Search Results

open access

Mark-1 Cryostat Status Report Q1 and Q2, FY03

Description: The Mark 1 now has a completion date goal of mid-FY05 . The original concept for the Mark-1 cryogenics was based upon a liquid helium (LHe) reservoir, which was developed in collaboration with a group of cryogenic experts from Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (CEA) in France. This concept meets all requirements and a conceptual design review was held in November 2002. However, meeting the completion date goal would be very difficult with this approach. Subsequent interaction with colleagues at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (URLLE) generated a modified concept with the LHe cryogenics replaced with a commercial mechanical cryo-cooler. This offers ease of operation, reduced cost, and a shorter schedule. However, some functional requirements cannot be met, and change requests are being written for review and acceptance. A high-level schedule for the cryo-cooler-based Mark-1 has been created, with a more detailed plan for the risk reduction and concept/component testing phase, which extends into the first half of FY04. A complete detailed schedule is in preparation.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Bernat, T. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Physical and Liquid Chemical Simulant Formulations for Transuranic Waste in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

Description: CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is in the process of identifying and developing supplemental process technologies to accelerate the tank waste cleanup mission. A range of technologies is being evaluated to allow disposal of Hanford waste types, including transuranic (TRU) process wastes. Ten Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) have been identified whose contents may meet the criteria for designation as TRU waste: the B-200 series (241-B-201, -B-202, -B 203, and B 204), the T-200 series (241-T-201, T 202, -T-203, and -T-204), and Tanks 241-T-110 and -T-111. CH2M HILL has requested vendor proposals to develop a system to transfer and package the contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) waste retrieved from the SSTs for subsequent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Current plans call for a modified ''dry'' retrieval process in which a liquid stream is used to help mobilize the waste for retrieval and transfer through lines and vessels. This retrieval approach requires that a significant portion of the liquid be removed from the mobilized waste sludge in a ''dewatering'' process such as centrifugation prior to transferring to waste packages in a form suitable for acceptance at WIPP. In support of CH2M HILL's effort to procure a TRU waste handling and packaging process, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed waste simulant formulations to be used in evaluating the vendor's system. For the SST CH-TRU wastes, the suite of simulants includes (1) nonradioactive chemical simulants of the liquid fraction of the waste, (2) physical simulants that reproduce the important dewatering properties of the waste, and (3) physical simulants that can be used to mimic important rheological properties of the waste at different points in the TRU waste handling and packaging process. To validate the simulant formulations, their measured properties were compared with the limited data for actual TRU waste samples. PNNL …
Date: July 30, 2003
Creator: Rassat, Scot D.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Russell, Renee L.; Caldwell, Dustin D. & Mendoza, Donaldo P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Practical Physiological Monitoring Protocol for Heat Strain Control

Description: This protocol is indicated when employees are: (1) Exposed to Heat Stress above the TLV; (2) Performing low to moderate work rates with rare excursions to heavy rates; NOT for heavy and very heavy work rates or requiring peak outputs for extended periods; and, (3) Determined to need physiological heat strain monitoring by the cognizant Industrial Hygienist. The requirements are: (1) A work/rest regimen must be established at outset and adjusted as needed during operations (see Appendix A); (2) On-going data collection and review; (3) Rest times must be increased if indicated; (4) Intended for normal, healthy adults. Seasonal medical screening is recommended; and (5) Training for affected employees regarding this protocol, hydration, self-limitation, lifestyle effects and signs, symptoms and treatment of heat related illnesses. This protocol is to aid industrial hygienists in assessing individual physiological response to employee heat exposures, and provides guidance to identify and reduce heat strain as needed. Physiological monitoring is recommended when heat exposure exceeds the TLV by {ge} 2 C and/or when evaporative cooling is limited or eliminated. Typically, this occurs when the use of personal protective equipment includes impermeable or water vapor restrictive outer garments. This protocol is used to identify when heat strain may be excessive. This is determined through measurements taken during each rest period. If decision criteria are exceeded, changes in work practices shall be implemented immediately to reduce employee heat strain and prevent heat related illnesses up to and including heat stroke, a life threatening condition. This protocol may not be appropriate under all conditions. Sound Industrial Hygiene professional judgment is required. Because the measurements for this protocol occur during the rest phase of the work/rest regimen, the conditions affecting employee heat strain during the work phase must be carefully weighed. Work rate, effecting metabolic heat generation is the …
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Anderson, R. B.; Johnson, J. S.; Burastero, S. R. & Gilmore, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Investigation into the Role of Initial Conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities by Low Atwood Experiments and Simulations

