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The LCLS X-Ray FEL at SLAC

Description: The design status and R and D plan of a 1.5 Angstrom SASE-FEL at SLAC, called the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), are described. The LCLS utilizes one third of the SLAC linac for the acceleration of electrons to about 15 GeV. The FEL radiation is produced in a long undulator and is directed to an experimental area for its utilization. The LCLS is designed to produce 300 fsec long radiation pulses at the wavelength of 1.5 Angstrom with 9 GW peak power. This radiation has much higher brightness and coherence, as well as shorter pulses, than present 3rd generation sources. It is shown that such leap in performance is now within reach, and is made possible by the advances in the physics and technology of photo-injectors, linear accelerators, insertion devices and free-electron lasers.
Date: February 9, 1999
Creator: Cornacchia, Massimo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

Description: The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel.
Date: February 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Materials Sciences programs, Fiscal year 1993

Description: This report provides a compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs; the compilation is to assist administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into 7 sections: laboratory projects, contract research projects, small business innovation research, major user facilities, other user facilities, funding level distributions, and indexes.
Date: February 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Progress report on the scientific investigation program for the Nevada Yucca Mountain site, September 15, 1988--September 30, 1989; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113), Number 1

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. This report is the first of a series of reports that will hereafter be issued at intervals of approximately 6-months during site characterization. The DOE`s plans for site characterization are described in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site. The SCP has been reviewed and commented on by the NRC, the State of Nevada, the affected units of local government, other interested parties, and the public. More detailed information on plans for site characterization is being presented in study plans for the various site characterization activities. This progress report presents short summaries of the status of site characterization activities and cites technical reports and research products that provide more detailed information on the activities. The report provides highlights of work started during the reporting period, work in progress, and work completed and documented during the reporting period. In addition, the report is the vehicle for discussing major changes, if any, to the DOE`s site characterization program resulting from ongoing collection and evaluation of site information; the development of repository and waste-package designs; receipt of performance-assessment results; and changes, if any, that occur in response to external comments on the site characterization programs. 80 refs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Photovoltaic Energy Program Contract Summary; Fiscal Year 1998

Description: This document provides individual summaries of some 200 photovoltaics research projects performed in house and by subcontractors to Department of Energy national laboratories and field offices, including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Golden Field Office, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Albuquerque Field Office, and Boston Support Office. The document is divided into the following sections: research and development, technology development, and systems engineering and applications. Three indexes are included: performing organizations by name, performing organizations by state, and performing organizations by technology area.
Date: February 16, 1999
Creator: Surek, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

Description: The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.
Date: February 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor

Description: The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Latshaw, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Process modeling of hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste to form high solids slurries in a pilot scale system

Description: Two models are developed for characterizing the hydrothermal decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a pilot scale facility. The process modeled involves the use of high pressure steam to directly heat surrogate MSW, newspaper, to temperatures and pressures where decomposition reactions breakdown the organic matter to form a coal like solid having properties which make it suitable as a feedstock for a commercial gasifier. One model uses the ASPEN steady-state simulator. This model is only capable of computing a limited number of process variables. To more adequately deal with the transient behavior of the inherently batch process a second transient model is formulated. The model allows important process temperatures, pressures, gas flows and compositions to be calculated as a function of time. The model has been used to scope possible operating scenarios for proposed pilot scale experiments and these results are presented. Based on computed results a recommendation is made that the first pilot experiment use a dampened feed material containing a water-to-dry newspaper ratio of 0.5 to 1. The transient model predicts that this will result in a slurry product in the reactor vessel after cooldown containing 57 wt.% water.
Date: February 16, 1995
Creator: Thorsness, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Laboratory Analysis of Fluid Flow and Solute Transport Through a Variably Saturated Fracture Embedded in Porous Tuff

