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Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report

Description: A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E. & Long, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report

Description: The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning--Complete Phase II: Development--Complete Phase III: Selected Specimen--Bench Test Work was performed on the Phase II final report and on Ill of the program during the reporting period.
Date: March 14, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

Description: This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.
Date: March 2, 2000
Creator: Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R. & Emmer, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1999

Description: The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor, the first reactor built on the Argonne National Laboratory-East site, followed a rich history that had begun in 1942 with Enrico Fermi's original pile built under the west stands at the Stagg Field Stadium of The University of Chicago. CP-5 was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954--79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979, and placed into a lay-up condition pending funding for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). In 1990, work was initiated on the D and D of the facility in order to alleviate safety and environmental concerns associated with the site due to the deterioration of the building and its associated support systems. A decision was made in early Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 to direct focus and resources to the completion of the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project. An award of contract was made in December 1998 to Duke Engineering and Services (Marlborough, MA), and a D and D crew was on site in March 1999 to begin work, The project is scheduled to be completed in July 2000. The Laboratory has determined that the building housing the CP-5 facility is surplus to the Laboratory's needs and will be a candidate for demolition. In addition to a photographic chronology of FY 1999 activities at the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project, brief descriptions of other FY 1999 activities and of projects planned for the future are provided in this photobriefing book.
Date: March 8, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

Description: Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.
Date: March 24, 2000
Creator: Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D. & Terwilliger, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

Description: The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities.
Date: March 16, 2000
Creator: Visser, RH
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of CVD Mullite Coatings for SiC Fibers

Description: A process for depositing CVD mullite coatings on SiC fibers for enhanced oxidation and corrosion, and/or act as an interfacial protective barrier has been developed. Process optimization via systematic investigation of system parameters yielded uniform crystalline mullite coatings on SiC fibers. Structural characterization has allowed for tailoring of coating structure and therefore properties. High temperature oxidation/corrosion testing of the optimized coatings has shown that the coatings remain adherent and protective for extended periods. However, preliminary tests of coated fibers showed considerable degradation in tensile strength.
Date: March 15, 2000
Creator: Sarin, V. K. & Varadarajan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Maximally exposed offsite individual location determination for NESHAPS compliance

Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer program CAP88 for demonstrating compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS.) One of the inputs required for CAP88 is the location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI) by sector and distance. Distances to the MEI have been determined for 15 different potential release locations at SRS. These locations were compared with previous work and differences were analyzed. Additionally, SREL Conference Center was included as a potential offsite location since in the future it may be used as a dormitory. Worst sectors were then determined based on the distances.
Date: March 13, 2000
Creator: Simpkins, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of energy efficiency project financing alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: Energy reduction goals for Federal agencies were first established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1988, and directed 10{percent} reduction in facility energy use based on a 1985 baseline. Since that time, Federal sites have been actively seeking and implementing a wide variety of energy-efficiency measures in facilities across the Federal sector. In the intervening years this energy reduction goal has been progressively increased to 20{percent} through legislation (Public Law 102-486, The Energy Policy Act of 1992) and a number of Executive Orders. Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy management (signed June 3, 1999), further increased the facility energy-efficiency improvement goal from 30{percent} in 2005 to 35{percent} by 2010 relative to the 1985 baseline.
Date: March 13, 2000
Creator: Hunt, W.D.M.; Hail, JC & Sullivan, GP
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

Description: This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ``all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts.
Date: March 23, 2000
Creator: Last, GV & Horton, DG
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A CO-UTILIZATION OF COAL WITH E-FUEL FROM ENERTECH'S SLURRYCARBtm PROCESS

Description: In August 1999, EnerTech Environmental, LLC (EnerTech) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement to develop the first SlurryCarb{trademark} facility for converting Municipal Sewage Sludge (MSS) into a high-density slurry fuel, which could be co-utilized with coal in various industrial applications. Funded primarily by private investors, this program was divided into two major phases, Project Definition (Phase 0) and Design, Construction, and Operation (Phase 1). Project Definition, performed during this reporting period, was designed to define the project from a technical, economic, and scheduling standpoint. Once defined, much of the project risk would be appropriately mitigated thereby providing stakeholders, such as FETC, less risk when investing in the more costly Phase 1, which includes the design, construction, and operation of the first SlurryCarb{trademark} facility. Since May 1999, EnerTech has made significant progress in the tasks required in Phase 0 for bringing this project to Phase 1. These accomplishments have enhanced the probability for success thereby reducing the risk to the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) for its investment in the project. Phase 0 technical accomplishments include: Locating and securing a project site for the 60 dry ton per day (DTPD) SlurryCarb{trademark} facility; Locating and securing a project partner who will supply the necessary MSS for the project revenue stream; Completing the basic engineering of the project, which included value engineering for reducing technical risk and lowering project costs (final drawings, detail technical review, test runs on process development unit, fuel production for fuel usage research, and final cost estimate all pending); Research and a market study necessary for finding a potential fuel user, which included working with General Electric Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with a focus on coal utilization (locate actual fuel user and detailed combustion research pending); Beginning the National Environmental Policy Act …
Date: March 2, 2000
Creator: Hoang, Susan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report

