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The Synthetic Liquid Fuel Potential of North Dakota and South Dakota

Description: Report documenting the suitability of North Dakota and South Dakota for plant locations to produce synthetic liquid fuels, based on raw materials, water sources, and local interest...add details/adjust
Date: August 10, 1951
Creator: Ford, Bacon, and Davis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Study of Efficiencies and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Air-Filtering Media

Description: Removal of particles from air is discussed in terms of three classes of filtering media--air-sampling, respirator, and air-cleaning. Plots of efficiency versus filtering velocity are presented. The pressure drop characteristics of the filters are discussed in terms of initial pressure drops of the clean filters, variations in pressure drop of the individual filters, and comparison of loading rates.
Date: August 10, 1953
Creator: Adley, F. E.; Scott, R. H. & Gill, W. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Diffusion of Stack Gases in Very Stable Atmospheres: Case II

Description: In 1949 Barad presented two solutions to the general diffusion equation. Basic in both solutions is the assumption that in very stable atmospheres a point source may be replaced by a vertical area of uniform concentration at a short distance downwind. This vertical area is considered to exist at the distance at which the plume finally "levels-off" and assumes a flat ribbon-like appearance. In addition if the distance over which diffusion takes place is limited to one or two miles and if only the stable atmosphere with its narrow range of eddy sizes is considered, the average diffusion co-efficient (K) has a signficance which it does not have in the case of neutral equilibrium.
Date: August 10, 1953
Creator: Barad, M. L. & Shorr, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Research and Development Program, Activity Buildup Program Task 1 : final report February 1958 to June 1959

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 (APPR-1) performed from February 1958 to January 1959 are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Mathematical equations to describe the activity buildup are derived. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as the predicted radiation levels at the end of core life.
Date: August 10, 1959
Creator: Brown, William S.; Bergen, C. Richard.; Bergmann, Carl A.; Chupak, Julius.; Fitzsimmons, Susanne R. & Grant, Louis G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 2. Surry Power Plants, Units 1 and 2

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 1 and 2 of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant was carried out for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1973 through 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The two primary methods used for temperature monitoring employ a fixed thermographs network and boat measurements. Review of data indicates that both the application and formulation of the hydrothermal monitoring program are inadequate to fully characterize the operation of the plant and the behavior of the thermal plume. Furthermore, there are no existing data that can be used to adequately verify or disprove the validity of the various Surry plume predictions. The ecological analysis includes validation of impacts predicted in the Final Environmental Statement using the operational monitoring data. Phytoplankton cell concentrations, chlorophyll a, and carbon-14 measurements were used to monitor changes in the primary producers. Densities of consumers (i.e., zooplankton, benthos, and fish) were sed to monitor changes in the primary producers. Models based on operating data were constructed to determine whether changes were occurring at each trophic level. Analysis of the monitoring data suggests that the thermal discharges at Surry are having a negative effect on the phytoplankton and zooplankton but are enhancing the benthic and nekton populations in the discharge area.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D. & Kumar, K. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Review of electrostatic plugging

Description: Using electric fields to diminish end losses from open magnetic plasma confinement systems is equivalent to magnetically shielding the grid wires of an electrostatic plasma confinement device. Electrostatically plugged magnetic cusps confine electrons magnetically in the perpendicular direction and electrostatically in the parallel direction, and ions are purely electrostatically confined in both directions. Theoretical estimates have been made of confinement times, electron density, plasma potential, and plasma temperatures. Experimentally, plasmas with n = 5 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, T/sub i/ = 1 keV, tau = 5 msec, have been confined by cusp fields of about 10 kG with applied voltages approximately 10 kV. Fusion reactors with (fusion power)/(injection power) identical with Q approximately 5 appear feasible using B approximately 80 kG, applied voltage approximately 300 kV, if extrapolations from present experiments hold. Electrostatically plugged cusps are similar in some ways to Tandem Mirrors, to Tormac, and to SURMAC plasma confinement systems.
Date: August 10, 1977
Creator: Dolan, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mirror reactor studies. [Design studies of fusion mirror, hybrid mirror, and two small mirror reactors]

Description: Design studies of a fusion mirror reactor, a fusion-fission mirror reactor, and two small mirror reactors are summarized. The fusion reactor uses 150-keV neutral-beam injectors based on the acceleration of negative ions. The injectors provide over 1 GW of continuous power at an efficiency greater than 80 percent. The fusion reactor has three-stage, modularized, Venetian blind, plasma direct converter with a predicted efficiency of 59 percent and a new concept for removal of the lune-shaped blanket: a crane is brought between the two halves of the Yin-Yang magnet, which are separated by a float. The design has desirable features such as steady-state operation, minimal impurity problems, and low first-wall thermal stress. The major disadvantage is low Q resulting in high recirculating power and hence high cost of electrical power. However, the direct capital cost per unit of gross electrical power is reasonable ($1000/kW(e)).
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Moir, R. W.; Barr, W. L. & Bender, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DT fusion neutron irradiation of BNL--LASL superconductor wires

