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EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE SUCTION HEAD REQUIRED BY THE HALLAM PROTOTYPE FREE SURFACE SODIUM PUMP

Description: Hydraulic tests were made on the Hallam Prototype Free-Surface Sodium Pump to determine the net positive suction head (NPSH) required at various sodium flow rates. Pump performance data were also collected. The results indicate that an NPSH of 22 ft sodium is required at the design flow rate of 7200 gpm at approximates 1000 deg F, agreeing with computed values, and that the pump is designed with a safety margin of slightly over l0%. (D.L.C.)
Date: July 25, 1961
Creator: Atz, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production test IP-376-D, Supplement B Irradiation of MGCR-HDR-3 Test Element

Description: The objective of this supplement to PT-IP-376-D, Irradiation of MGCR-HDR-3 Test Element is to authorize 1000 hours of operation at a maximum test specimen surface temperature of 1700 F. The original production test authorized a test duration of four months at a maximum specimen surface temperature of 1500 F; supplement A authorized extension of the test duration to ten months. The desired increase in surface temperature is requested to demonstrate the general feasibility of operation of the fuel element at 1700 F, and to obtain specific information on the performance of Hastelloy-X cladding and fuel bodies. The increased temperature has been approved by the Atomic Energy Commission.
Date: July 11, 1961
Creator: Baars, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF A THREE-LEVEL MASER

Description: The population distribution and the associated thermodynamic properties of a three-level maser are calculated. By treating the three spin states as individual chemical species, it is possible to write the partition function, free energy, internal energy, entropy, and chemical potential for each species. The principle of minimum entropy production is used to derive an equation of reaction equilibrium. This equation is used in separate thermodynamic and statistical mechanical calculations to obtain the normalized population distribution. This result agrees in first order with that obtained by means of the rate equations. Competitive relaxation processes and partial saturation effects are discussed. The saturation parameter used is the one defined in the treatment of the Overhauser effect. An explicit expression is obtained for this parameter in terms of the various transition probabilities, and its effect on maser performance is discussed. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1961
Creator: Barker, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPERT IV HAZARDS SUMMARY REPORT

Description: Spert IV is a large pool-type experimental facility for reactor kinetic studies. These studies will include power excursion and instability tests for a variety of reactor designs. Since the Spert IV experimental program requires the performance of tests which will approach, and may exceed the threshold of reactor destruction, the probability of occurrence of the maximum possible accident is not negligible compared with that of other possible accidents. The maximum possible accident for this facility is considered to be a severe nuclear excursion which results in the destruction of the reactor building and the release of 100% of the accumulated fission product inventory of the atmosphere in a steam cloud. The fission product source assumed in the analysis of this accident is an upper limit in view of the nature of the tests to be performed and the heat removal capacity of the system. This postulated accident is independent of the details of core and control system design and is valid for all cores anticipated for use in the experimental program. The major hazards present in the operation of this facility, the precautions to be taken to reduce the probability of an accident, and the consequences of the maximum possible accident are discussed. It is concluded that the proposed method of operation will minimize the hazard to operating personnel, and that the site location will make possible the operation of the Spent IV facility without hazard to the general public. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1961
Creator: Bentzen, F. L. & Crocker, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The High Temperature Heat Contents and Related Thermodynamic Properties of Lanthanum, Praseodymium, Europium, Ytterbium, and Yttrium

Description: The high temperature enthalpies of five rare earths were measured from 0 to 1100 deg C using a Bunsen ice calorimeter. The enthalpy of yttrium metal was studied from 1100 to 1675 deg C using a modified high temperature vacuum Bunsen calorimeter. The data were fitted to empirical equations from which the heat of transition and fusion, the heat capacity, and the related thermodynamic quantities were calculated. These results confirmed indications from other properties that europium and ytterbium metals are primarily in the divalert state. Small anomalies observed in europium and ytterbium were attributed to transitions between electronic states when some trivalent ions occur in these metals. The ertropy of the fcc-bcc transition for ytterbium was found to be approximately two- thirds that of the other rare-earth metals for which a close-packed to bodycertered cubic transformation was observed. (auth)
Date: July 26, 1961
Creator: Berg, J. R.; Spedding, F. H. & Daane, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The High Temperature Heat Contents and Related Thermodynamic Properties of Lanthanum, Praseodymium, Europium, Ytterbium and Yttrium

