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Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

Description: Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)
Date: April 15, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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HYCSOS: a chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides. 1979 status report

Description: The current status of the HYCSOS chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides is described. Heat transfer fluid loops were insulated and modified for isothermal operation. Software development for HYCSOS manual mode operation was completed. Routines to handle data acquisition, logging, compression, correction and plotting, using a Tektronix Graphics system with flexible disk data storage, provide a rapid and versatile means of presenting HYCSOS data for analysis. Advanced concept heat exchangers to improve the heat transfer of the hydride bed with the heat transfer fluid are discussed. Preliminary tests made with a LaNi/sub 5/ loaded aluminum foam test unit showed that heat transfer properties are very markedly improved. Thermodynamic expressions are applied to the selection of alloys for use in HYCSOS. The substitution of aluminum for nickel in AB/sub 5/ type alloys is shown to reduce hysteresis and permits the use of potentially lower cost materials with added flexibility for the optimization of engineering design and performance characteristics of the hydride heat pump system. Transient thermal measurements on hydride beds of CaNi/sub 5/ and LaNi/sub 5/ show no deterioration with cycling. Relatively slow heat transfer between the hydride beds and heat transfer fluid in the coiled tube heat exchangers is indicated by temperature lag of the bed and heat transfer fluid. Improved heat transfer is anticipated with aluminum foam heat exchangers.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Sheft, I.; Gruen, D.M. & Lamich, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Botanical inventory of the Rocky Flats AEC site. Final report, April 29, 1976--July 31, 1977

Description: The present plant life of the Rocky Flats site and surrounding area was documented. This documentation is intended as a base-line description which may be used by researchers and managers. The analysis of natural vegetation, including plant species inventory, vegetation composition study, and identification of major environmental control factors at the Rocky Flats site provides a data base on which future environmental decisions concerning, for example, future construction and handling of disturbance on this site can be made. The establishment of morphological norms for potential plant indicators of mutagenic hazards serves as a start for development of a vegetation-based system for detection of possible changes in plant life induced by accidental plutonium release around the plant. This study is not directed towards assessing any past or present industrial impacts of plutonium processing. The principal products from the contract are a list of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, a 1:12,000 color vegetation map, five large scale (1:500) maps of special study and experimental areas, and a description of the morphological norms of two common vascular plant species.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Webber, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Double Inflation

Description: The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Silk, J. & Turner, M. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

Description: The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.
Date: April 1, 1985
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological transfer and loss of /sup 36/Cl-labeled DDT in an old-field ecosystem

Description: An enclosed 10-acre old-field plot treated in June 1969, with chlorine-36 labeled DDT was sampled each year from 1969 through 1974 to monitor the fate of the insecticide in the soil and biota. In order to provide data on compartmentalization of DDT in the vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting the plot, sampling was carried out to estimate both body burdens of DDT and biomass of populations. Another aspect of this study, the determination of rates of accumulation of residues by invertebrates and vertebrates, has been reported previously (Forsyth and Peterle 1973; Forsyth et al. 1975; Peterle 1975). This report describes (a) temporal patterns of DDT residues in soil and biota from 1969 through 1974 and (b) quantities of DDT held in the soil and biotic compartments of the ecosystem. Part II of the report is concerned with translocation and accumulation of/sup 14/C-DDT.
Date: April 20, 1979
Creator: Peterle, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Automated sensitivity analysis using the GRESS language

Description: An automated procedure for performing large-scale sensitivity studies based on the use of computer calculus is presented. The procedure is embodied in a FORTRAN precompiler called GRESS, which automatically processes computer models and adds derivative-taking capabilities to the normal calculated results. In this report, the GRESS code is described, tested against analytic and numerical test problems, and then applied to a major geohydrological modeling problem. The SWENT nuclear waste repository modeling code is used as the basis for these studies. Results for all problems are discussed in detail. Conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of GRESS in the problems at hand and for more general large-scale modeling sensitivity studies.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Pin, F.G.; Oblow, E.M. & Wright, R.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow

Description: An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Chen, S.S. & Jendrzejczyk, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High efficiency copper ternary thin film solar cells