Description: The following samples were irradiated with the LLL rotating target neutron source: 19-core Nb/sub 3/Sn multifilament wires, Nb/sub 3/Sn single core, V/sub 3/Ga single core, NbTi Supercon 402, and NbTi cupronickel jacketed. No test results are given. (MOW)
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: MacLean, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Feasibility of a MHD generator as a transmitter for electromagnetic sounding of the earth. [Mathematical models]

Description: Development of a high-intensity source for use in time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings would permit investigation of geothermal systems to much greater depth than is now possible with controlled-source methods. The development of such a source is critically dependent upon a powerful, mobile generator. Magnetohydrodynamic pulse generators satisfy the weight and power requirements for such a generator. However, existing MHD generators which are used in geophysical applications are solid fueled, and therefore, very expensive to operate. Moreover, the pulse length from such a generator is limited to about 10 seconds, which may be too short to permit the maximum advantage to be gained from the available power. The shortcomings of the MHD generator will be remedied in a liquid-fueled generator now under development for the U.S. Air Force. A field program designed to compare available conventional and MHD generators would provide the necessary information for final generator selection, as well as an abundance of information on the nature of geothermal systems at depth. Operation and cost studies on MHD generators are given, and model calculations for TDEM soundings of geothermal hot-dry-rock systems are presented.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Fleming, D. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D.; Kumar, K. D. & Witten, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ORTAP: a nuclear steam supply system simulation for the dynamic analysis of high temperature gas cooled reactor transients

Description: ORTAP was developed to predict the dynamic behavior of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) Nuclear Steam Supply System for normal operational transients and postulated accident conditions. It was developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as an independent means of obtaining conservative predictions of the transient response of HTGRs over a wide range of conditions. The approach has been to build sufficient detail into the component models so that the coupling between the primary and secondary systems can be accurately represented and so that transients which cover a wide range of conditions can be simulated. System components which are modeled in ORTAP include the reactor core, a typical reheater and steam generator module, a typical helium circulator and circulator turbine and the turbine generator plant. The major plant control systems are also modeled. Normal operational transients which can be analyzed with ORTAP include reactor start-up and shutdown, normal and rapid load changes. Upset transients which can be analyzed with ORTAP include reactor trip, turbine trip and sudden reduction in feedwater flow. ORTAP has also been used to predict plant response to emergency or faulted conditions such as primary system depressurization, loss of primary coolant flow and uncontrolled removal of control poison from the reactor core.
Date: August 10, 1977
Creator: Cleveland, J. C.; Hedrick, R. A.; Ball, S. J. & Delene, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Program description, summary, and recommendations. Vol. 1

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for eight nuclear power plants was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory commission. This report includes a summary of the screening phase in which the adequacy of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data for each plant were evaluated, and the summary and recommendations resulting from a detailed examination of the three nuclear power plants selected in the initial screening.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D.; Kumar, K. D. & Witten, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D. & Kumar, K. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Liquid Phase Methanol LaPorte PDU: Modification, Operation, and Support Studies

Description: To strengthen the data base of the Liquid Phase Methanol LaPorte technology, research is being conducted in parallel with the process development unit engineering and construction efforts. This work will address alternate liquid media studies, effects of CO{sub 2} in CO-rich synthesis gas, optimization of in-situ catalyst reduction and storage, catalyst poison studies, fundamental kinetic modelling, testing alternate commercial catalysts, and field testing of new guard-bed materials for catalyst poisons. Tests will be performed primarily using CO-rich synthesis gas. (VC)
Date: August 10, 1988
Creator: Brown, D. M. & Frank, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Comparison of Eight National Monuments as Applied to the Hanford Reach National Monument

Description: On June 9, 2000, President William Clinton issued a proclamation to preserve 195,000 acres of land as a national monument in southeastern Washington State. Named the Hanford Reach Monument, it is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The monument has been preserved by unusual circumstances: for the past 50 years, it has served as the buffer area to one of the U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear reservations. As such, it has been allowed to remain wild, protecting it from human interference and preserving a number of important resources once found in abundance, but now in decline, throughout the Columbia River Basin. At the centerpiece of this monument is the last free flowing, non-tidal stretch of the Columbia River. Called the Hanford Reach, this 51-mile long section of the Columbia River supports one of the most productive spawning grounds for Chinook salmon. In addition to its natural resources, this monument also contains sites of rich and important archaeological and historical significance. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is currently working with the U.S. Department of Energy, the public, and a number of other interested parties to create a monument management plan, which is expected to be released sometime in mid-2004. But because of the unusual circumstances that have preserved this monument for the last 50 years, there are unique issues that must be addressed before this monument may be opened to the public. The purpose of this document is to evaluate the recreational land-usage patterns common to our nation's national monuments and apply those findings to what recreational activities are being considered and planned at the Hanford Reach National Monument. Based on these evaluations and taking the unique situation at the Hanford Site into consideration, recommendations are offered for the future management of the Hanford Reach National Monument.
Date: August 10, 2004
Creator: Pospical, Jill J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Inadequate neutron flux monitoring

