results are in good agreement with computer simulation studies of Cohen and Maron.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: Simon, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of basalt physical and thermal properties at varying temperatures, pressures, and moisture contents. Third progress report, fiscal year 1979

Description: The rock mechanics testing performed at the Earth Mechanics Institute of the Colorado School of Mines for Rockwell Hanford Operations under subcontract SA-917 is summarized. Cores were supplied from drill hole DC-4 on the Hanford Site, characterized geologically, and tested for thermal and physical properties for designing long-term underground storage of radioactive waste materials. The approved test procedures, results, and data analysis for this test series are presented. Uniaxial and triaxial results indicate strengths similar to drill hole DC-6, but significantly higher than drill hole DC-8. Trends with density, depth, confining pressure, and temperature, however, were similar for the three drill hole locations tested.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: Miller, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Example of Monte Carlo analysis applied to repository siting

Description: This report contains a detailed description of a Monte Carlo analysis of a hypothetical nuclear waste repository performed for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory as part of their mock siting exercise. Field measurements had been used to construct a hydrology model of the geologic medium surrounding a nuclear waste repository, complete with specified uncertainties. The Monte Carlo analysis has been used to ascertaln the uncertainty in the radioactive release from the repository given the uncertainty in the geohydrologic parameters, and correlation analysis has identified some input parameters that have a potentially large influence on the output (radioactivity release) uncertainty.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: Giuffre, M.S. & Kaplan, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Basic Data for Lubbock NTMS Quadrangle, Texas

Description: From abstract: Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Lubbock Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 994 groundwater and 602 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

Description: The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: Anderson, T. V.; Johnson, A. G.; Bennett, S. L. & Ringle, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

Description: The experimental approach to attaining the goals of this research program is briefly outlined and the progress made in the last year is reviewed in sections entitled: (a) Primary steps in the reaction of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms and the identification of reactive intermediates; (b) Thermally induced silylene and germylene reactions; (c) Silicon free radical chemistry; (d) The role of ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: Gaspar, P. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tester status report: April-June 1979

Description: This report details tester status and activities in support of testing of timers, actuators, detonators, firing sets, transducers, isolators, and pyrospacers for the period of April through June 1979.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: Draut, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

Description: This report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activities in the four primary study areas of the WGSP: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The core and the drilling programs are part of the resource assessment. (DLC)
Date: August 31, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemistry research and development progress report, May-October, 1978

Description: Work in progress includes: calorimetry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials; americium recovery and purification; optimization of the cation exchange process for recovering americium and plutonium from molten salt extraction residues, photochemical separations of actinides; advanced ion exchange materials and techniques; secondary actinide recovery; removal of plutonium from lathe coolant oil; evaluation of tributyl phosphate-impregnated sorbent for plutonium-uranium separations; plutonium recovery in advance size reduction facility; plutonium peroxide precipitation; decontamination of Rocky Flats soil; soil decontamination at other Department of Energy sites; recovery of actinides from combustible wastes; induction-heated, tilt-pour furnace; vacuum melting; determination of plutonium and americium in salts and alloys by calorimetry; plutonium peroxide precipitation process; silica removal study; a comparative study of annular and Raschig ring-filled tanks; recovery of plutonium and americium from a salt cleanup alloy; and process development for recovery of americium from vacuum melt furnace crucibles.
Date: August 30, 1979
Creator: Miner, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Continuous Pyrolysis of Biomass Feedstocks in Rotary Kiln Convertors. Final Report

Description: The biomass research program at the University of Arkansas has developed three experimental projects or tasks for the attainment of its objectives. They are: (1) utilization of the existing full scale convertor for testing and data acquisition at Jonesboro, Arkansas; (2) development of a scale model rotary pyrolytic convertor (bench scale research kiln); and (3) development of analytical laboratory services for the analysis of feedstocks and products, and for basic pyrolytic process studies. The project at Jonesboro, Arkansas, which aimed at testing the Angelo convertor concept through heat and material balances over the available range of operations, could not completely achieve this objective because of the severe mechanical and structural deficiencies in the full scale convertor. A limited number of data have been taken in spite of the deficiencies of the machine. The scale model rotary kiln has been the most successful of the three projects. The kiln has been completed as planned and successfully operated with a number of feedstock materials. Good qualitative data have been obtained on conversion rate capacities, charcoal yields, and off gas combustion product temperatures. In all, about one hundred test runs were made in the scale model kiln. About 90% of the results expected were attained. The laboratory services project was designed to provide analytical testing for the other two projects and to do basic studies in biomass material conversion processes. The project delivered the testing services, but was severely restricted in the area of basic studies because of the failure of the main instrument, the gas chromatograph, to operate successfully. In all it is estimated that this project attained about 80% of its expected goals.
Date: August 30, 1979
Creator: Hicks, Henry H., Jr.; Kimzey, J. R.; Turpin, J. L. & MacCallum, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena

Description: Some aspects of underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena have been studied by using a thermodynamic equation of state for water and a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. The study showed that surface cavitation is caused by the main blast wave and a bubble pulse from rebound of a release wave moving toward the center of the exploding bubble. Gravity has little effect on the surface cavitation. In nuclear explosions the bubble is bounded by a two-phase region rather than a gas-water interface. The two-phase region cavitates as the bubble expands, changing the optical absorption coefficient by many orders of magnitude and significantly affecting the optical signature. In assessing cavitation damage, it is concluded that a water jet of unstable bubble collapse erodes solid walls. The study leads to suggestions for future research.
Date: August 28, 1979
Creator: Kamegai, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Manpower Assessment of the Geothermal Industry

Description: The authors were asked to estimate the net employment gains in the geothermal industry from 1980 to 1985 and 1990. Method was by survey. Response rates were high, so the estimates here likely reflect industry knowledge and outlooks at the start of the most active construction decade of the U.S. geothermal industry. An untitled table following Table IV-1 is of great interest because it breaks out employment requirement estimates for different phases/aspects of project development, i.e., exploration and resource assessment, exploratory drilling, production drilling, power plant construction, feed system (field piping) construction, field operation and maintenance, power plant operation and maintenance, and transmission line construction. Estimates like these are rare in the U.S. geothermal literature. While these estimates are dated, they comprise an historical economic baseline from which improvements in labor use in the geothermal industry might be constructed. (DJE 2005)
Date: August 24, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Novel scheme for making cheap electricity with nuclear energy

Description: Nuclear fuels should produce cheaper electricity than coal, considering their high specific energy and low cost. To exploit these properties, the scheme proposed here replaces the expensive reactor/steam-turbine system with an engine in which the expansion of a gas heated by a nuclear explosion raises a mass of liquid, thereby producing stored hydraulic energy. This energy could be converted to electricity by hydroelectric generation with water as the working fluid or by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation with molten metal. A rough cost analysis suggests the hydroelectric system could reduce the present cost of electricity by two-thirds, and the MHD system by even more. Such cheap power would make feasible large-scale electrolysis to produce hydrogen and other fuels and chemical raw materials.
Date: August 24, 1979
Creator: Pettibone, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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P. G. and E. Geysers Retrofit Project, Units 1-12 Condensed Final Report

Description: Geysers Power Plant Units 1-12 conceptual study of two H{sub 2}S abatement systems. The study is to provide a cost benefit and technical analysis of the existing (iron/caustic/peroxide) abatement system compared to retrofitting Units 1-12 with surface condensers and vent gases processing with the Stretford process. The study is based on the understanding that both H{sub 2}S abatement system compared meet the Air Pollution Board's requirements for H{sub 2}S emissions. The summary of this paper is that it is economical to convert from the existing abatement (iron/caustic/peroxide) to the alternative (surface condenser/Stretford) by a substantial amount. There is also a most economical timing sequence to accomplish the conversion to the surface condenser/Stretford abatement. The project if started immediately would be finished and operating by 1984. It is felt that the surface condenser/Stretford abatement system will ultimately meet the Air Pollution Board's requirements and improve the capacity factor of the Geysers power plant Units 1-12.
Date: August 24, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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P. G. and E. Geysers Retrofit Project, Units 1-12: Final Report, Technical Data, Volume I - Sections 1-8

Description: The purpose of this work is to demonstrate whether there is a cost benefit to Pacific Gas and Electric Company in replacing the present iron catalyst/caustic/peroxide system used in the direct contact condenser units with an alternative approach using surface condensers and the Stretford System for hydrogen sulfide abatement.
Date: August 24, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Theoretical considerations in solid bowl centrifugation