Description: The primary goal of the research being conducted this summer is to investigate the role of initial conditions in the development of a two fluid mix driven by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of initial conditions will be studied through the use of experimental facilities located at the Buoyancy-Driven Mixing Lab at Texas A&M University and through high resolution direct numerical simulations of the experiment by the MIRANDA code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The Experimental Objectives are: (1) Analyze the early time development of a two fluid Rayleigh-Taylor driven mix between two miscible fluids at low Atwood numbers. (2) Quantify the initial conditions of the unstably stratified fluids by means of statistical mixing parameters and spectral analysis of the centerline density fluctuations. (3) Capture PLIF images of initial development of the flow for use in simulation setup. (Wayne Kraft) (4) Determine exactly what component of the experimental mixing data (position downstream from the splitter plate) most accurately represents the initial conditions of the experiment. The Simulation Objectives are: (1) Perform two dimensional and three dimensional simulations of the experimental setup. Analyze the results of these simulations for comparison to the experimental results. (2) Various methods of implementing the initial conditions in the simulations are to be investigated. Some of those methods are: (a) Various simplified density profile assumptions will also be investigated, such as repeating saw-teeth patterns, etc. There is also a concern to add some degree of randomness to these simplified perturbation profile assumptions. (b) Convert portions of raw PLIF data to a set of parameterized surfaces that can be directly input as both two dimensional and three dimensional surfaces. (c) Determine and implement a method for directly converting the initial density spectral data into a density profile that can be implemented in two and three dimensional simulations. …
Date: July 14, 2003
Creator: Mueschke, N; Andrews, M & Schilling, O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Nonradiological Environmental Report Maamora Site, Morocco

Description: Under the Sister Laboratory Arrangement between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Moroccan National Center for Nuclear Energy Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN), environmental sampling and analysis were performed to assess the background concentrations of nonradiological constituents in various environmental media at the Maamora Forest CNESTEN Laboratory Site. Samples were collected from surface soil, surface water and groundwater wells, short-lived vegetation (mainly native grass), and long-lived vegetation (cork oak). Samples were collected inside the property fence line, in the buffer zone surrounding the site, and off site at water locations. The soil and vegetation samples were analyzed for metals and pesticides and screened for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); the water samples were analyzed for metals, general minerals, and pesticides and screened for PCBs.
Date: July 17, 2003
Creator: Althouse, P E; Blake, R G; Bandong, B B; Belghit, H & Dehbi, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Fish Passage Through a Simulated Horizontal Bulb Turbine Pressure Regime: A Supplement to"Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

Description: Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Both fish species were acclimated for 16-22 hours at either surface (101 kPa; 1 atm) or 30 ft (191 kPa; 1.9 atm) of pressure in a hyperbaric chamber before exposure to a pressure scenario simulating passage through a horizontal bulb turbine. The simulation was as follows: gradual pressure increase to about 2 atm of pressure, followed by a sudden (0.4 second) decrease in pressure to either 0.7 or 0.95 atm, followed by gradual return to 1 atm (surface water pressure). Following the exposure, fish were held at surface …
Date: July 31, 2003
Creator: Abernethy, Cary S.; Amidan, Brett G. & Cada, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

LEACHING OF SLAG FROM STEEL RECYCLING: RADIONUCLIDES AND STABLE ELEMENTS. DATA REPORT, JAN.15, 1997, REVISED SEPT.9, 1997