Description: From abstract: "The high temperature enthalpies of five rare-earth metals were measured from 0° to 1100°C using a Bunsen ice calorimeter. The enthalphy of yttrium metal was studied from 1100° to 1675°C using a modified high temperature vacuum Bunsen calorimeter. The data were fitted to empirical equations from which the heat of transition and fusion, the heat capacity, and the related thermodynamic quantities were calculated. These results confirmed indications from other properties that europium and ytterbium metals are primarily in the divalent state.Small anomalies observed in europium were attributed to transitions between electronic states when some trivalent ions occur in these metals. The entropy of the fcc-bcc transition for ytterbium was found to be approximately two-thirds that of the other rare-earth metals for which a close-paced to body-centered cubic transformation has been observed."
Date: July 26, 1961
Creator: Berg, J. R.; Spedding, F. H. (Frank Harold), 1902- & Daene, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Design of an In-Pile Package Loop for Fast Reactor Fuel Testing

Description: Report issued by the APDA over a design study conducted on an "in-pile package loop for use as a reactor fuel test facility" (p. 5). The results are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: July 28, 1961
Creator: Blessing, W. G.; Balsbaugh, R. R.; Bloomfield, D. E.; Busch, J. S.; Hennig, R. J.; Jens, W. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residual Radiation of the LRL 184-Inch Cyclotron

Description: Residual radioactivity at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory 184-Inch Cyclotron was measured during November 1960. The study was conducted along three principal lines: (1) general survey of radiation levels in the cyclotron vault, (2) activation of foils placed near the cyclotron, and (3) gamma-ray spectra of the cyclotron gap region, including dee structure. Initial radiation levels were less than 8 r/hr which dropped to abcut 10 mr/hr after 48 hr. The observed activities induced in copper foils were Cu/sup 64/ and Co/sup 58/; in iron foils, Mn/sup 52/, Mn/sup 54/, and Mn/sup 56/; in aluminum foils Na/sup / 2>s/sup 4/ The gamma-ray spectra from the gap region included two intense long-lived peaks, at 510 and 810 kev, caused principally by Co/sup 58/. (auth)
Date: July 12, 1961
Creator: Boom, R. W.; Toth, K. S. & Zucker, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRUCTURE AND USE OF ALGOL 60

Description: ALGOL 60 is a universal, algebraic, machine-independent programming language. It was designed by a group representing computer societies from many different countries. Its primary aims are: (1) simplification of program preparation, (2) simplification of program exchange, and (3) incorporation of the important programming techniques presently known. An elaboration of the concepts of ALGOL 60 is given, mostly with the help of illustrative examples. (auth)
Date: July 26, 1961
Creator: Bottenbruch, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precipitation of Neptunium Peroxide

Description: Optimum conditions were determined for the precipitation of neptunium(IV) peroxide from nitric acid solutions. The results indicate that the precipitation could be applied successfully on a plant scale. Data are presented for the solubility of neptunium peroxide in solutions of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The solubility is less than 10/sup -4/M in 1.5 to 2.5M nitric acid containing 4.5M hydrogen peroxide. Two crystalline modifications of the peroxide were prepared; these two crystalline structures were similar to structures previously reported to plutonium peroxide. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1961
Creator: Burney, G. A. & Dukes, E. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precipitation of Neptunium Peroxide

Description: Technical report. From Abstract : "Optimum conditions were determined for the precipitation of neptunium (IV) peroxide from nitric acid solutions. The results indicate that the precipitation could be applied successfully on a plant scale. ... Two crystalline modifications of the peroxide were prepared; these two crystalline structures were similar to structures previously reported for plutonium peroxide."
Date: July 1961
Creator: Burney, Glenn A. & Dukes, Ernest K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photon Wavelength and Energy Conversion Tables

Description: Tables are presented for conversions from photon vacuum wavelength to photon energy and vice versa. The ranges covered are 500 to 12,000 angstroms and 1.000 to 26 electron volts. (D.L.C.)
Date: July 19, 1961
Creator: Butler, C. T. & Robinson, M. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Explosive Ditching from Linear Charges

