Search Results

Computer simulation models relevant to ground water contamination from EOR or other fluids - state-of-the-art

Description: Ground water contamination is a serious national problem. The use of computers to simulate the behavior of fluids in the subsurface has proliferated extensively over the last decade. Numerical models are being used to solve water supply problems, various kinds of enertgy production problems, and ground water contamination problems. Modeling techniques have progressed to the point that their accuracy is only limited by the modeller's ability to describe the reservoir in question and the heterogeneities therein. Pursuant to the Task and Milestone Update of Project BE3A, this report summarizes the state of the art of computer simulation models relevant to contamination of ground water by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemicals and/or waste fluids. 150 refs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Kayser, M.B. & Collins, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sage grouse on the Yakima Training Center: A summary of studies conducted during 1989 and 1990

Description: A two-year study, sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Army and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, was initiated in 1989 to study sage grouse on the Yakima Training Center (YTC). The specific objectives of this study were (1) to obtain detailed information on the distribution and relative density of sage grouse on the YTC, (2) to identify movement and habitat use patterns of sage grouse on the YTC, (3) to identify crucial habitat for sage grouse on the YTC, and (4) to provide management recommendations. Sage grouse were selected for study because they are a US Fish and Wildlife Service candidate species for the threatened and endangered list in Washington, and because the YTC probably contains the largest population of sage grouse left on federally owned lands in this state. The locations of 11 sage grouse leks, or breeding grounds, were determined on the YTC during extensive spring helicopter surveys. The maximum number of sage grouse observed during ground surveys of these leks varied from 2 to 55 birds. One lek, located near Range 19, was probably used by 40 to 50% of the YTC sage grouse population. Fifteen years of counts of males on leks indicate that the YTC sage grouse population was most numerous during the early to mid 1980s. Since the mid-1980s, sage grouse numbers appear to have declined on the YTC and in other locations in Washington. Forty-six sage grouse (17 females and 29 males) were captured and fitted with radio transmitters during 1989 and 1990. Movements by these sage grouse were both erratic and large when compared with other studies. We believe that many of the atypical movements were in response to military training activities. Sage grouse appeared to seek out areas on the YTC where human disturbance was low. Recommendations are made for …
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Eberhardt, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)) & Hofmann, L.A. (Yakima Training Center, WA (USA). Coe-Truman Technologies)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

Description: Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Blink, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P. & Reilly, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed resource evaluation plan. Salton Sea scientific drilling program

Description: The report presents a plan for evaluating the deep geothermal resource in the Salton Sea area of Imperial County, California. The plan is divided into two testing programs, followed by the modeling and evaluation of the underground geothermal resource. The testing program related to geological data collection includes acquiring and analyzing the core, running geophysical and temperature/pressure logs in both the deep well and the injection well, and carrying out extensive mud-logging activities. The flow testing program includes temperature, pressure, and flow measurements made in the well and surface facilities. Sampling and analysis of fluid and scale both in the well and at the surface facilities will also be carried out. 6 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)
Date: March 1, 1985
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Valence effects on solubility and sorption: the solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

Description: The solubilities of technetium (IV) oxides have been determined in solutions of NaCl, HCl, and synthetic groundwaters in the pH range 0 to 10. Oxides were prepared either by electroreduction from Tc(VII) solutions onto platinum electrodes or by precipitation of Tc from Tc(VII) solutions using hydrazine. In some of the determinations, the oxide was precipitated onto purified sand by use of hydrazine. The oxide-covered sand was then placed into a column and the test solution continuously recirculated through the column. The oxide plated on platinum was placed into a small cell and the test solution stirred. Solubilities were determined by measuring the beta radiation of /sup 99/Tc in the stirred or circulated solution in contact with the oxide. In the pH range 4 to 10, solubilities were in the range 7.5 x 10/sup -9/ to 5 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L, and most of the determinations were in the range 1 x 10/sup -8/ to 2 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L. In acid solutions the solubilities were generally higher for hydrazine-precipitated oxide than for the electrodeposited oxide, and they increased as the pH was lowered. Solubilities of Tc(IV) oxides will be useful for calculation of transport rates of technetium for the case of solubility-limited transport in nuclear waste repository environments.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D. & Case, F.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