Description: Of primary importance to this study are releases of radionuclides from slags. However, releases of other constituents also provide valuable information on releases of elements that may be toxic (e.g. Cr) or that may be used as analogs for radionuclides (e.g. K for Cs). In addition, leaching of bulk constituents from the slag gives information on weathering rates of the bulk material that can be used to estimate releases of non-leachable elements. Consequently, we have examined leaching of: radionuclides from those sloags that contain them; bulk elemental constituents of the slags; anionic constituents; trace elements, through spot checks of concentrations in leachates. Analysis by ICP of elemental constituents in leachates from radioactive samples was limited to those leachate samples that contained no detectable radionuclides, to avoid contamination of the ICP. In this data report we present leaching results for five slags that were produced by recycling steel. Two of the slags were generated at facilities that treat radioactively contaminated scrap, consequently the slag contains radionuclides. The slag from the other three was not contaminated. Because of this, we were able to examine the chemical composition of the slag and of the leachate generated during tests of these slags. For these materials we believe that leach rates of the stable elements can be used as analogs for radionuclides if the same steel processing method were used for radioactive material.
Date: July 31, 2003
Creator: FUHRMANN,M. SCHOONEN,M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Renewable Energy for Water Pumping Applications In Rural Villages; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

Description: This report introduces conventional and renewable energy sources for water pumping applications in rural villages by reviewing the technologies and illustrating typical applications. As energy sources for water pumping, the report discusses diesel/gasoline/kerosene engines, grid power supplies, traditional windmills, electrical wind turbines, and PV.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Argaw, N.; Foster, R. & Ellis, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2002

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2002 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.
Date: July 9, 2003
Creator: Bivins, Steven R. & Stoetzel, Gregory A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Science& Technology Review July/August 2003

Description: This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Calling All Nuclear Scientists--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) An Inside Attack on Cancer--Customizing the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, for individual cancers and individual patients, is the goal of a Livermore research initiative; (3) Cells Respond Uniquely to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation--Mammalian cells and tissues exposed to low-level radiation respond by switching on hundreds of genes specialized in repairing damaged chromosomes, membranes, and proteins and in countering cellular stress. (4) A New Generation of Munitions--Warhead designers are developing low collateral damage munitions that only deliver their destructive force to the intended target; and (5) Whatever the Waste, New Facility Takes It On--A new decontamination and waste treatment facility makes it easier for Livermore to manage a variety of wastes effectively, practically, and responsibly.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: McMahon, D H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Properties of Wide-Gap Chalcopyrite Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications: Final Report, 8 July 1998 -- 17 October 2001

Description: The objectives of this project were to obtain a fundamental understanding of wide-gap chalcopyrite semiconductors and photovoltaic devices. Information to be gathered included significant new fundamental materials data necessary for accurate modeling of single- and tandem-junction devices, basic materials science of wider-gap chalcopyrite semiconductors to be used in next-generation devices, and practical information on the operation of devices incorporating these materials. Deposition used a hybrid sputtering and evaporation method shown previously to produce high-quality epitaxial layers of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS). Materials analysis was also provided to assist members of the National CIS Team, of which, through this contract, we were a member. Solar cells produced from resulting single-crystal epitaxial layers in collaboration with various members of the CIS Team were used to determine the factors limiting performance of the devices based on analysis of the results. Because epitaxial growth allows us to determine the surface orientation of our films specifically by choice of the substrate surface on which the film is grown, a major focus of the project concerned the nature of (110)-oriented CIGS films and the performance of solar cells produced from these films. We begin this summary with a description of the results for growth on (110) GaAs, which formed a basis for much of the work ultimately conducted under the program.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Rockett, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Edge Detection to Isolate Motion in Adaptive Optics Systems

