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UO2 Pellet Thermal Conductivity From Irradiations With Central Melting

Description: Abstract: Continued irradiation experience under the AEC - Euratom, UO2 High Performance Program provided five separate and distinct sets of data on UO2 thermal conductivity. Four of these results are expressed in terms of the value of the thermal conductivity. The first two of these measurements were applicable -- strictly -- to poly crystalline UO2. Recently, three additional sets of measurements have been obtained -- all pertinent to UO2 after the formation of large columnar grains. The extent of melting in the experiments on which the results are based ranges from slight, to greater than 70 percent of the fuel cross section. The conclusions from all of these thermal conductivity measurements considered together are: (1) The true value of the UO2 conductivity integral form 0 degrees C to melting (2805 - 15 degrees C) lies in the range from 90 to 96 W/cm. The most probable value is closer to 90 W/cm. To ensure no central melting and the associated clad swelling the maximum thermal performance level for solid pellet, UO2 fuel rods should not exceed 90 W/cm. (2) Any improvement in thermal conductivity due to the formation of large, columnar UO2 grains is small and not detectable within the experimental accuracy of the measurement, i.e., 3 to 4 W/cm.
Date: July 1964
Creator: Lyons, M. F.; Coplin, D. H.; Pashos, T. J. & Weidenbaum, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Program for the Development of Plutonium Recycle for Use in Light Water Moderated Reactors Quarterly Progress Report: April 1 - June 30, 1964

Description: A research program is being conducted to obtain experimental data in the irradiation of plutonium-enriched fuel to confirm a theoretical model for predicting isotopic composition and reactivity changes in plutonium-enriched, light-water-moderated reactors. Quarterly progress: Project fuel fins irradiated to 1860, 3000, and 5300 MWD/T have been successfully sampled in the Radioactive Materials Laboratory. The samples have been dissolved and aliquots delivered to Chemistry for Mass Spectrometry and burnup determination. The first Stanford Pool Irradiation indicated that there was some inconsistency in the thermal flux and the near thermal epithermal flux. The experiment was repeated, increasing the number of foil wheel positions from two to three. The data from the second measurement are being reduced. The EPITHERMOS code modification has been completed. Comparisons between the results computed by the code and experimental data show much improved agreement. The metallographic photomicrographs of a polished half-pellet from rod F, irradiated to 5000 MWD/T, show structure very similar to that shown by the pellet from rod S, irradiated to 1860 MWD/T.
Date: July 15, 1964
Creator: Robkin, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development Program for Increased Output in the Garigliano Nuclear Reactor. Quarterly Report No. 7

Description: The United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), on May 29, and June 18, 1958, signed an agreement which provides a basis for co-operation in programs for the advancement of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. The work described in this report represents the Joint U.S.-Euratom effort. The over-all development program is designed to obtain the test data and operating experience necessary to eventually realize a 50 percent increase in the output of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station located at Sessa Aurunca (Campania, Italy). One task is in progress: Task I - Data Logging and Computer System. The work on the other tasks is being planned and initiated.
Date: July 1, 1964
Creator: Howard, C. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Transition Boiling Heat Transfer Program; Sixth Quarterly Progress Report, April - June 1964

Description: Summary: Transition boiling data was taken with an improved flow loop, to explore the influence of loop characteristics on rod temperature fluctuations the transition region was found to be much smaller than for comparable conditions with a different loop. Also the amplitude, and frequency of the temperature oscillations, were significantly less than before. These results indicate that loop characteristic and flow disturbance parameters play a prominent part in governing the transition temperature fluctuations. Additional two-rod transition boiling data are presented. The results include data taken at high wall temperature levels during a demonstration test at low steam qualities, and the effect of a change in rod spacing on heat transfer performance.
Date: July 1, 1964
Creator: Quinn, E. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Production test IP-695-AC thorium oxide irradiation -- K Reactors

Description: Irradiation of thorium for the production of ``clean`` U-233 at HAPO began in CY 1963. Several small-scale tests, involving from gram-size quantities up to a few elements, were successfully conducted; the results from these tests, coupled with theoretical predictions, indicated the desirability of further investigation. The objectives of this test are to (1) authorize the irradiation of about two tons of thorium oxide target elements in central zone process tubes of KE Reactor, (2) determine the reactivity effects of an enriched uranium-thorium oxide (E-Q) loading in the K Reactors, (3) demonstrate the feasibility of using the K Reactors in production of ``clean`` U-233, (4) provide sufficient irradiated thoria material to permit demonstration of the chemical processing capabilities, and (5) obtain data from an extended irradiation of one column of thoria elements.
Date: July 7, 1964
Creator: Gross, P. D. & Hladek, K. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary hazards evaluation for enriched uranium-thoria (E-Q) loading: Hanford IPD reactors

