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Adaptive Tracking of Atmospheric Releases

Description: When dangerous chemical or biological releases occur in the atmosphere, emergency responders and decision makers must assess exposure rates to the affected population, establish evacuation routes, and allocate medical resources We have been working to improve the scientific basis for making such decisions. We believe that future rapid response teams, from LLNI, and other centers of expertise, will use a variety of atmospheric sensors and atmospheric computer models to predict and characterize the movement of chemical or biological releases in urban environments, and that LLNL is likely to contribute expertise in this area. A key advance will be to merge the information and capabilities of computer models with real-time atmospheric data from sensors. The resulting product will dynamically interpolate and extrapolate the raw sensor data into a coordinated ''picture'' or interpretation of the developing flow scenario. The scientific focus of the project was the exploration and development of algorithms to fuse lidar data (which measure wind speed much as a police radar measures vehicle speed) and a dispersion model into a single system. Our goal was to provide the scientific foundation for a combined lidar/model approach capable of accurately tracking the evolution of atmospheric releases on distance scales of about 20 km. The fundamental idea is to create feedbacks, so that lidar data can be used for wind field inputs into a dispersion model, which would, in turn, guide lidar data acquisition by directing more intensive scanning to regions where more data are key to improving the modeling. We created a database of synthetic lidar data that can be used to test algorithms relating to a combined lidar/dispersion model. We obtained the data, which represent nocturnal atmospheric drainage flows in the Salt Lake City Basin, from calculations on the LLNL ASCI White supercomputer with a computational fluid dynamics model running ...
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Larson, D & Calhoun, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery From the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California, Quarterly Report: October - December 2001

Description: Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the ...
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Horner, Steve & Ershaghi, Iraj
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

Description: Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic candles for use in the APF system at the Foster Wheeler pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC), pilot-scale, test facility in Karhula, Finland. This report presents a summary of these efforts, defining the stability of the various porous ceramic filter materials, as well as component ...
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Alvin, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

Description: The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over ...
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Allendorf, Sarah; Ottesen, David & Hardesty, Donald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: TRP 9732Steel Processing Properties and Their Effect on Impact Deformation of Lightweight Structures

Description: The objective of the research was to perform a comprehensive computational analysis of the effects of material and process modeling approaches on performance of Ultra Light Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) vehicle models. The research addressed numerous material related effects, impact conditions as well as analyzed the performance of the ULSAB vehicles in crashes against designs representing the current US vehicle fleet. Crash modeling simulations show a clear effect of strain-rate sensitivity on high strength steel (HSS) intensive vehicle. The influence of a strain-rate model can be an incremental sensitivity due to the increased flow stress when similar structure collapse modes are predicted. However, significant differences in crash energy management capacity can be predicted if the change in loading on members alters the predicted collapse mode of the structure. From the material substitution study it can be concluded that HSS material substitution cannot be performed on the basis of the material yield point only and that, especially for advanced HSS vehicle designs, the entire region of material plastic response has to be considered. However, the problem of modeling of the overall dynamic crush process still remains open and requires further experimental and theoretical investigation. Crash modeling simulations show a moderate effect of forming on overall crash performance. The design is the determining factor on the vehicle performance and, therefore, the results of this research cannot provide measures that can be used in a general case. However, it has been shown that for materials that have modest strain hardening, the forming effect is observable and that when more complex forming operations are used, especially in combination with rapid strain hardening materials, forming effects should be taken in the consideration in the computational crash models. crash compatibility study between ULSAB and cars of similar geometric characteristics have shown that the U LSAB design ...
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Simunovic, Srdan & Aramayo, Gustavo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Radionuclide Migration Through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-Year Infiltration Event

Description: The CAMBRIC nuclear test was conducted beneath Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 14, 1965. The nuclear device was emplaced in heterogeneous alluvium, approximately 70 m beneath the ambient water table, which is itself 220 m beneath the ground surface. Approximately 10 years later, groundwater adjacent to the test was pumped steadily for 16 years to elicit information on radionuclide migration in the saturated zone. The pumping well effluent--containing mostly soluble radionuclides such as tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 106}Ru--was monitored, discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to flow towards Frenchman Lake just over one kilometer away. Water discharged into the ditch infiltrated into the ground during flow along the ditch. This created an unexpected and remarkable second experiment in which the migration of the effluent through the 220 meters of unsaturated media, or ''vadose zone'', back to the water table, could be studied. In this paper, the pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with a series of geologic data, new radionuclide measurements, isotopic age-dating estimates, and vadose zone flow and transport models to better understand the movement of radionuclides between the ditch and the water table. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in water samples produced from a water table monitoring well 100m away from the ditch indicate rising levels of tritium since 1993. The detection of tritium in the monitoring well occurs approximately 16 years after its initial discharge into the ditch. Modeling and tritium age dating have suggested 3 to 5 years of this 16-year transit time occurred solely in the vadose zone. They also suggest considerable recirculation of the pumping well discharge back into the original pumping well. Surprisingly, no {sup 14}C was observed at the water table, suggesting its preferential retention, possibly due to ...
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Tompson, A F B; Smith, D K & Hudson, G B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Argentine Financial Crisis: A Chronology of Events