Description: Adaptive optics uses signal processing techniques and deformable mirrors to minimize image degradation caused by phase aberrations. In the case of telescope imaging, the atmosphere causes phase aberrations. In the case of satellite imaging, errors due to the ultra-light-weight characteristics of the primary mirror cause phase aberrations. Scene-based Shack-Hartmann Wave Front Sensing takes the correlation between successive wavelets to determine these phase aberrations. A large problem with the scene-based approach is that motion, such as a moving car, can cause the correlation of two lenslets to peak, not where the scenes align, but where the moving object in each frame aligns. As such, the continued use of scene-based Wave Front Sensing necessitates successful isolation of moving objects from a stationary background scene. With the knowledge of which pixels are immobile, one should avoid the problem of locking onto a moving object when taking the correlation of two successive frames in time. Two main requirements of isolation are consistency and efficiency. In this document I will discuss the different edge detection algorithms explored for moving object isolation and how I came to the conclusion that, for our purposes of scene-based Shack-Hartmann WFS, edge detection is too inconsistent to be of any use. Because the Shack-Hartmann lenslets limits us to low resolutions, edge detection that works on higher resolution images will not work on our images. The results of each algorithm will show that with so few pixels per subaperature, edge detection is a poor method of identifying moving objects.
Date: July 11, 2003
Creator: Chan, C W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

NIF Anti-Reflective Coating Solutions: Preparation, Procedures and Specifications

Description: The following document contains a detailed description of the preparation procedures for the antireflective coating solutions used for NIF optics. This memo includes preparation procedures for the coating solutions (sections 2.0-4.0), specifications and vendor information of the raw materials used and on all equipment used (section 5.0), and QA specifications (section 6.0) and procedures (section 7.0) to determine quality and repeatability of all the coating solutions. There are different five coating solutions that will be used to coat NIF optics. These solutions are listed below: (1) Colloidal silica (3%) in ethanol (2) Colloidal silica (2%) in sec-butanol (3) Colloidal silica (9%) in sec-butanol (deammoniated) (4) HMDS treated silica (10%) in decane (5) GR650 (3.3%) in ethanol/sec-butanol The names listed above are to be considered the official name for the solution. They will be referred to by these names in the remainder of this document. Table 1 gives a summary of all the optics to be coated including: (1) the surface to be coated; (2) the type of solution to be used; (3) the coating method (meniscus, dip, or spin coating) to be used; (4) the type of coating (broadband, 1?, 2?, 3?) to be made; (5) number of optics to be coated; and (6) the type of post processing required (if any). Table 2 gives a summary of the batch compositions and measured properties of all five of these solutions.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Suratwala, T; Carman, L & Thomas, I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy Design Analysis and Evaluation of a Proposed Air Rescue and Fire Fighting Administration Building for Teterboro Airport

Description: A new/proposed building for the Teterboro Airport was selected as a case study for High Performance Building Initiative research efforts. This report documents research-level energy analysis conducted on the Teterboro Airport building during predesign and design phases of the project.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Griffith, B.; Pless, S.; Talbert, B.; Deru, M. & Torcellini, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Nondestructive Evaluation Quality Procedure: Personnel Qualification and Certification Radiographic Testing-Levels I& II

Description: This Operational Procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the qualification and certification/recertification of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) personnel in the nondestructive testing (NDT) radiographic testing (RT) method. This document is in accordance with the American Society for Nondestructive Testing Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, 1996, except as amended herein.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Dolan, K; Rikard, R D & Rodriquez, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

2003 Initial Assessments of Closure for the C Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR):Numerical Simulations