Description: This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community.
Date: March 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Report: Hardening and Strain Localization in Single and Polycrystalline Materials Under Cyclic and Monotonic Deformation, January 11, 1985 - July 31, 1997

Description: The subject program on substructure evolution initially focused on strain localization produced by fatigue cycling and especially how such localization affects the cyclic response of polycrystalline pure metal. The latter stages have dealt with strain localization in the heavy monotonic deformation of alloys, which eventually produces forms of localized deformation that include coarse slip bands (CSB's), which are aligned to slip planes and macroscopic shear bands (MSB's), which are not aligned to slip planes. These forms of strain localization are important in that they limit the usable ductility of the material in forming processes.
Date: March 3, 2000
Creator: Laird, Campbell & Bassani, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Roadmap for Integrating Sustainable Design into Site-Level Operations

Description: Sustainable Design recognizes that products and processes are interdependent with the environmental, economic, and social systems surrounding them and implements measures to prevent an unsustainable compromise to these systems.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Peterson, KL & Dorsey, JA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Description: The following activities were completed by the end of the quarter: (1) The CERT Executive Director invited a cross section of CERT member Tribes to participate in the project. By the end of the quarter, three Tribes had the invitation under active consideration, four Tribes expressed interest but wanted to see the detailed workplan prior to making a final decision and one Tribe, the Navajo Nation has accepted the invitation. (2) The CERT Board of Directors Executive Committee has endorsed two significant environmental policy priorities for consideration in the project. First, how does the federal Indian trust responsibility to land and natural resources as well as for the health, safety and political integrity of Indian Tribes affect the federal responsibility for facility cleanup and other statutory mandates under federal environmental statutes? And second, What are the protocols of government-to-government relations within a federal system of shared sovereignty and shared governmental responsibilities? And the corollaries to that question, What is the federal obligation for consultation with Tribes and how is that different and similar to consultation with states? And, What is the federal obligation to work cooperatively with Tribes and states in recognition of the three sovereigns of the American federal system? (3) The CERT consulted with political leaders and environmental staff of member and non-member Tribes. This consultation centered on three environmental policy priorities: issues concerning the intergovernmental interface between states, Tribes and federal government agencies and programs; Issues with the cleanup of federal facilities and activities that have damaged Tribal environmental resources; and issues concerning the DOE cleanup of federal facilities used in the production of nuclear weapons.
Date: March 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations

Description: Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k{sub eff} values within about 1% {Delta}k/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models.
Date: March 2000
Creator: Gauld, I. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

Description: The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term …
Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: Ayala, R.E; Venkataramani, V.S.; Abbasian, Javad; Slimane, Rachid B.; Williams, Brett E.; Zarnegar, Minoo K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

Description: Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Payne, S. M.; Gorman, V. W.; Jensen, S. A.; Nitzel, M. E.; Russell, M. J. & Smith, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Quarterly progress report, Year 1 - Quarter 2

Description: OAK B188 A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Quarterly progress report, Year 1--Quarter 2. Year one of this project had three major goals. First, to specify, order and install a new high current ion source for more rapid and stable proton irradiation. Second, to assess the use low temperature irradiation and chromium pre-enrichment in an effort to isolate a radiation damage microstructure in stainless steels without the effects of RIS. Third, to prepare for the irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and Zircaloy. Program goals for Second Quarter, Year One: In year 1 quarter 2, the project goal was to complete an irradiation of an RPV steel sample and begin sample characterization. We also planned to identify sources of Zircaloy for irradiation and characterization.
Date: March 27, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Engineering a new material for hot gas cleanup

Description: The engineering development of a promising sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas was initiated and preliminary results are presented. The sorbent is calcium-based and is designed to be regenerated and reused repeatedly. It is prepared by pelletizing powdered limestone in a rotating drum pelletizer followed by the application of a coating which becomes a strong, porous shell upon further treatment. The resulting spherical pellets combine the high reactivity of lime with the strength of an inert protective shell. Preliminary work indicates that a satisfactory shell material is comprised of a mixture of ultrafine alumina powder, somewhat coarser alumina particles, and pulverized limestone which upon heating to 1,373 K (1,100 C) becomes a coherent solid through the mechanism of particle sintering. Several batches of core-in-shell pellets were prepared and tested with encouraging results.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Wheelock, T.D.; Doraiswamy, L.K. & Constant, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

Description: Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).
Date: March 22, 2000
Creator: Wilde, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending December 31, 1999

Description: This is the twenty-seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Burn, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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