Description: A combination of literature survey and independent analysis determined three relationships for the prediction of the critical (or minimum recoverable) particle size in a solid bowl centrifuge. The relationships were derived based on three different theories of fluid behavior within the centrifuge; (1) laminar film flow (laminar film model), (2) plug flow (Sharples Model), and parabolic flow (modified Sharples Model). The critical particle size for the centrifuge used in Cs-PTA recovery in the CAW process predicted by the three relationships range from 0.19 to 0.34 ..mu..m (1 ..mu..m = 10/sup -6/m). The laminar film model gives the most conservative estimate of critical particle size (0.34 ..mu..m) and the resulting relationship is recommended for use to predict solid bowl centrifuge performance. Three correction factors are incorporated into the predictive equations to account for the effects of fluid turbulence near the centrifuge feed point, fluid lag and hindered settling. Of these factors, turbulence near the feed point (which is accounted for by using an effective centrifuge length) has the greatest impact, increasing the predicted critical particle size by 15%, while the combination of fluid lag and hindered settling factors increase the recoverable particle size by 4%. The overall effect of the correction factors is an approximately 20% decrease in centrifuge effectivity. The fraction of solids smaller than the critical size range has not been reliably determined for laboratory or plant prepared Cs-PTA. In addition, the density of Cs-PTA crystals is reported to vary from 3.2 to 12 grams per cubic centimeter.
Date: August 24, 1979
Creator: Hamilton, R. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Convective heat exposure from large fires to the final filters of ventilation systems

Description: The Fire Science Group of the Hazards Control Department, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has been asked to design a probable fire scenario for a fuel-pellet fabrication facility. This model was used to estimate the potential for thermal damage to the final HEPA filters. These filters would not experience direct fire exposure because they are the last component of the ventilation system before the exhaust air pumps. However, they would be exposed to hot air and fire gases that are drawn into the ventilation system. Because fire is one of the few occurrences that can defeat the containment integrity of facilities where radioactive materials are stored and processed, the fire scenarios must be defined to ensure that containment systems are adequate to meet the threat of such events. Fire-growth calculations are based on the measured fuel load of materials within the fabrication enclosure and on semi-empirical fire-spread models. It is assumed that the fire never becomes ventilation controlled. The temperature rise of ceiling gases and heat transfer from ventilation ducting are calculated using accepted empirical relationships, and the analysis shows that even under the most severe exposure conditions, heat transfer from the duct reduces the fire gas temperatures to levels that would not hamper filter function.
Date: August 23, 1979
Creator: Alvares, N. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Normal incident solar radiation measurements at Upton, New York

Description: Normal incident solar energy measurements made at Upton, L.I., New York, are reported and analyzed relative to the total energy received on a horizontal surface. A new method for estimating normal incident solar radiation is developed and used to determine average values for other east coast locations.
Date: August 23, 1979
Creator: Cottingham, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mathematical models for the RINGBEARER simulation code

Description: RINGBEARER is a particle simulation code for modelling an electron beam propagating in a gas characterized by a space and time varying conductivity generated by the beam. The code has two spatial dimensions, the beam is assumed to be axially symmetric. Equations for the beam driven pinch field, the plasma density, and the conductivity are given along with the appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. The equations governing particle energy loss, transverse motion, and scattering, in the beam generated pinch field are presented. The analytic models used in the code are presented with either references or derivations.
Date: August 22, 1979
Creator: Chambers, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

Description: A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Beaman, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnetic mirror confinement of high-energy, high-density plasma

Description: This paper summarizes results obtained from and work in progress on those experiments which have contributed significantly toward the confinement in single-cell magnetic mirror systems of plasmas close to thermonuclear conditions. Because the mirror confinement of such high-energy, high-density plasmas has been studied most extensively in the 2XIIB experiment, discussion of 2XIIB results forms a major portion of this paper. In these experiments, injection of low-energy plasma has been shown to suppress microinstabilities to sufficiently low levels that high-beta (..beta.. approx. = 1) plasmas could be achieved and sustained by cross-field injection of beams of neutral particles. Plasma confinement was found to improve with ion energy, electron temperature, and plasma size. Based on these results, a larger Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) was designed to pursue confinement scaling to higher energies and larger plasma dimensions. MFTF design parameters and construction status are briefly reviewed.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Coensgen, F.H. & Simonen, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

Description: This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C. & Turner, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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