Description: The General Electric Company, as contractor to the AEC at Hanford, is proposing to modify the fuel loading of one or more of the IPD production reactors for the purpose of producing ``clean`` U-232 as a coproduct with plutonium. The isotope, U-233, with low (3-5 ppM) U-232 content, is expected to become a material with important nuclear applications. The IPD reactors are well suited to produce clean U-233. A proposal to produce 200 kg of U-233 for critical experiments for the AEC`s seed-and-blanket reactor program have been made in response to recent AEC inquiries. The production of such large quantities of U-233, on the schedule requested, would require nearly full utilization of the IPD reactors for a period of about half a year. This report, therefore, is intended to evaluate the nuclear safety of the IPD reactors whose entire loadings have been altered to coproduce U-233 and Pu-239. The coproduct loading will involve irradiating thorium oxide target elements. Excess reactivity to support the target material will be furnished by slightly enriched uranium, charged in tubes separate from the thoria. The expected fuel-to-target ratio is about 5.5 in the reactor cores and two in the reactor fringes. A full technical hazards evaluation of the E-Q load is presently in preparation and will be issued as a supplement to the Hazards Summary Reports. This treatment covers only the highlights of the full report and is intended as an interim and preliminary evaluation.
Date: July 23, 1964
Creator: Nilson, R.; Carlson, P. A. & Owsley, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hazards review: N-Reactor 1.25% co-producer fuel element test

Description: The N-Reactor Hazard Summary Report examines the hazard from operating the N-Reactor with a uniform fuel loading enriched to 0.947% U{sup 235}. Incentives have been developed for reactor testing of a block of 49 tubes loaded with co-producer elements, i.e. elements capable of producing both weapons grade plutonium and tritium. The element utilizes an outer fuel tube enriched to 1.25% U{sup 235} with an inner target lithium-aluminum rod. Criteria have been developed to guide the evaluation of safety aspects of such tests. It is the purpose of this document to review the hazards associated with the proposed test and to set forth special precautions which will be necessary to maintain a high level of safety.
Date: July 13, 1964
Creator: Miller, N. R. & Nechodom, W. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactor operations daily report form BM-5000-052 (7-64)

Description: This document is a summary of the new Reactor Operations Daily Report, which is to be implemented August 3, 1964. The report explains how the form is to be filled out, and what information is to be entered into the different fields on the form.
Date: July 17, 1964
Creator: DeNeal, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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N-Reactor shutdown for fuel rupture indications - tube 3361

Description: The N-Reactor was shutdown on July 7, 1964, due to fuel rupture indications on tube 3361. The rupture has been confirmed as a failure in the downstream inner fuel element in tube 3361 caused by a pin hole in the weld and braze metal. This document presents a historical record of the rupture indications observed prior to and following the shutdown. The operating history of tube 3361 is compared with an adjacent tube, with no abnormal conditions observed at any time. Reactor temperature and power history since initial primary loop heatup are presented to show the total operating history experienced by N-Reactor.
Date: July 31, 1964
Creator: Renberger, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Laboratory studies of the use of uranium(IV) as a plutonium reductant in a Purex process

Description: This report describes laboratory-scale studies made to evaluate the feasibility of using uranium(IV)-hydrazine instead of ferrous sulfamate-sulfamic acid as the partitioning agent in the Hanford Atomic Products Operation Purex separations plant. Iron(II), in combination with sulfamic acid as a holding reductant, has been used very successfully for many years as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction separation processes for irradiated nuclear fuels. However, the iron remains in the radioactive wastes produced in the separation processes. Its presence in these wastes accelerates corrosion of waste concentration equipment, complicates treatment of the waste for by-product recovery and adds to the total quantity of contaminated salts which must be stored. Much effort has gone into searches for plutonium reductans which would not have the disadvantages associated with iron(II). Uranium(IV) has been proposed since, having acted as reductant, it is extracted along with uranium from the irradiated fuels and does in solvent extraction separations processes have involved mixer-settler contactors. The HAPO Purex plant has pulsed-column contactors. This difference, plus certain problems due to the particular flowsheet conditions used, required that additional laboratory studies be made to determine the feasibility of using uranium(IV) in the HAPO Purex plant.
Date: July 30, 1964
Creator: Mendel, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Production Test IP-684-A, hot-die-sized parameters evaluation

