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Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

Description: This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Lynn, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Lower-hybrid current drive with opposing ohmic drive on PLT

Description: Two distinct conditions where the rf phase velocity is directed opposite to the ohmically induced electron drift have been studied experimentally: (1) rf current ramp-up (f/sub p/ > 0), where an induced electric field opposes the current increase; (2) rf current ramp-down, where waves are launched opposite the electron drift direction for a decaying plasma current. The time behavior of the electron tail is inferred from hard x-ray (30 to 750 keV) emission as a function of angle to B. In cases (1) and (2) we find that the emission amplitude in the reverse (opposite the LH phase velocity) direction increases throughout the rf pulse, while it is constant in the forward direction. This increase indicates that some high energy electrons are accelerated or are even running away in the direction opposite to the main rf produced tail. It also indicates for case (1) that the electric field in the plasma center has been reversed by the rf current drive.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Stevens, J.; Von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Chu, T.K.; Hooke, W.; Jobes, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Results of the radiological survey at 113 Avenue E, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ081)

Description: Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally /sup 232/Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 113 Avenue E, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ081), was conducted during 1988. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 5 refs, 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Foley, R.D. & Floyd, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Decision analysis for evaluating and ranking small solar thermal power system technologies. Volume I. A brief introduction to multiattribute decision analysis

Description: Multiattribute decision analysis is a methodology for providing information to a decision maker for comparing and selecting between complex alternatives. A brief introduction to the principal concepts of the Keeney and Raiffa approach to multiattribute decision analysis is presented. The concepts of decision alternatives, outcomes, objectives, attributes and their states, attribute utility functions, and the necessary independence properties for the attribute states to be aggregated into a numerical representation of the preferences of the decision maker for the outcomes and the decision alternatives are presented. 50 references.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Feinberg, A. & Miles, R.F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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NEPS reactor and heat exchanger. Summary status (December 1978)

Description: The design of a 3 MW(+) heat-pipe cooled nuclear reactor for electric propulsion of spacecrafts has been evolving continually. Several modifications have been made to make the reactor design more tolerant of potential heat pipe failures. Design parameters and operating characteristics for the modified reactor are presented. The desirability of separating the reactor assembly from the thermionic converter assembly has been recognized, and an intermediate heat exchanger to couple the two subassemblies together has been conceptualized.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Koenig, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological conversion of biomass to methane corn stover studies. Project report, December 1, 1977-August 1, 1978

Description: A series of experiments was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the methane fermentation process using corn stover obtained from the University of Illinois farms and processed through four parallel fermenters each having a capacity of 775 liters. A continuous feed system was employed to determine the conversion efficiency. The dewatering characteristics of the effluents and the quality of the liquid and solid residues were determined. The biodegradability of corn stover is low. Data obtained at a fermentation temperature of 59 +-1/sup 0/C show that only 36 percent of the volatile solids are biodegradable. The first order rate constant for this conversion was found to be 0.25 day/sup -1/. Pretreatment with caustic (NaOH) concentration of 0.30 molar (5 g/100 g dry stover) and a temperature of 115/sup 0/C for one hour increased the biodegradable fraction to 71 percent of the volatile solids. The reactor slurries were easily dewatered by both vacuum filtration and centrifugation. Corn stover does not appear to be attractive economically at the present energy prices. At a chemical cost of $154/tonne ($140/ton), the NaOH pretreatment adds approximately $5.2/tonne to the cost of processing the stover. At a methane yield of 0.25 m/sup 3//kg of solids fed, this adds a total cost of $2/100 m/sup 3/ ($0.57/MCF) for this process alone. Addition of stover acquisition costs ($20/dry tonne of stover), total processing costs without gas cleanup ($21/tonne) and residue disposal ($3/tonne of wet cake), the cost of fuel gas would be in the neighborhood of $9.76/GJ ($10.30/10/sup 6/ Btu).This cost excludes all profit, taxes, etc. associated with private financing. Depending upon financing methods, tax incentives, etc., it may be necessary to add up to an additional $2.00/GJ to the cost of this fuel gas.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Pfeffer, J T & Quindry, G E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Windows and mirrors needed for a laser-driven photoneutralizer