Description: In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.'s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the closure of the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) tank farms, a set of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed to predict the performance of surface barriers for reducing long-term risks from potential groundwater contamination at the C Farm WMA. This report documents the simulation of 14 cases (and two verification cases) involving two-dimensional cross sections through the C Farm WMA tanks C-103 – C-112. Utilizing a unit release scenario at Tank C-112, four different types of leaks were simulated. These simulations assessed the impact of leakage during retrieval, past leaks, and tank residual wastes and tank ancillary equipment following closure activities. . Two transported solutes were considered: uranium-238 (U-238) and technetium-99 (Tc-99). To evaluate the impact of sorption to the subsurface materials, six different retardation coefficients were simulated for U-238. Overall, simulations results for the C Farm WMA showed that only a small fraction of the U-238 with retardation factors greater than 0.6 migrated from the vadose zone in all of the cases. For the conservative solute, Tc-99, results showed that the simulations investigating leakages during retrieval demonstrated the highest WMA peak concentrations and the earliest arrival times due to the high infiltration rate before the use of surface barriers and the addition of water into the system. Simulations investigating past leaks showed similar peaks and arrival times as the retrieval leak cases. Several different release rates were used to investigate contaminant transport from residual tank wastes. All showed similar peak concentrations and arrival times, except for the lowest initial release rate, which was 1,000 times slower than the highest release rate. Past leaks were also investigated with different release rate models, including advection dominated, …
Date: July 15, 2003
Creator: Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L. & White, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Simulation of Time-Reversal Processing for Electromagnetic Communication

Description: Time-reversal processing was simulated for several possible electromagnetic communication channels, including random point scatterers, large plates and a conducting cavity. Communication was from a single transmitting antenna to a receiving array. The effectiveness of time-reversal processing was compared for a single receiver and the array. The aim of these simulations was to determine a communication environment that would give an interesting level of multipath interference and that can be constructed in a laboratory.
Date: July 25, 2003
Creator: Burke, G J & Poggio, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Armenia

Description: This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in the country of Armenia. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. The maps portray the wind resource with high-resolution (1-km2) grids of wind power density at 50-m above ground. The wind maps were created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a computerized wind mapping system that uses Geographic Information System (GIS) software.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D. & George, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Policies and Market Factors Driving Wind Power Development in the United States

Description: In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24% annually during the past five years. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the policies and market factors that have been driving utility-scale wind energy development in the United States, particularly in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment in recent years. Although there are federal policies and overarching market issues that are encouraging investment nationally, much of the recent activity has resulted from state-level policies or localized market drivers. In this paper, we identify the key policies, incentives, regulations, and markets affecting development, and draw lessons from the experience of leading states that may be transferable to other states or regions. We provide detailed discussions of the drivers for wind development in a dozen leading states-California, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Bird, L.; Parsons, B.; Gagliano, T.; Brown, M.; Wiser, R. & Bolinger, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Radionuclide Decay and In-growth Technical Basis Document

Description: The purpose of this report is to assess the decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the radionuclide source term (RST) deposited by underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the NTS from 1951 through 1992. A priority of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project, administered by the Environmental Restoration Division of NNSA/NV, was to determine as accurately as possible a measure of the total radionuclide inventory for calculation of the RST deposited in the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The motivation for the development of a total radionuclide inventory is driven by a need to calculate the amount of radioactivity that will move away from the nuclear test cavities over time, referred to as the hydrologic source term (HST). The HST is a subset of the RST and must be calculated using knowledge of the geochemistry and hydrology of the subsurface environment. This will serve the regulatory process designed to protect human health from exposures to contaminated groundwater. Following the detonation of an underground nuclear test, and depending on the presence of water at the location of the detonation, the residual radionuclides may be found in aqueous or gaseous states, precipitated or chemically sorbed states, or incorporated in melt glass produced by the nuclear test. The decay and in-growth of radionuclides may have geochemical implications for the migration of radionuclides away from underground nuclear test cavities. For example, in the case of a long-lived mobile parent decaying to a shorter-lived and less mobile daughter, the geochemical properties of the parent element may control the migration potential of the daughter nuclide. It becomes important to understand the evolution of the RST in terms of effects on the mobility, solubility, or abundance of radionuclides in the HST that are created by decay and in-growth processes. The total radionuclide inventory and thus …
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Kersting, A. B.; Finnegan, D. L.; Tompson, A. F. B.; Esser, B. K.; Smith, D. K.; Zavarin, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

40 Years of Discovery

Description: History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our …
Date: July 8, 2003
Creator: Heller, Arnie; Henke, Amy; Weinstein, Bert & Thomas, Cindy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen