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Kinetics and mechanism of desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Thirteenth quarterly report, June 21-September 20, 1978

Description: Studies of competing hydroprocessing reactions catalyzed by Ni-Mo/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and involving quinoline, indole, dibenzothiophene, and naphthalene in n-hexadecane show that marked interactions exist. The naphthalene hydrogenation rate is markedly reduced by the presence of quinoline; whereas the reactivity of quinoline is virtually unchanged by the presence of naphthalene. Similarly the rate of hydrodenitrogenation of indole, a non-basic nitrogen-containing compounds is strongly reduced by the presence of quinoline, whereas the rate of hydro-denitrogenation of quinoline, a basic nitrogen-containing compound, is unaffected by the presence of indole. The hydrogenation reactions in the dibenzothiophene reaction network are inhibited severely as indicated by the reduction in their pseudo first-order-rate constants as are the hydrogenation reactions for naphthalene. Thus the hydrogenation rate is reduced 30-fold by increasing the initial quinoline concentration from 0.0 to 0.5 wt % in naphthalene hydrogenation and in dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurzation. The rate of direct sulfur removal is reduced by only 3-fold by increasing the quinoline concentration from 0.0 to 0.5 wt %. These results clearly show that the rate expressions for the hydrotreating reactions are of the form given in the text.
Date: March 16, 1979
Creator: Gates, B. C.; Katzer, J. R.; Olson, J. H.; Kwart, H. & Stiles, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Photovoltaic Concentrator System for Roxborough Park. Final report, June 1978-28 February 1979

Description: The conceptual design of a photovoltaic power supply for the visitors center at Roxborough Park in Colorado is presented. The system will use Fresnel lenses with silicon solar cells and a bank of 110 lead-acid batteries of the locomotive type for storage. The power conditioning equipment and control system are described in detail, and installation and maintenance are discussed. (WHK)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Donovan, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Inference about population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies

Description: The population attributable risk (PAR) is defined as the fraction of all cases of a disease in a population due to exposure to a given risk factor. The data collected in cross-sectional surveys are used to test a formula of standard error of PAR from which a 95% confidence interval for PAR may be deduced.
Date: March 26, 1979
Creator: Fleiss, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of fuel cell electrolytes for direct and indirect oxidation of carbonaceous fuels. Final report, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1978

Description: The objective of this research program is to find an electrolyte for direct or indirect oxidation of carbonaceous fuels in a fuel cell in which the electro-oxidation rates of hydrogen or the carbonaceous fuel are greater than when 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is used as the electrolyte. The main tasks include: (1) measurements of electrical resistivity of the electrolytes at various temperatures; (2) measurement of vapor pressure at various temperatures; and (3) measurements of fuel oxidation and oxygen reduction rates at rotating disk electrodes and gas diffusion electrodes in the selected electrolytes at various temperatures. The following electrolytes were evaluated and their performance was compared to that of 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ at 135/sup 0/C: pentafluoropropanoic acid, trichloroacetic acid, chlorodifluoroacetic acid, methane disulfonic acid (50 wt % aqueous solution), methane sulfonic acid, benzoic acid, and benzene sulfonic acid. Many of these acids performed very poorly; the only one that proved to be superior to 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is the methane sulfonic acid.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Austin, L G; Pickering, H W; Ateya, B G; Rebert, N & Poweigha, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary analysis of the study of a Nuclear Energy Center at Green River, Utah

Description: The planning phase for the study of a conceptualized Regional Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Green River, Utah to serve a four state area is discussed and an outline of the proposed study is presented. It is assumed that the more technical issues of a NEC have already been studied in detail for generic sites and that this study will address the site specific impacts of a NEC at a representative site. The emphasis will be on the institutional, legal, political, sociological, economic and environmental impacts of a NEC. An assessment is made of the willingness and ability of related public and private entities to participate in the study. These include local, state and regional government agencies, colleges and universities, research organizations, private firms and consultants, and relevant federal agencies in Utah and the region.
Date: March 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Battery technology - an assessment of the state of the art