Description: Abstract: "Weights of linear high-explosive charges fired on the Yucca Lake playa of the Nevada Test Site varied from 0.23 to 42.7 pounds per foot. Crater and ditch dimensions and volumes resulting from these shots, fired during the fall of 1959 and spring of 1960, are presented here as a function of charge burst depths. Scaling relationships determined are as expected; i.e., square-root scaling of linear-charge weight per foot for ditch width and depth and a direct linear-charge weight relationship to ditch volume are obtained. Permanent ground surface displacement varies as the -3.22 power of the scaled distance from the charge. Detonation effects, charge shape effects, ditch erosion, and ditch cross sections are discussed. The appendixes present Toboggan data, results of soil investigation, and mathematical treatment given the data."
Date: July 1961
Creator: Carlson, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERIZATION OF UO$sup 2$ POWDERS. Progress Report No. 8, May and June 1961

Description: Correlation of a number of physical and chemical properties of 12 different UO/sub 2/ powders was continued. The UO/sub 2/ powders were studied by means of infrared absorption measurements, oxidation temperatures as determined by hot stage microscopy techniques, and B. E. T. surface area measurements. Additional pellets were prepared to study ceramic performance. (M.C.G.)
Date: July 19, 1961
Creator: Carpenter, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design Study of Portable Thermoelectric Nuclear Systems

Description: Design studies were performed and costs were estimated for an air transportable, 10 Mw(t), pressurized light water thermal circulation reactor, combined with a direct conversion thermoelectric generator and static electrical inversion equipment. This TCR-TE'' concept appears to have potential for ultimate use as a remote unmanned power station. Based on an extrapolation of present reactor technology and on assumed thermoelectric materials properties forecasted to January 1, 1963, a net a-c electrical output of 315 Kw is estimated, assuming the use of 80 deg F local water for cooling purposes. An alternate concept using 80 deg F air for cooling produces 271 Kw, net. These electrical output figures can be improved significantly through a recommended research and development effort. The design and construction of a prototype plant is also recommended. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1961
Creator: Chajson, L.; DelCampo, A. R. & Kellogg, H.B. et al
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POWER-TO-VOID TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

Description: Variations in the distribution of steam bubble, the "void" distribution, in a boiling channel as a function of changes in heating power were studied. A rectangular test tube, of 1.11 x 4.44-cm cross section and 127-cm height, was inserted in a forced-circulation pressure loop. The tube was heated by passing an a-c current through the tube walls. A power oscillator was built which could give a 10% peak-topeak sinusoidal power modulation at any frequency in the interval from 0.01 to 10 cps. Variations in the volume fraction of steam were observed by means of a gamma densitometer built for the purpose. Accurate void profiles could be taken by traversing the test channel vertically and horizontally. With the void detector stationary at a given height, the amplitude and phase delay of the steam void variations were measured in the frequency range mentioned. The signal from the gamma detector was passed to a harmonic analyzer built for the experiment. This instrument could pick out the void variations coherent with the power variation in the presence of much greater random signal variations caused by the boiling process. The frequency response of steam void was measured at 4 different pressures ranging from 27.2 to 68 atms, at conditions comparable to those in pressurized boiling water reactors. Void phase and void amplitude are plotted as functions of frequency, and the data are also presented in tables. The most important result of the experiments is to show that the void response falls off at a frequency that is much lower than that predicted by theoretically derived power-to-void transfer functions used previously in reactor calculations. Also, the void amplitude in the lower part of the channel was larger than expected. By taking into account the pressure changes in the channel caused by the power variations, an expression ...
Date: July 1, 1961
Creator: Christensen, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SM-2 Full Scale Flow Studies Termination Report