Description: Rough estimates of the neutral fraction obtainable from a photoneutralizer and of the power required to operate it are presented as functions of the window and mirror performance. More precise information will become available in the future.
Date: June 22, 1983
Creator: Fink, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Information for establishing bioassay measurements and evaluations of tritium exposure

Description: This report summarizes information and references used in developing regulatory guidance on programs for the bioassay of tritium as well as information useful in planning and conducting tritium bioassay programs and evaluating bioassay data. A review of literature on tritium radiobiology is included to provide a ready source of information useful for estimating internal doses of tritium and risks for the various tritium compounds and forms, including elemental (gaseous) tritium. Simplified and conservative dose conversion factors are derived and tabulated for easy reference in program planning, safety evaluations, and compliance determinations.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Brodsky, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Photovoltaic-module bypass-diode encapsulation. Annual report

Description: The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented in this annual report. A comprehensive survey of available pad-mounted PN junction and Schottky diodes led to the selection of Semicon PN junction diode cells for this application. Diode junction-to-heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1/sup 0/C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150/sup 0/C. Based on the results of a detailed thermal analysis, which covered the range of bypass currents from 2 to 20 amperes, three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed and fabricated. Thermal testing of these modules has enabled the formation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally-mounted packaged diodes. An assessment of bypass diode reliability, which relies heavily on rectifying diode failure rate data, leads to the general conclusion that, when proper designed and installed, these devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.
Date: June 20, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sensitive method for detecting stable fractional charges on matter. [Proposed apparatus]

Description: The design of an apparatus which will allow direct detection of stable fractional elementary charges if present on matter at the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is described in detail. This method depends upon production of a highly uniform and parallel stream of conductive spheres which are charge analyzed by passage through a static electric deflecting field. 6 references.
Date: June 20, 1979
Creator: Hirsch, G.; Hagstrom, R. & Hendricks, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

Description: Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Thomas, W. H. & Gaines, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Synthesis and Characterization of Several Molybdenum Chloride Cluster Compounds

Description: Investigation into the direct synthesis of Mo/sub 4/Cl/sub 8/(P(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/)/sub 4/ from Mo/sub 2/(OAc)/sub 4/ led to a synthetic procedure that produces yields greater than 80%. The single-crystal structure disclosed a planar rectangular cluster of molybdenum atoms. Metal-metal bond distances suggest that the long edges of the rectangular cluster should be considered to be single bonds and the short metal-metal bonds to be triple bonds. This view is reinforced by an extended Hueckel calculation. Attempts to add a metal atom to Mo/sub 4/Cl/sub 8/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/ to form Mo/sub 5/Cl/sub 10/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 3/ led instead to a compound with the composition Mo/sub 8/Cl/sub 16/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/. Solution and reflectance uv-visible spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectra suggest that tetranuclear molybdenum units are present. The facile reaction between Mo/sub 8/Cl/sub 16/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/ and PR/sub 3/ imply that the linkage between tetrameric units is weak.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Beers, William Winder
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Multiflash feed-and-bleed coupling for the evaporation and crystallization industry. Technical report, April 1-June 30, 1977

Description: The technical and economic feasibility of using low temperature geothermal brine in place of steam from conventional sources for industrial multi-effect evaporation and crystallization was studied. Work on the following is described: candidate industry evaluation, including process flow diagrams, heat and material balances; conceptual engineering, and a visit to Leslie Salt plant. The economic analysis includes economic groundrules established, capital and operating costs derived, and a cost comparison of geothermal vs. fossil fuel plants. Other topics covered are: the analysis of fuel savings by use of geothermal resources; the analysis of environmental impact of geothermal vs. fossil fueled plants; and a comparison of feed-and-bleed process with other geothermal heat utilization processes. (MHR)
Date: June 30, 1977
Creator: Basuino, D. J.; Doyle, P. T. & May, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

Description: A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L. & Fliermans, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 2. Results