Description: A state-of-the-art battery survey and data verification process were conducted with battery manufacturers and organizations involved in battery technology research and development. This report addresses those major battery technologies which were identified as either being developed or explored as potential candidates for major energy storage applications in electric utilities or transportation as well as for future operations with solar or wind energy systems. Near- and far-term battery systems, current data and opinions, and developments in both US and foreign battery technology for utility load leveling and electric vehicles are discussed. Background information and the scope of the report are given first. Then basic data for each battery type are summarized; a general discussion of other potential battery systems is also included. A comparative summary of battery cost and performance is presented; actual battery capabilities are discussed relative to the general requirements of electric utility load leveling and transportation applications. The current status of the scarce materials and environmental and safety problems related to battery technology is presented. The overall status of the current R and D programs and expected progress toward commercialization are discussed; the roles of competing technologies in two major markets for battery technology are addressed. General observations, conclusions, and recommendations are given. 9 figures, 25 tables. (RWR)
Date: March 27, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of a water moderated critical assembly with anisn-Vitamin C

Description: A tightly packed water moderated /sup 233/UO/sub 2/--ThO/sub 2/ critical assembly was analyzed with the Vitamin C library and the 1-D S/s n/ code, ANISN (S/sub 8/,P/sub 3/). The purpose of the study was to provide validation of this calculational model as applied to water-cooled hybrid fusion blankets. The quantities compared were the core eigenvalue and various activation shapes. The calculated eigenvalue was 1.02 +- 0.01. The /sup 233/U fission and /sup 232/Th capture shapes were found to be in good agreement (+-5%) with experiment, except near water--metal boundaries where differences up to 24% were observed. No such error peaking was observed in the /sup 232/Th fast fission shape. We conclude that the model provides good volume averaged reaction rates in water-cooled systems. However, care must be exercised near water boundaries where thermally dependent reaction rates are significantly underestimated.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Green, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report

Description: The fundamental objective of the water resources analysis was to assess the availability of surface and ground water for potential use as power plant make-up water in the major geothermal areas of California. The analysis was concentrated on identifying the major sources of surface and ground water, potential limitations on the usage of this water, and the resulting constraints on potentially developable electrical power in each geothermal resource area. Analyses were completed for 11 major geothermal areas in California: four in the Imperial Valley, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers-Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Glass Mountain, Wendel Amedee, and Lassen. One area in Hawaii, the Puna district, was also included in the analysis. The water requirements for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process were estimated based upon a specific existing or proposed type of geothermal power plant. The make-up water requirements for each type of conversion process at each resource location were then estimated as a basis for analyzing any constraints on the megawatts which potentially could be developed.
Date: March 19, 1979
Creator: Sakaguchi, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

Description: This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Deju, R.A. & Fecht, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Feasibility assessment of low-head hydroelectric development at the Peninsular Paper Company dam in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Final report

Description: The results of a study into the feasibility of developing a small, low-head dam site for hydroelectric generation in southeastern Michigan are presented. Average hydraulic head at the site is 13.0 ft, mean stream flow is 498 cfs. Economic, environmental and institutional factors were considered. Seven specific hypothetical designs were examined in detail, including vertical, bulb, cross-flow and tubular turbine designs. It was determined that the production capacity of the facility had an important influence on the cost-effectiveness of the project. A detailed benefit/cost analysis was conducted to identify the optimum facility size in terms of incremental costs and benefits. From an economic standpoint, it was found that the most cost-effective design for developing the site, although profitable, would not be financially attractive to the owner compared to other investment opportunities with which the company is faced. The projected after-tax return on investment for the project, based on current costs, was projected to be from 2 to 6%, depending upon the depreciation basis used. The project would, however, have a favorable effect on the corporation's working capital. The environmental issues associated with the development of the site would be relatively minor. The most important consequence would be enhanced public safety due to structural repairs to the dam and the availability of a small, independent source of electric generation that could be called on in times of power outages or natural disaster.
Date: March 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Weathering and leaching of glass for solar heliostats

Description: In order to assess the effects of weathering on the transmittance of glass, several old samples were collected from two desert environments for evaluation. The glass obtained by PNL at the Hanford reservation in Washington came from south-facing, vertical windows which were known to be over forty years old. The glass obtained by Sandia from Barstow, California, is estimated to be over twenty years old. To determine the durability of glasses proposed for heliostat mirrors, selected samples were leached in a Soxhlet apparatus and pH 4 and pH 9 buffer solutions. The glass samples produced by the float process are soda-lime-silica glasses, whereas the glass samples produced by the fusion process are aluminosilicate glasses. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Rusin, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Seismic analysis of the LOFT Diesel Generator ''A'' Cooling System