Description: During the reporting period, relatively minor changes have occurred in the research areas of interest to the Division. Nearly all the research of the Division can be classified broadly as mission-oriented basic research. Topics covered include: theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; and preparation and characterization of research materials. (GHT)
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Green, P.H. & Watson, D.M. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of a multiport groundwater monitoring system

Description: In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater monitoring system in two wells on the Hanford Site: one near the 216-B-3 Pond in the center of the Hanford Site and one just north of the 300 Area near the Columbia River. The system was installed to provide the US Department of Energy with needed three-dimensional data on the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads on the Hanford Site. This study evaluates the ability of the multiport system to obtain hydrogeologic data at multiple points vertically in a single borehole, and addresses the representativeness of the data. Data collected from the two wells indicate that the multiport system is well suited for groundwater monitoring networks requiring three-dimensional characterization of the hydrogeologic system. A network of these systems could provide valuable information on the hydrogeologic environment. However, the advantages of the multiport system diminish when the system is applied to long-term monitoring networks (30+ years) and to deeper wells (<300 ft). For shallow wells, the multiport system provides data in a cost-effective manner that would not be reasonably obtainable with the conventional methods currently in use at the Hanford Site. 17 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Gilmore, T.J.; Hall, S.H.; Olsen, K.B. & Spane, F.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Where is everybody. '' An account of Fermi's question

Description: Fermi's famous question, now central to debates about the prevalence of extraterrestrial civilizations, arose during a luncheon conversation with Emil Konopinski, Edward Teller, and Herbert York in the summer of 1950. Fermi's companions on that day have provided accounts of the incident.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Jones, E. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam tests of phosphorescent screens

Description: Twelve phosphorescent screens were beam tested for linearity, uniformity, low radiation damage and a suitable emitted wavelength for use with television cameras. One screen was chosen for the construction of several intercepting profile monitors which were used during the SLC Ten Sector Tests to measure the emittance and wakefield effects of a damped electron beam.
Date: March 5, 1985
Creator: Seeman, J.T.; Luth, V.; Ross, M. & Sheppard, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics and mechanism of desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Thirteenth quarterly report, June 21-September 20, 1978

Description: Studies of competing hydroprocessing reactions catalyzed by Ni-Mo/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and involving quinoline, indole, dibenzothiophene, and naphthalene in n-hexadecane show that marked interactions exist. The naphthalene hydrogenation rate is markedly reduced by the presence of quinoline; whereas the reactivity of quinoline is virtually unchanged by the presence of naphthalene. Similarly the rate of hydrodenitrogenation of indole, a non-basic nitrogen-containing compounds is strongly reduced by the presence of quinoline, whereas the rate of hydro-denitrogenation of quinoline, a basic nitrogen-containing compound, is unaffected by the presence of indole. The hydrogenation reactions in the dibenzothiophene reaction network are inhibited severely as indicated by the reduction in their pseudo first-order-rate constants as are the hydrogenation reactions for naphthalene. Thus the hydrogenation rate is reduced 30-fold by increasing the initial quinoline concentration from 0.0 to 0.5 wt % in naphthalene hydrogenation and in dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurzation. The rate of direct sulfur removal is reduced by only 3-fold by increasing the quinoline concentration from 0.0 to 0.5 wt %. These results clearly show that the rate expressions for the hydrotreating reactions are of the form given in the text.
Date: March 16, 1979
Creator: Gates, B. C.; Katzer, J. R.; Olson, J. H.; Kwart, H. & Stiles, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A national strategy for the export of US geothermal technology

Description: This document presents a proposal for an explicit US strategy to focus this still diffuse interest into a coordinated effort by the public and private sectors to increase exports of US geothermal goods and services over the next five to ten years. This document summarizes the background and need for an explicit US strategy, the factors influencing the development of this strategy, strategy options, and a recommended strategy.
Date: March 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of the electron distribution based on bremsstrahlung emission during lower hybrid current drive on PLT

Description: Lower hybrid current drive requires the generation of a high energy electron tail anisotropic in velocity. Measurements of bremsstrahlung emission produced by this tail are compared with the calculated emission from reasonable model distributions. The physical basis and the sensitivity of this modeling process are described and the plasma properties of current driven discharges which can be derived from the model are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Stevens, J. E.; Von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Chu, T. K.; Efthimion, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A survey of available information on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101