Description: Argentina’s current crisis resulted from a confluence of events, some external to Argentina’s policy process, others directly related to its political and economic choices. The following is a summary of these events from before Argentina’s adoption of the currency board in 1991 to developments in early 2002.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioterrorism: Legislation to Improve Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity

Description: This report shows that while lawmakers work towards final passage of new authorizing legislation, Congress has appropriated more than $3 billion to the Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS) to increase bioterrorism preparedness at the federal, state, and local levels. HHS anti-bioterrorism funding was included in the FY2002 Labor-HHSEducation appropriations bill and in the $20 billion emergency spending package that was attached to the FY2002 Defense appropriations bill. Until the new authorizing legislation is enacted, HHS is dispersing the funds according to existing authorities and the broad parameters set out in the appropriations bills.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen; Vogt, Donna U. & Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building a LLNL Capability in Radioactive Ion Beam Experiments

Description: The purpose of this LDRD was to establish a program at LLNL in radioactive ion beam (RIB) experiments that would use these experiments to address a wide range physics issues in both stellar nucleosynthesis and stockpile stewardship radiochemistry. The LDRD was funded for a total of two years (fiscal years 2000 and 2001) and transferred to the Physical Data Research Program in fiscal year 2002. Reactions on unstable nuclei and isomeric states play a central role in the formation of elements in both stars and nuclear devices. However, the abilities of reaction models to predict cross sections on radioactive nuclei are uncertain at best. This can be attributed to the lack of experimental data to guide reaction-modeling efforts. Only the 10% of all bound nuclei that can be formed with stable targets and beams have been accessed and studied. The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) and existing RIB facilities offer an unprecedented opportunity to address many of the outstanding questions in nuclear structure, reactions and astrophysics by enabling the observation of nuclear reactions with radioactive targets and/or beams. The primary goal of this LDRD is to develop three experimental capabilities for use with RIB experiments: (1) Level density and {gamma}-ray strength function measurements using statistical {gamma}-rays. (2) Charged particle-induced cross sections measurements on radioactive nuclei. (3) Neutron-induced cross section measurements on a radioactive target. RIA and RIB based experiments are the new frontier for nuclear physics. The joint DOE/NSF nuclear science advisory committee has named development of a RIA facility in the United States as the highest new construction priority. In addition to addressing the questions presented above, this LDRD has helped to establish a position for LLNL at the forefront of the international nuclear science community.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Bernstein, L A; Becker, J A; Garrett, P E; Younes, W & Schiller, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM 200 kW - PC25C FUEL CELL POWER PLANT FOR THE ST.-AGNES-HOSPITAL, BOCHOLT, GERMANY

Description: Since the beginning of the Year 2001, the Saint-Agnes-Hospital in Bocholt, Germany, operates a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) to provide the base load of electrical power as well as heat in Winter and air conditioning in Summer. The project was made possible by federal funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a strategic alliance with the local utility company, the Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH (BEW), and with the gas supplier of BEW, the Thyssengas GmbH. The fuel cell power plant is combined with an absorption chiller. It is highly efficient and has an excellent power to heat ratio. The operation during the first Year went smoothly and nearly free of trouble.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Stahl, Dipl.-Ing. Knut
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

Description: This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT41047. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a computational workbench for simulating the performance of Vision 21 Power Plant Systems. Within the last quarter, our efforts have become focused on developing an improved workbench for simulating a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex. To provide for interoperability of models developed under Vision 21 and other DOE programs, discussions have been held with DOE and other organizations developing plant simulator tools to review the possibility of establishing a common software interface or protocol to use when developing component models. A component model that employs the CCA protocol has successfully been interfaced to our CCA enabled workbench. To investigate the software protocol issue, DOE has selected a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex configuration for use in testing and evaluating the impacts of different software interface methods. A Memo of Understanding with the Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD) in Australia has been completed that will enable collaborative research efforts on gasification issues. Preliminary results have been obtained for a CFD model of a pilot scale, entrained flow gasifier. A paper was presented at the Vision 21 Program Review Meeting at NETL (Morgantown) that summarized our accomplishments for Year One and plans for Year Two and Year Three.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Bockelie, Mike; Swensen, Dave & Denison, Martin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRADA Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Commercial Products

Description: ORNL, through The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE), collaborated with The Village Botanica, Inc. (VB) on a project investigating carbon sequestration in soils and commercial products from a new sustainable crop developed from perennial Hibiscus spp. Over 500 pre-treated samples were analyzed for soil carbon content. ORNL helped design a sampling scheme for soils during the planting phase of the project. Samples were collected and prepared by VB and analyzed for carbon content by ORNL. The project did not progress to a Phase II proposal because VB declined to prepare the required proposal.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Jacobs, G.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Declaration Patent for the Invention of Device for Pulling Halyard