Description: Laboratory techniques are developed that allow concurrent measurement of unsaturated matrix hydraulic conductivity and fracture transmissivity of fractured rock blocks. Two Apache Leap tuff blocks with natural fractures were removed from near Superior, Arizona, shaped into rectangular prisms, and instrumented in the laboratory. Porous ceramic plates provided solution to block tops at regulated pressures. Infiltration tests were performed on both test blocks. Steady flow testing of the saturated first block provided estimates of matrix hydraulic conductivity and fracture transmissivity. Fifteen centimeters of suction applied to the second block top showed that fracture flow was minimal and matrix hydraulic conductivity was an order of magnitude less than the first block saturated matrix conductivity. Coated-wire ion-selective electrodes monitored aqueous chlorided breakthrough concentrations. Minute samples of tracer solution were collected with filter paper. The techniques worked well for studying transport behavior at near-saturated flow conditions and also appear to be promising for unsaturated conditions. Breakthrough curves in the fracture and matrix, and a concentration map of chloride concentrations within the fracture, suggest preferential flows paths in the fracture and substantial diffusion into the matrix. Average travel velocity, dispersion coefficient and longitudinal dispersivity in the fracture are obtained. 67 refs., 54 figs., 23 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Chuang, Y.; Haldeman, W. R.; Rasmussen, T. C. & Evans, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CE IGCC Repowering Project: Use of the Lockheed Kinetic Extruder for coal feeding; Topical report, June 1993

Description: ABB CE is evaluating alternate methods of coal feed across a pressure barrier for its pressurized coal gasification process. The Lockheed Kinetic Extruder has shown to be one of the most promising such developments. In essence, the Kinetic Extruder consists of a rotor in a pressure vessel. Coal enters the rotor and is forced outward to the surrounding pressure vessel by centrifugal force. The force on the coal passing across the rotor serves as a pressure barrier. Should this technology be successfully developed and tested, it could reduce the cost of IGCC technology by replacing the large lockhoppers conventionally used with a much smaller system. This will significantly decrease the size of the gasifier island. Kinetic Extruder technology needs testing over an extended period of time to develop and prove the long term reliability and performance needed in a commercial application. Major issues to be investigated in this program are component design for high temperatures, turn-down, scale-up factors, and cost. Such a test would only be economically feasible if it could be conducted on an existing plant. This would defray the cost of power and feedstock. Such an installation was planned for the CE IGCC Repowering Project in Springfield, Illinois. Due to budgetary constraints, however, this provision was dropped from the present plant design. It is believed that, with minor design changes, a small scale test version of the Kinetic Extruder could be installed parallel to an existing lockhopper system without prior space allocation. Kinetic Extruder technology represents significant potential cost savings to the IGCC process. For this reason, a test program similar to that specified for the Springfield project would be a worthwhile endeavor.
Date: February 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Task 1.16 - Enhanced Mobility of Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) Using Dissolved Humic Acids

Description: Chlorinated solvent contamination is widespread across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and other industrial facilities. Because of the physical properties of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), current treatment technologies are generally incapable of completely removing contamination from the source area. Incomplete removal means that the residual DNAPL WN persist as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. When DNALPs occur in the subsurface, they resist remediation, owing to low water volubility, high viscosity and interracial tension, and microbial recalcitrance. Because of their high density and polarity, they are usually found sorbed to aquifer solids or in pools on impermeable materials. Surfactants have been used with some success to reduce interracial tension between the aqueous and organic phases and improve volubility of DNAPLs. However, surfactants are expensive and toxic and exhibit an oxygen demand. An alternative is the use of dissolved humic acids in improving DNAPL mobilization and solubilization. Humic acids, a natural form of organic carbon, are abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic; biodegrade slowly (low oxygen demand); and have excellent mobilization properties. The present work is to establish the feasibility of using hurnates for enhancing DNAPL remediation.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Olson, Edwin S. & Kurz, Marc D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm gripper end effector

Description: This gripper end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Pace, D.P. & Barnes, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Program Epicshow: A computer code to allow interactive viewing of the EPIC data libraries (version 94-1)