Description: The hot-die-sized concept has been under investigation as an alternate manufacturing process for several years. Irradiation testing of the elements began in mid 1963. Some dimensional behavior problems were encountered with the fuel and a test is now being irradiated which may provide sufficient data to remedy the situation. Pre-irradiation examination of fuel elements has shown a significant dimensional change of the cores during the fabrication process, and this dimensional change is thought to contribute to the irradiation behavior of the elements. The irradiation effects of fabrication parameters that influence the dimensional. The objective of the test detailed in this is to evaluate the effects of end bonding pressure and machined core size on the irradiation characteristics of hot-die-sized diffusion bonded fuel elements.
Date: July 16, 1964
Creator: Hladek, K. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technical note on last-ditch cooling of the small Hanford reactors: Part 1, High tanks

Description: A number of tests have been performed and reports issued concerning the adequacy of the last-ditch cooling systems at the Hanford small production reactors. At the present time, re-evaluations are being made, both theoretical and experimental, by process engineers and others at th particular reactor sites. In the interest of uniformity and consistency, this report presents a means of determining the last-ditch cooling adequacy for all the small production reactors. This method includes both the night tanks and the export system.
Date: July 1, 1964
Creator: Jones, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An evaluation of the experimental determination of the effects of burnout and corrosion on spline worth

Description: Efforts have been made to experimentally evaluate and to calculate the effect of reactor environment on splines. This report follows some of these efforts and relates them to operational experience. The use of splines in the Hanford Reactors has improved the efficiency and ease of operating the reactors. With the widespread use of splines, it is important to know the effect of reactor exposure to safely and efficiently use the splines in reactor operation.
Date: July 13, 1964
Creator: Blyckert, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Neptunium-237 production forecasts, IPD 1964--73

Description: Neptunium-237 production has been-calculated according to the equations documented in Reference 1 for use in 1964-AEC study. cases. The assumptions made in the forecasts are as follows: Only the 947 stream is recycled. The blend enrichment for the recycle maternal is 1.2 per cent for F-Y 64 and 65. For FY 66 -73, a blend enrichment of 1.4 per cent is assumed which is better value according to the optimization model of C. W. Showalter. The 947 stream recycle time is two years. In cases A and B where the 947 stream volume is materially increased, virgin 947 material is introduced to make up the material balance. The U-236 content of the blend material- is 66 ppm{sup 2}. The U-236 input level in the 947 stream for the input of FY 64 is 200 ppm{sup 1}. Separations recovery is 85 per cent for FY 64--65 and 90 per cent thereafter. The material throughput data are given in Table I. These values are consistent with those being assumed for the AEC study cases. The Kgs of Np-237 by fiscal year are given in Table II. It must be remembered that these forecasts are based on a particular set of idealized assumptions, and the schedules represent IPD output only.
Date: July 10, 1964
Creator: Nilson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of several EQ fuel loadings on aluminum process tube life

Description: Tube life estimates for the base case and the five study cases are given for 6.6 and 7.0 pH. The fuel sizes and operating conditions for each case are summarized. Information on the mixer position that gives maximum tube life for each case is shown. A tube life distribution was calculated for the base case using the outlet temperature distribution for 1197 central zone tubes at B reactor. Average tube life for the 1197 tubes war estimated to be 3.0 years (100 percent TOE) for operation at 6.6 pH, and the outlet temperature corresponding to average tube life vas l07{degree}C. Similar numbers could be calculated for the study cases if estimates of the outlet temperature distributions were available.
Date: July 24, 1964
Creator: Hough, C. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Processing Department Monthly Report: June 1964

Description: This report, for June 1964 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.
Date: July 22, 1964
Creator: Hanford Atomic Products Operation. Chemical Processing Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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IPD production projections

Description: Two changes have been incorporated in the tables of this draft: (1) The lithium-aluminum tonnages required for blanket and E-N loadings have been changed, (2) The production numbers for the small production reactors have been reduced per AEC direction, and a separate table is included for these numbers. Included data are power levels, operating efficiency, exposure, tonnage, conversion ratios, and annual production for the C, K, and small reactors.
Date: July 18, 1964
Creator: Lang, L. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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B, D, F, DR, H reactor new aluminum HCR concept: Temperature study

Description: The horizontal control rods presently installed in the older Hanford Reactors have inadequate heat transfer characteristics for present and predicted future operation of the reactors. Continued graphite stack distortion, coupled with higher graphite temperatures, has resulted in ECR failure during reactor operation, such as swelling of the outer aluminum sheaths to the extent that rod movement in the graphite channel is severely restricted. Continued graphite stack distortion will tend to further aggravate the problem of rod operation. A new HCR design concept,was developed by P. H. Hutton of Reactor Design, IPD, to alleviate some of the pressing operational problems. Prior to the acceptance of such a design, the important rod operating parameters should be known to some degree of accuracy. This study was conducted to detexmine, by calculational methods, the temperature distributions that could be expected to occur in such an HCR when used at the present operating power levels and at 120% of the present power levels.
Date: July 28, 1964
Creator: Agar, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1964

Description: This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.
Date: July 15, 1964
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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