Description: This volume, the second of a four-volume report, presents the current status of the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM), an analysis and projection of the use of energy in the industrial sector, developed as a tool to develop insights on the energy future of the US. Volume 1 describes the model logic and primary data inputs of ISTUM. This volume presents the results of the initial base case run of ISTUM. Volumes III and IV discuss in detail the energy demand data inputs and technology cost inputs, respectively. It is believed that, given the specified policy scenarios, the results presented in this volume provide an accurate picture of the trends in the demands for fuels and technologies for the remainder of the century. Following the introductory chapter, chapters are entitled: Projected Trends in Industrial Fuel Consumption; Projected Contributions of Technologies to the Industrial Sector; and Service Sector Perspectives of ISTUM 4/6/78 Base Case Results (steam sector, direct heat - intermediate and dirty; indirect heat - coal capable; machine drive service sector; electrolytic sector; space heat; indirect - not coal capable; calcining; glass melting; brick and clay firing; iron making; and steel reheating).
Date: June 19, 1978
Creator: Bohn, R.E. & Herod, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Neutron activation of four ferritic steels

Description: Four ferritic steels (Table 1) were compared using two simplified fusion reactor geometries. In the MFE geometry, a 14.1-MeV point source was centered inside a 5 m radius vessel. The 2 cm thick first wall was surrounded by a reflector consisting of 78 cm Li, 18 cm graphite, 2 cm B/sub 4/C, and a 10 cm thick outer wall. In the ICF geometry, the neutron source was in a compressed plasma (rho R = 3 g/cm/sup 2/), and the region between 0.5 and 2.0 m was filled with Li at 50% of the natural density.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Blink, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Performance of a pressurized multiwire proportional chamber for neutron radiography

Description: A study was made of the effect of gas density on resolution and efficiency of a neutron sensitive multiwire proportional chamber. Increasing the density will shorten the reaction products range. A pressure vessel was designed and constructed for 4 atm thereby reducing the range of the reaction products from the neutron converter by a factor of 4, compared to 1 atm. Pressurizing the chamber to 4 atm resulted in a spatial resolution of 1mm under the most favorable operating conditions. For the type of neutron converters used improving the efficiency is limited to a choice of material. Two different materials were tried, gadolinium and boron, with efficiencies of 6.3 and 2.3%, respectively.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Director, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Results of the radiological survey at 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030)

Description: Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally /sup 232/Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F. & Crutcher, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Progress report, January 1 to March 31, 1979

Description: On Oct. 1, 1978, a transition phase was begun to concentrate all US fuel reprocessing research in one major program, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The CFRP is organized into the following: process R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, technical support, HTGR fuel reprocessing, and pyrochemical and dry processing methods. Progress is reported in each area. (DLC)
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Unger, W.E. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Metal vapor excimer laser. Quarterly progress report, February 1, 1978-April 30, 1979

Description: A new alignment procedure has resulted in Febetron preionized current pulses up to 400 A (500 kV, 30 ns) with a consequent increase in the discharge current to approx. 100 A/cm/sup 2/ at 10 to 20 kV. Under these conditions spectra for Cd/Hg/Ne mixtures have indicated large HgCd* continuum emission with densities approx. 3 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ and a lifetime approx. 3 ..mu..s. A major technology problem still remaining which has considerably slowed the research is the unreliability of the quartz to metal seals at high temperature (550/sup 0/C). Work on this problem is described. The apparatus is presently being set up to make gain/absorption measurements over the HgCd* emission band.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Mandl, A. & Klimek, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MEQALAC: a new approach to low beta acceleration

Description: An acceleration system is described which allows one to accelerate high currents of ions at very low velocities. The main principle is to utilize an array of electrostatic quadrupoles in an rf linac drift tube, rather than a single magnetic quadrupole, as is usually the case. Because electrostatic quads can be built with very small apertures, relatively high frequencies can be used. A number of examples are given.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Maschke, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Single particle analysis with a 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer

Description: Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 ..mu..m and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5/sup 0/ to 177.5/sup 0/ at phi = 0/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3/sup 0/ in scattering angle on 6/sup 0/ centers around 360/sup 0/. 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Bartholdi, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Results of the radiological survey at 174 Essex Street, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ073)

Description: Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally /sup 232/Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 174 Essex Street, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ073), was conducted during 1987. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F. & Crutcher, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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