Description: A static equivalent seismic analysis of the Diesel Generator ''A'' Cooling System has been completed. The static equivalent loads were applied to the radiator, over-pressure tank, piping, and the pipe supports. The cooling system was found to be structurally adequate for the applied SSE loading. 2 refs., 2 figs.
Date: March 24, 1978
Creator: Finicle, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum D. A report to Holmes and Narver, Inc. , Anaheim, California on alternative energy sources for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

Description: This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the energy needs of a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a facility for underground storage of radioactive wastes in a deep salt bed. The report analyzes a total of sixteen possible methods for meeting WIPP energy requirements, consisting of purchased electricity and on-site generation in various combinations from full purchased to full on-site.
Date: March 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Integrating Model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume III. User's Guide

Description: Volume III of the six-volume series documenting the Integrating Model of PIES provides a potential PIES user with a description of how PIES operates with particular emphasis on the possible variations in assumptions and data that can be made in specifying alternative scenarios. PIES is described as it existed on January 1, 1978. The introductory chapter is followed by Section II, an overview of the structure and components of PIES. Section III discusses each of the PIES components in detail; describes the Demand Model; contains a description of the models, assumptions, and data which provide supply side inputs to the PIES Integrating Model; and concludes with a discussion of those aspects of PIES which extend the scope of the analysis beyond the national energy market. Section IV discusses two reports produced by the PIES Integrating Model: the PIES Integrating Model Report and the Coal Transportation Report. (MCW)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Shaw, M.L. & Hutzler, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Overview of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Project, 1972-1979

Description: The objectives, methodologies, data, and analytical results of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Program are reviewed. The overview intergrates the concepts and activities of the various program elements to provide a coherent view of the program in its entirety. Samples of the various data acquired are included together with very brief summaries of the conclusions. The report is extensively referenced to provide specific directions to the more extensive treatments of the program, data tabulations, and tape libraries available in the complete library of Chalk Point reports. The Chalk Point data is a resource for the study of cooling tower salt deposition processes and impacts in general. The methods used, while developed to facilitate the assessment of salt drift impact at Chalk Point, also have applicability to cooling tower impact analysis at other sites.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Moon, M.L. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electron Transfer Reactions of Excited Dyes With Metal Complexes. Progress Report, March 1, 1978-February 28, 1979. [Iron-Methylene Blue]

Description: An intense absorption band of /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ at 700nm was characterized in several media and its pK/sub A/ was measured to be 7.17 +- .1 in water. Flash photolysis show that semiethylene blue, MBH/sup +/, formed by quenching /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ with Fe/sub II/(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/, decays by disproportionation at a diffusion-controlled rate. Rates of decay of the photostationary state of solutions of MB/sup +/ and Fe/sup II/(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ in acidic media were measured using crossed beams to yield specific rates of oxidation of leucomethylene blue (MBH/sub 3//sup 2 +/) by MB/sup +/ (synproportionation) and by Fe(III). Laser flash-photolysis shows that quenching of MB/sup +/(S/sub 1/) by Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ can result in electron transfer to give MBH/sup +/. Profound differences between processes initiated by quenching triplet methylene blue with Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ and with stable coordination complexes of Fe(II) were found. Quenchers included (Fe/sup II/(CN)/sub 6/)/sup 4 -/, (Fe/sup II/(CN)/sub 4/(bpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 -/, (Fe/sup II/(CN)/sub 2/(bpy))/sup 0/, and (Fe/sup II/(bpy)/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/. Measurements were made in aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions at pH 2, 4.4, and 8.2. Quenching of /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ or /sup 3/MB/sup +/ by a stable complex of Fe(II) is diffusion-controlled and 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/ times the rate at which Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ quenches /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/. Net electron transfer accounts for less than 1/3 of total quenching by complexed Fe(II). In contrast, quenching by Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ goes essentially entirely with net electron transfer. It is concluded that quenching of triplet methylene blue by complexes proceeds via electron transfer which is reversible in the encounter complex. The MBH/sup +/ which results from net electron transfer from complexes of Fe(II) decays essentially entirely to MB/sup …
Date: March 15, 1979
Creator: Lichtin, N. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal Borehole Televiewer