Description: Reactor shutdown operations were outside the requirements of Technical Specification DPST-TS-105-2.1, Scram Instrumentation, and Technical Standard DPSTS-105-4.02, Subcritical Operations, when data was not recorded per DPSOL 105-1223B, Neutron Flux Control Monitoring During Shutdown -- External Fission Counter Normal Mode. DPSOL 105- 1223B, Data Sheet 2, requires operations personnel to record External Fission Counter (EFC) data at 15 minute intervals. Reactor Technology Department surveillance on 6/7/89 identified that data were not recorded for three consecutive intervals on 6/6/89. Operations personnel failed to take data per the frequency required in DPSOL 105-1223B. The time period that this event occurred was during shift change; the three missed readings should have been recorded at 7:15 a.m., and 7:45 a.m. Operations personnel were seated at the external fission counter desk and maintained audio/visual monitoring of the flux while conducting the turnover. Root Cause -- Monitoring alertness of personnel was less than adequate. Monitoring requirements for the external fission counters are set per DPSOL 105- 1223B. Personnel inadvertently failed to take data per the frequency required in DPSOL 105-1223B.
Date: August 10, 1989
Creator: Rubio, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Uranium purchases report 1993

Description: Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B,`` Uranium Marketing Activities,`` are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year`s report. The report contains a glossary of terms.
Date: August 10, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Report on audit of management and operating contractors` subcontract administration

Description: The four audited DOE contractors had not established adequate systems to award and administer subcontracts. Their systems did not provide for fair and effective competition, reasonable costs and prices, and timely closure of completed subcontracts. These conditions existed because contractors did not ensure that employees adhered to contract terms and company policies, and because the Department did not adequately monitor contractors` purchasing systems. As a result, the Department paid excessive prices for goods and services and committed more funds than needed for subcontract costs.
Date: August 10, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Environmental Assessment

Description: The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis.
Date: August 10, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

Description: Ignition tests and analyses of damage/corroded N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of a series of studies on the deteriorating spent fuel in the Hanford K-Basins. The ignition temperature tests were conducted to assess tie pyrophoric properties of selected spent fuel elements from K-West Basin. The objective of these tests was to determine pyrophoric characteristics of samples cut from both damaged and undamaged regions of fhel elements. Furnace ignition tests were also petiormed on samples subjected to the conditioning process proposed by the Independent Technical Assessment and the Integrated Process Strategy to establish any significant effect on the SNF pyrophoric pefiormance parameters. Part of the analysis of the ignition data in this report was petiormed by FIuor Daniel Northwest. One of the safety issues being evaluated is the possibility of a fiel ignition during processing, handling, and transportation to the interim storage facility.
Date: August 10, 1999
Creator: Abrefah, John; Huang, Fan-Hsiung F.; Gerry, William M.; Gray, Walter J.; Marschman, Steven C. & Thornton, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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{sup 129}I in deer thyroids from the Savannah River Site

Description: {sup 129}I can be released in many forms, most of which can be incorporated into animals, metabolized, concentrated and stored in the small thyroid gland. Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests added {approximately}0.37 TBq of {sup 129}I to the {approximately}1.48 TBq naturally present in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Previous investigators showed that during 1965--1969, thyroids of most cattle in USA contained less than 0.001 Bq {sup 129}I/g (wet weight) of thyroid. From 1984 through 1993 the authors measured {sup 129}I in 19 to 143 deer thyroids per year from the 316 square miles Savannah River Site (SRS) in SC. Most of these thyroids have averaged 0.1 to 2.8 Bq {sup 129}I/g. The storage and release of {sup 129}I at the SRS has been extensively reviewed. That report shows between 1954 and 1989 approximately 0.1. TBq of {sup 129}I was released into seepage basins, 0.2 TBq released into the atmosphere and 0.3 TBq retained in waste storage tanks. From 1985--1987 the annual medians of {sup 129}I/g deer thyroid from SRS were sustained at 0.03--0.06 Bq g{sup {minus}1} thyroid. In 1988 the median was highest at 0.12 Bq/g thyroid. The medians then decreased and in 1992 and 1993 they were 0.028 and 0.032 Bq {sup 129}I/g thyroid. The annual average concentrations showed a similar trend with a maximum in 1989 of 2.3 Bq/g thyroid and in 1992 and 1993 the averages were reduced to 0.12 and 0.34 Bq {sup 129}I/g. {sup 129}I in thyroid glands may be a minimal biohazard but it is a convenient biological index of contamination by a long-lived fission product.
Date: August 10, 1994
Creator: Van Middlesworth, L.; Geary, L. & Johns, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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