Description: This report discusses the following on the program EPICSHOW: The EPIC System Overview; The Epicshow code; Contents of the Data Bases; Implementing Epicshow; What is Epicshow?; Brief Instruction to the Menu Options; A Guided tour of Epicshow; Z+10, Z-10, etc.: Selecting a Target; Freeze!!!; Major, Minor, etc.: Selecting a Type of Data; Photon, Electron, etc.: Selecting a Projectile; Example Target and Projectile Output; Grids; 2 X 2; Zoom X and Show All; Points; Ratio; Lin/Log X and Y: Linear or Log Scaling; barn-1/cm:Microscopic or Macroscopic; Listing: Tabulated Output Listings; Pstscript: Postscript Output; Legend; Bigger and Smaller: Character Size; Bottoms Up and No Bottom; Interpolation of Data; Availability; Using your mouse; Size of Data Bases; Epicshow`s Standard Graphic Interface; and Postscript Output to Local Printer.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Cullen, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Shielded room measurements, Final report

Description: The attenuation of electro-statically and electro-magnetically shielded rooms in the ``E,`` ``R,`` ``I,`` and ``T`` Buildings was measured so that corrective measure could be taken if the attenuation was found to be low. If remedial measures could not be taken, the shortcomings of the rooms would be known. Also, the men making the measurements should oversee construction and correct errors at the time. The work was performed by measuring the attenuation at spot frequencies over the range of from 150 kilocycles to 1280 megacycles with suitable equipment mounted in small rubber-tried trucks. The attenuation was determined by ``before and after`` shielding and/or ``door open and door closed`` measurements after installation of copper shielding. In general, attenuation in the frequency range of approximately 10 to 150 mc. was good and was of the order expected. At frequencies in the range of 150 mc. to 1280 mc., the attenuation curve was more erratic; that is, at certain frequencies a severe loss of attenuation was noted, while at others, the attenuation was very good. This was mainly due to poor or faulty seals around doors and pass windows. These poor seals existed in the ``T,`` ``E,`` and ``I`` Buildings because the doors were fitted improperly and somewhat inferior material was used. By experience from these difficulties, both causes were corrected in the ``R`` Building, which resulted in the improvement of the very high frequency (v.h.f.) range in this building. In some specific cases, however, the results were about the same. For the range of frequencies below approximately 10 mc., the attenuation, in almost all cases, gradually decreased as the frequency decreased and reached a minimum at .3 to 1.0 mc. This loss of attenuation was attributed to multiple grounding caused by moisture in the insulating timbers and will gradually decrease as the wood …
Date: February 22, 1949
Creator: Stanton, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Introduction to radiological performance assessment

Description: A radiological performance assessment is conducted to provide reasonable assurance that performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal will be met. Beginning in the early stages of development, a radiological performance assessment continues through the operational phase, and is instrumental in the postclosure of the facility. Fundamental differences exist in the regulation of commercial and defense LLW, but the radiological performance assessment process is essentially the same for both. The purpose of this document is to describe that process in a concise and straightforward manner. This document focuses on radiological performance assessment as it pertains to commercial LLW disposal, but is applicable to US Department of Energy sites as well. Included are discussions on performance objectives, site characterization, and how a performance assessment is conducted. A case study is used to illustrate how the process works as a whole. A bibliography is provided to assist in locating additional information.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Moss, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Martin Marietta, Y-12 Plant Laboratory Partnership Program Plan

Description: The Y-12 Plant currently embraces three mission areas; stockpile surveillance, maintaining production capability, and storage of special nuclear materials. The Y-12 Plant also contributes to the nations` economic strength by partnering with industry in deploying technology. This partnering has been supported to a great extent through the Technology Transfer Initiative (TTI) directed by DOE/Defense Programs (DP-14). The Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) was established to draw upon the manufacturing and fabrication capabilities at the Y-12 Plant to coordinate and support collaborative efforts, between DP and the domestic industrial sector, toward the development of technologies which offer mutual benefit to both DOE/DP programs and the private sector. Most of the needed technologies for the ``Factory of the Future`` (FOF) are being pursued as core areas at the Y-12 Plant. As a result, 85% of DP-14 projects already support the FOF. The unique capabilities of ORCMT can be applied to a wide range of manufacturing problems to enhance the capabilities of the US industrial base and its economic outcome. The ORCMT has an important role to play in DOE`s Technology Transfer initiative because its capabilities are focused on applied manufacturing and technology deployment which has a more near-term impact on private sector competitiveness. The Y-12 Plant uses the ORCMT to help maintain its own core competencies for the FOF by challenging its engineers and capabilities with technical problems from industry. Areas of strength at the Y-12 Plant that could impact the FOF include modeling of processes and advanced materials; intelligent inspection systems with standardized operator interfaces, analysis software, and part programming language; electronic transfer of designs and features; existing computer-based concurrent engineering; and knowledge-based forming process.
Date: February 10, 1995
Creator: Koger, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MFTF-B refrigerator analysis

Description: The purpose of this analysis was to determine the applicability of the MFTF-B helium refrigerator to the requirements of the TPX Tokomak at Princeton. The TPX requires a high pressure stream of supercritical gas to all loads rather than the liquid helium loads that the refrigerator was originally designed to support.
Date: February 10, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sources of strain in rapidly grown crystals of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}

Description: The objective of this paper is to describe the results of x-ray topographic studies on potassium di-hydro phosphate (KDP) crystals grown from solutions at high supersaturation which produces growth rates of ten to fifty times those of conventional methods. Strain in the crystals is discussed.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: De Yoreo, J.; Zaitseva, N. & Woods, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Optimization of cobalt-60 production in the Hanford Testing facilities

Description: The longitudinal (axial) flux distribution in the Hanford production reactors quite closely approximates a ``chopped`` cosine. Consequently, any longitudinally uniform charge placed in a reactor will produce a daughter product with a specific activity distribution which also approximates a cosine. Such a distribution has an average-to-maximum specific activity of about 0.7 and is not desirable when product uniformity is required.
Date: February 2, 1966
Creator: Montgomery, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program and related research activities; FY 1986 progress report, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1986

Description: This report presents the results of technical studies conducted under the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986. The HRMP was initiated in 1973 as the Radionuclide Migration Program to study and better understand the hydrologic systems of the NTS and potential movement and rates of movement of radionuclides and other contaminants injected into these systems by underground nuclear testing.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Jones, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Noble gas isotope measurements for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. IAEA Task 90/0A211 interim report

Description: The nuclear fission of actinides in reactor fuel produces large quantities of Kr and Xe as fission products. Because of the high levels of fission Kr and Xe, sample collection and analysis of noble gases for spent fuel diagnostic measurements is a simple, straight-forward technique. In modern reprocessing plants with continuous dissolvers, it will not be possible to use traditional methods for isolating input batches of fuel. This study investigates the feasibility of using noble gas isotope abundance measurements (isotope correlation techniques - ICT) to solve safeguards requirements. Noble gas measurements might be able to provide an independent analysis of Pu contained within dissolves fuel, on an individual fuel assembly basis. The isotopic composition of Kr and Xe in spent fuel reflects both the composition (isotope abundance ratios) of the fission products and the effects of neutron capture on those fission products. We have reviewed the available literature for noble gas analyses of spent reactor fuel. While references are made to noble gas isotope correlations over the last 20 years, we have found little if any detailed analysis of large data sets. The literature search did find several useful reports. Of these papers, one is particularly useful for evaluating noble gas isotopic compositions. The ``Benchmark-paper`` (1) contains 54 Kr and 56 Xe isotopic composition analyses for 4 different reactors with a variety of fuel enrichment factors. Burnup ranges from 8000 to 37000 MWd/tU. Besides the noble gas measurements, a variety of other measurements are reported (actinides and fission products).
Date: February 17, 1993
Creator: Hudson, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

Description: A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region. In January 1997 the project entered its second and main phase with the purpose of demonstrating whether steamflood can be a more effective mode of production of the heavy, viscous oils from the Monarch Sand reservoir than the more conventional cyclic steaming. The objective is not just to produce the pilot site within the Pru Fee property south of Taft, but to test which production parameters optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.
Date: February 27, 1998
Creator: Schamel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

Description: A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.
Date: February 22, 1995
Creator: Yu, S.; Goffeney, N. & Henestroza, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

Description: This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Bossart, S.J. & Newman, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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