Description: The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Wonn, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Multiflash feed-and-bleed coupling for the evaporation and crystallization industry. Technical report, January 1-March 31, 1977

Description: The following are discussed: each of the three candidate industries (preserved fruits and vegetables, sugar and confectionary products, and chemicals) and how they were chosen; other industries that might use geothermal brine in their evaporation/crystallization operations; contacts made with people in these industries, and with manufacturers of evaporators and crystallizers; modifications made in the evaporator heat and material balance computer program; and work being done on well/pipeline economics and the information available for this analysis. (MHR)
Date: March 31, 1977
Creator: Basuino, D. J.; Doyle, P. T. & May, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report

Description: This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.
Date: March 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Woodruff Narrows low head hydroelectric power plant feasibility determination

Description: Woodruff Narrows Reservoir, owned by the State of Utah, was built in 1961 as an irrigation reservoir. The reservoir outlet works and spillway are in need of repair, and plans have been made to enlarge the reservoir from its present capacity of 28,000 acre-feet to 53,200 acre-feet when these repairs are made. The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to add hydropower facilities when the reservoir is repaired and enlarged. A computer simulation model based on mean monthly values, utilizing 26 years of recorded streamflow into the reservoir, was used to determine the mean annual energy potential for the following configurations: (1) present dam, (2) the proposed enlarged dam, (3) a new dam at the lower site with a maximum head of 65 feet, and (4) a new dam at the lower site which would store water to the same elevation as the proposed enlarged dam. Results of the simulation study show that maximum power capacities are respectively 2.1, 3.0, 3.9, and 4.5 megawatts. The marketing potential for this electric power, cost estimates and financial analysis, and environmental, social, and regulatory aspects of the proposed hydropower facilities were evaluated. The results showed the addition of hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site would have minimal social and environmental effects on the area, would result in little or no changes in the present patterns of water and land use, income, population, and employment and would not result in any significant changes of the social structure or characteristics of the area. However, hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site is not economically feasible at the present time. (LCL)
Date: March 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Report to the Congress by the Office of Technology Assessment: March 15, 1974

Description: This report is intended to provide the Congress with information on the steps taken thus far by the Office of Technology Assessment, as well as general background information on the development of the Technology Assessment Act.
Date: March 1974
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Quarterly progress report, December 1--February 28, 1979

Description: Research on the viability of wheat straw as a feedstock for methane production is reported. The efficiency for methane production was somewhat better than that of corn stover. Thermochemical pretreatment consisting of the addition of NaOH and steam injection was investigated to study the potential for improvement of the conversion efficiency. Experimental data clearly shows significant inhibition of methane production as a result of the pretreatment. Studies are underway to determine an acceptable level of caustic pretreatment and required dilution to eliminate inhibitory effects. (JSR)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Pfeffer, J T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Losses in superconducting multifilament composites under alternating changing fields

Description: The first part of this report presents a brief review of the losses in superconducting composites in a changing external field. The losses are expressed for a single triangular shaped pulse and for a field varying exponentially with time. The losses are calculated as a function of two important time constants. The first is due to the coupling currents between the filaments, the second is due to the eddy currents induced in the matrix. In the second part of the report, the case of an oscillating sinusoidal field is considered. In particular, in a rapidly varying field, several layers of filaments can be saturated by returning currents. Complete expressions of the losses are provided together with simplified expressions which enable one to calculate the losses in most cases. In the third part, a comparison between several kinds of conductors shows that in some cases the losses are reduced by increasing the twist pitch of the conductor.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Turck, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experimental enthalpies for a mixture of 80 mole percent isobutane in isopentane. Final report

Description: Seven enthalpy isobars were measured for a nominal mixture of 80% isobutane/20% isopentane. These data were used to construct a phase envelope for use in the design of a turbine expander and the heat exchangers for a geothermal power plant. The dew point values for the phase envelope are difficult to establish for a mixture, particularly in the region near the critical.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Koppany, C.R. & Lenoir, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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