Description: Abstract: Hydrodynamic flow studies were conducted on a full scale model of the SM-2 reactor vessel and core. Test fluid was water at 200 psi and 200 degree F. Test facilities, model, and instrumentation design are discussed. Flow distribution in the stationary fuel elements, lattices, and control rods of the second pass was investigated. Pressure losses through the various core components were measured and are compared with calculated values. Observed over-all pressure drop was 71 feet of water at 200 degree F, 31% higher than predicted, part of which was due to presence of instrument leads. Element to element flow distribution varied approximately +-8% from pass average. Channel-to-channel stationary element flow distribution varied approximately +-10% from element average and control rod flow distribution varied from +-8.9% to +-6.4 and -11.6% depending upon rod locations. These variations exceed the original goals of a +-10% and +-12% combined deviation for stationary and control rod elements respectively, but are satisfactory in relation to thermal design. There was no indication of unsatisfactory structural performance of any components under hydrodynamic loadings up to 130% of design values. The test program was terminated after determining flow distribution in the reference core design, omitting any work on the less critical first pass. Based on present understanding of the causes for the observed non-uniformity in distribution, achievement of the target tolerances throughout the reactor should be possible if the test program is to be continued. Recommendations for some of the modifications are contained in this report.
Date: July 30, 1961
Creator: Christenson, J. A.; Richards, W. M. S. & Davidson, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplement A to PT-IP-263-A-FP evaluation of chemically nickel plated fuel elements

Description: Irradiation of the initial test in this program involving ten tubes of alternately charged nickel-plated C-64 alloy clad test elements and X-8001 alloy control elements has been successfully completed. The test indicated that the nickel-plate spalling problem has been resolved as no significant spalling or flaking was observed during the post-irradiation examination. The second test in this program will be to verify the performance of nickel-plate with a pilot loading (up to 100 charges) of fuel elements which have been nickel-plated on a production basis. The objectives of this test are to demonstrate with a larger scale test that nickel-plate performs satisfactorily and that reducing the nominal plate thickness from .6 mil to .2 mil will not affect the performance of the nickel-plate fuel element. This test authorizes the irradiation of up to 100 columns of OIIN, chemically nickel-plated, C-64 alloy jacketed fuel elements to 200% of normal goal exposure to extend the evaluation of nickel-plated fuel elements on a pilot scale at DR Reactor. Seventy columns will be plated to a nominal thickness of .6 mil and thirty columns to a nominal .2 mil thickness. Twenty measured columns, ten representing each plate thickness, will be charged to monitor the irradiation performance. Effluent samples will be obtained during the course of the test from a pair of tubes, each tube containing a measured monitor charge representing each plate thickness.
Date: July 10, 1961
Creator: Clinton, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of production test IP-409-A-FP, pilot test of self-supported fuel elements in K size smoothbore zirconium process tubes

Description: In the Plant Improvement Program, it is proposed to retube the K-Reactors with standard size Zircaloy-2 smooth-bore process tubes and to charge self supported fuel elements starting March 15, 1964. The first step in support of this transition program is to confirm compatibility of the fuel-tube geometry and secondly to obtain fuel-tube performance information prior to full scale commitment of the K-Reactors to this design. In view of the testing of self-supported fuel which has been accomplished to date and that which is planned, there is little incentive to install more tubes in a K-Reactor than are required to make the fuel-tube geometry check. To accomplish this, ten tubes are viewed as the maximum number that would be required. This report presents the design of a test to fabricate and irradiate ``K`` self-supported fuel elements in limited quantities.
Date: July 26, 1961
Creator: Clinton, M. A. & Hodgson, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report on production test IP-289-I, Supplement 1, H reactor export flow test

Description: The raw water export system forms the last ditch water supply system to the ``O`` and ``C`` type reactors; in the event of electrical and steam power failure, the export system is designed to supply enough raw water coolant. After the original export orifice was modified twice, the export system was retested.
Date: July 10, 1961
Creator: Cremer, B. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OXIDATION OF GRAPHITE UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR CONDITIONS

Description: A kinetic study was conducted to provide information on oxidation of reactor graphites in the temperature range of 450 to 675 deg C and on the effects of reactor environment on oxidation rates. Among the parameters studied were chemical reactivity of the graphite, prior oxidation, a high intensity gamma flux during oxidation, variation of the surface-to-volume ratio of the graphite specimens, neutron bombardment prior to oxidation exposure, and gas flow rates. Rate equations showed apparent activation energies of 50 kcal/mole in the absence of radiation and 30 kcal/mole in the presence of a 1 x 10/sup 6/ r/hr gamma flux. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1961
Creator: Dahl, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department