Description: This report describes work to develop a high efficiency, thin film CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell using a potentially low-cost process. The technique used in this development program is a two-stage process. The two-stage process involves depositing the metallic elements of the CuInSe{sub 2} compound (i.e., Cu and In) on a substrate in the form of stacked layers, and then selenizing this stacked metallic film in an atmosphere containing Se. Early results showed that the electrodeposition/selenization technique could yield CuInSe{sub 2} films with good electrical and optical properties on small-area substrates. This report concentrates on the later half of the research effort; this portion was directed toward developing a two-stage process using evaporated Cu-In layers. The selenization technique has the potential of yielding solar cells with efficiencies in excess of 15 percent. 7 refs., 12 figs.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Basol, B.M. & Kapur, V.K. (International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

Description: The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Schwendiman, L.C. & Glissmeyer, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Constitutive models applied in the analysis of creep of rock salt

Description: constitutive equations for the creep of rock salt that have been utilized in the analyses of salt deformations are summarized. Primary creep, secondary creep, and elastoviscoplastic models are discussed. The strains predicted by several of the primary creep constitutive models are compared for identical conditions of deviatoric stress and temperature. Steady-state creep rates are compared under identical conditions of deviatoric stress and temperature for the secondary creep equations. 4 tables.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Dawson, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Gas turbines engines and transmissions for bus demonstration programs

Description: The technical status report fulfills the contractual requirements of Contract EM-78-C-02-4867. The report covers the period from 31 January 1979 through 30 April 1979 and is a summary of DDA activities for the effort performed on the procurement of eleven (11) Allison GT 404-4 gas turbine engines and five (5) HT740CT and siz (6) V730CT Allison automatic transmissions and the required associated software. (TFD)
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Nigro, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Discontinuity effects on radial cavity transmission lines

Description: Pulse propagation in radial cavity transmission lines such as those found on a radial line accelerator is considered. Specifically, the effects of discontinuities along the line are examined in detail. It is found that previous analyses of such effects have been incorrect, and here two alternate solution techniques are presented. Depending upon the parameters of such a radial line, the discontinuity effects considered here may or may not be significant; however, if they are significant, it is recommended that the alternate solution techniques presented here be used.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Seidel, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hydrogen bonding in asphaltenes and coal. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1979

Description: In this study, upgraded coal liquids from a blend of 30 weight percent of SRC I with 70 weight percent of SRC II, as well as from SRC II, have been studied by IR and NMR techniques. The variation of structural parameters of the upgraded liquids has been determined as a function of reaction temperature and contact time in the catalytic hydroprocessing. The results indicate that along with the decrease in heteroatom contents, asphaltene content, aromatic content and a corresponding increase in aliphatic content, the hydrogen-bonded structure and phenolic OH content of the coal liquids drastically decrease with increase in contact time and temperature. The disappearance of phenolic OH in upgrading process follows a first-order kinetics but no such dependence was observed in case of acidic NH.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Li, N. C.; Tewari, K. C. & Hara, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FY 1991 Task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

Description: The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to populations and individuals. The objectives of work in Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 are to analyze data and models used in Phase 1 and restructure the models to increase accuracy and reduce uncertainty in dose estimation capability. Databases will be expanded and efforts will begin to determine the appropriate scope (space, time, radionuclides, pathways and individuals/population groups) and accuracy (level of uncertainty in dose estimates) for the project. Project scope and accuracy requirements, once defined, can be translated into additional model and data requirements later in the project. Task plans for FY 1991 have been prepared based on activities approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) in October 1990 and mid-year revisions discussed at the TSP planning/budget workshop in February 1991. The activities can be divided into two broad categories: (1) model and data development and evaluation, (2) project, technical and communication support. 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: April 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of waterjet-machined metal matrix composite tensile specimens

Description: Four magnesium/boron carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) tensile specimens fabricated using the waterjet machining method were evaluated in order to determine the effects of the waterjet material removal process on the composite material surface structure and properties. These results were then compared with data from material conventionally machined. Results showed that while waterjet cutting produces a rough surface finish and does not meet specified dimensional tolerances, the technique appears to be suitable for sectioning and rough machining of metal matrix composites.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Lavender, C.A. & Smith, M.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

Description: This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Beer, C.; Hederman Jr., W. F.; Dolenc, M. R. & Allman, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

Description: The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.
Date: April 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solar and geothermal energy utilization n SF-2: a sensitivity analysis

Description: A sensitivity analysis was conducted of the utilization levels for Solar, Geothermal, and Advanced Energy Systems (ASGA) technologies during the 1985-2000 time period. In particular, the sensitivity of the utilization levels was tested with respet to both analytical techniques and to specific parameter assumptions. The sensitivity to analytical techniques was examined insofar as certain criteria were examined to elucidate their importance in determining the level of use of the ASGA technologies. The criteria incorporated consideration of such factors as total cost of the energy system, environmental impacts, and resource use patterns. The parameter assumptions studied included costs of ASGA costs of ASGA technologies, costs of non-renewable resources, and limitations on the use of technologies and resources. (MHR)
Date: April 5, 1977
Creator: Davitian, H.; LaSala, R. & Marcuse, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Investigation of the Strength of H440 Graphite When Subjected to Combined Primary and Secondary Stress

Description: An experimental and analytical investigation of the strength of a fine-grained graphite, H440, under combined mechanical and thermal stress is described. Small sample laboratory tests were carried out to establish a mechanical property data base from which statistical parameters could be determined and then used in finite element codes for predicting failure probabilities of large graphite structural components under load. The theory was applied to graphite rings under an imposed thermal stress from a heat flux applied to the inner surface of the rings and under mechhanical stress caused by diametrically opposed concentrated loads applied to the outer surface of the rings. Rings of H440 graphite were fabricated in two sizes and tested to the combined thermal and mechanical loadings. From the results of theory and the experiments, a design rule for combining mechanical and thermal stress in graphite structural components is proposed.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Anderson, C. A.; Fly, G. W.; Lundberg, L. B. & Romero, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Status of rod consolidation

Description: Two of the factors that need to be taken into account with rod consolidation are (1) the effects on rods from their removal from the fuel assembly and (2) the effects on rods as a result of the consolidation process. Potential components of both factors are described in the report. Discussed under (1) are scratches on the fuel rod surfaces, rod breakage, crud, extended burnup, and possible cladding embrittlement due to hydrogen injection at BWRs. Discussed under (2) are the increased water temperature (less than 10/sup 0/C) because of closer packing of the rods, formation of crevices between rods in the close-packed mode, contact with dissimilar metals, and the potential for rapid heating of fuel rods following the loss of water from a spent fuel storage pool. Another factor that plays an important role in rod consolidation is the cost of disposal of the nonfuel-bearing components of the fuel assembly. Also, the dose rate from the components - especially Inconel spacer grids - can affect the handling procedures. Several licensing issues that exist are described. A list of recommendations is provided. 98 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Bailey, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Augmented Fish Health Monitoring for Washington Department of Wildlife, 1989 Annual Report.

Description: The augmented fish health monitoring project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with the mandate to collect fish health data on anadromous fish stocks of the BPA Columbia River Basin in a standardized manner. The project began in 1986 and the data reported here was collected in the fourth year. This segment of the project was carried out by the Washington Department of Wildlife and summarizes fish health findings at anadromous game fish hatcheries in Washington State operated by the BPA. Information gathered to data has provided impetus to alter facility design and management practices for improved fish health through prevention. Treatment efficacy can be better assessed due to the monthly monitoring of fish stocks and insight is being gained into disease prevention and control. The ultimate goal, of course, is to improve fish health for better survival in the wild. Tagged returns at index hatcheries within this project area will provide some indication of the impact of improving fish health on providing greater adult returns as well as an improved product for the fishery. 3 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Kerwin, John L.; Roberts, Steve; Oman, Leni & Bolding, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Research and development in sensor technology: The DOE industrial energy conservation program

Description: Sensor technology is an important component of modern day process technologies. It lends itself to further research and development with the potential for increased energy efficiency and productivity. Sensors are used by industry in practically every aspect of the production process. The utilization of automatic control systems and the anticipation of increased future applications of computers in production processes have highlighted the importance of research in this area. Recognizing this need, IP has funded a series of targeted projects to develop process-specific sensors as well as sensors for generic applications. This brochure describes, in summary form, the Office of Industrial Programs' research and development (R and D) efforts in the advancement of sensor technology.
Date: April 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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