Description: As a result of a concerted effort to determine the chemical and physical mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 241-SY-101, more commonly known as tank 101-SY, the Tank Waste Science Panel has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Four of the members of this panel met to screen the available information on tank 101-SY and provide to the remaining members a shortened list of references that could be used to assess the mechanisms underlying the generation and episodic release of gases from tank 101-SY. This document is the result of this preliminary screening of information for the Tank Waste Science Panel and was provided to the Panel members at their first meeting. 14 refs., 3 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Strachan, D.M. (comp.) (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Siemer, D.D. (Westinghouse Idaho National Engineering Co., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)) & Wallace, R.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Concentrator System for Roxborough Park. Final report, June 1978-28 February 1979

Description: The conceptual design of a photovoltaic power supply for the visitors center at Roxborough Park in Colorado is presented. The system will use Fresnel lenses with silicon solar cells and a bank of 110 lead-acid batteries of the locomotive type for storage. The power conditioning equipment and control system are described in detail, and installation and maintenance are discussed. (WHK)
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Donovan, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

Description: Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.
Date: March 3, 1981
Creator: Kuhl, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices E through H

Description: These appendices include: a folio of maps showing lineaments perceived across the state; an index and critique of the Landsat images used in perceiving the lineaments; a selected bibliography on lineaments; and a discussion of area-specific assessments of geothermal resources near military bases in Bexar, Travis, and Val Verde Counties. (MHR)
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L. & McBride, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide sources and radioactive decay figures pertinent to the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

Description: The origin and radioactive decay schemes of radionuclides currently expected to be the major contributors to potential radiation doses that populations might have received as a result of nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 are identified and illustrated in this report. The reactions considered include actinide neutron capture and decay sequences, fission product decays, and neutron activation reactions. It is important to note that the radioactive half-life of a given nuclide does not, by itself, fully determine the significance of a given radionuclide as a potential source term. This report does not address environmental transport mechanisms, behavior in the environment, or radiological dose impact of any of the radionuclides shown. 1 ref., 10 figs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Heeb, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the near-term commercial potential of technologies being developed by the Office of Building Technologies Volune II - Survey Results

Description: This report consists of the results from each Equipment and Practice Form completed by the program managers and principal investigators. Information collected from the Equipment and Practice Form include the following: name and description of the technology; energy characteristics; when the technology will be ready for commercialization; estimated payback period; market sectors that would benefit; important commercialization barriers to overcome; energy-related benefits; and non-energy benefits of the technology to customers. Some of these technologies include: heat pumps, heat exchangers, insulation lighting systems; cooling systems, ventilation systems, burners, leak detection systems, retrofit procedure, operating and maintenance procedures, wall systems, windows, sampling equipment, measuring methods and instruments, thermal analysis methods, and computer codes.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Weijo, R. O. (Portland General Electric Co., OR (USA)); Nicholls, A. K.; Weakley, S. A.; Eckert, R. L.; Shankle, D. L.; Anderson, M. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial field pilot study

Description: The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E. & Chisholm, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite Temperature Instability for Compactification

Description: We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Accetta, F. S. & Kolb, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inference about population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies

Description: The population attributable risk (PAR) is defined as the fraction of all cases of a disease in a population due to exposure to a given risk factor. The data collected in cross-sectional surveys are used to test a formula of standard error of PAR from which a 95% confidence interval for PAR may be deduced.
Date: March 26, 1979
Creator: Fleiss, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure limits of an axisymmetric torus

Description: In order to clarify the pressure limit of a toroidal plasma equilibrium in a three-dimensional geometry, an azimuthally symmetric toroidal plasma was considered. In a tokamak-like plasma, the net toroidal current is necessary for a finite ..beta.. plasma equilibrium. If external conductors are used to provide the rotational transform, iota, the plasma pressure is limited to ..beta.. = (iota/2..pi..)/sup 2//2A, where A is the aspect ratio.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Yoshikawa, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introduction to high-energy physics and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)

Description: The type of research done at SLAC is called High Energy Physics, or Particle Physics. This is basic research in the study of fundamental particles and their interactions. Basic research is research for the sake of learning something. Any practical application cannot be predicted, the understanding is the end in itself. Interactions are how particles behave toward one another, for example some particles attract one another while others repel and still others ignore each other. Interactions of elementary particles are studied to reveal the underlying structure of the universe.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Clearwater, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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