Description: The device for the halyard stretching consists of a frame with coupler and clamping rollers mounted in pairs on it, the drive of the rotation of the coupler rollers and the clamping device with a clamping spring. The clamping device is remarkable that the clamping rollers are mounted in a separate movable bracket, which is connected with the frame with the help of a hinge. Between the frame and the movable bracket a releasing spring is inserted. The clamping device is equipped with a movable holder to clamp rollers kinematically connected with the coupler ones with the aid of cardan joints. It assures rotations of the movable bracket over the frame and synchronous rotation of the coupler and clamping rollers ill different directions. All rollers are connected with the drive of rotation via an electro magnet sleeve. A linear drive of spring pressing is mounted between the movable bracket and the clamping spring. A nip of the releasing spring is connected with the electromagnet rotor.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Anuprienko, G. E.; Karpachov, Y. A.; Rowland, M. S.; Savenko, Y. M. & Smith, C. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Management: Industry Practices Can Help Military Exchanges Better Assure That Their Goods Are Not Made by Child or Forced Labor

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The military exchanges operate retail stores similar to department stores in more than 1,500 locations worldwide. The exchanges stock merchandise from many sources, including name-brand companies, brokers and importers, and overseas firms. Reports of worker rights abuses, such as child labor and forced overtime, and antilabor practices have led human rights groups and the press to scrutinize working conditions in overseas factories. GAO found that the military exchanges are not as proactive as private sector companies in determining working conditions at the overseas factories that manufacture their private label merchandise. Moreover, the exchanges have not sought to verify that overseas factories comply with labor laws and regulations. A single industrywide standard for working conditions at overseas factories was not considered practical by the 10 retailers GAO contacted. However, these retailers have taken the following three steps to ensure that goods are not produced by child or forced labor: (1) developing workplace codes of conduct that reflect their expectations of suppliers; (2) disseminating information on fair and safe labor conditions and educating their employees, suppliers, and factory workers on them; and (3) using their own employees or contractors to regularly inspect factories to ensure that their codes of conduct are upheld."
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

Description: The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, fabrication and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive Gas Generator. Focus during this past report period has been to continue completion the Gas Generator design, completing the brazing and bonding experiments to determine the best method and materials necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continuing to making preparations for fabricating and testing this Gas Generator and commencing with the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware. Designs have been completed sufficiently such that Long Lead Items [LLI] have been ordered and upon arrival will be readied for the fabrication process. The keys to this design are the platelet construction of the injectors that precisely measures/meters the flow of the propellants and water all throughout the steam generating process and the CES patented gas generating cycle. The Igniter Assembly injector platelets fabrication process has been completed and bonded to the Igniter Assembly and final machined. The Igniter Assembly is in final assembly and is being readied for testing in the October 2001 time frame. Test Plan dated August 2001, was revised and finalized, replacing Test Plan dated May 2001.
Date: January 31, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

Description: Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage could be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected and identified before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with an optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachment. The work performed in the first quarter of the project includes development of the Research Management Plan, writing a paper assessing of the state-of-the-art in encroachment and third party damage detection, and development of factors for selecting the optical fiber sensors.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Huebler, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

Description: Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Baskin, Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

Description: This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. One additional biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 9), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was injected through the center of the single-register burner with Jacobs Ranch coal. Jacobs Ranch coal is a low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal ({approx} 0.5% S). The results from Test 9 as well as for Test 8 (conducted late last quarter) are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Additional results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the dual-register burner. Finally, a project review was held at NETL in Pittsburgh, on November 13, 2001.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Felix, Larry G. & Bush, P. Vann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed Energy Resources, Power Quality and Reliability - Background

Description: Power quality [PQ] and power reliability [PR] gained importance in the industrialized world as the pace of installation of sensitive appliances and other electrical loads by utility customers accelerated, beginning in the mid 1980s. Utility-grid-connected customers rapidly discovered that this equipment was increasingly sensitive to various abnormalities in the electricity supply.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Schienbein, Lawrence A. & DeSteese, John G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Control: International Policy and Options

Description: Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Lee, Rensselaer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

Description: Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry ...
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Norton, Glenn A.; Yang, Hongqun; Brown, Robert C.; Laudal, Dennis L.; Dunham, Grant E.; Erjavec, John et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Protection: Overcoming Obstacles to Innovative State Regulatory Programs

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issues regulations that states, localities, and private companies must comply with under the existing federal approach to environmental protection. This approach has been widely criticized for being costly, inflexible, and ineffective in addressing some of the nation's most pressing environmental problems. The states have used several methods to obtain EPA approval for innovative approaches to environmental protection. Among the primary approaches cited by the state environmental officials GAO interviewed are EPA's Project XL and the Joint EPA/State Agreement to Pursue Regulatory Innovation. Officials in most states told GAO that they faced significant challenges in submitting proposals to EPA, including resistance from within the state environmental agency and a lack of adequate resources to pursue innovative approaches. EPA recognizes that it needs to do more to encourage innovative environmental approaches by states and other entities. As a result, EPA has (1) issued a broad-based draft strategy entitled "Innovating for Better Environmental Results" and (2) adopted the recommendations of an internal task force, which advocated the consideration of innovative alternatives as new regulations are developed."
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exchange-Coupling in Magnetic Nanoparticles to Enhance Magnetostrictive Properties

Description: Spark erosion is a versatile and economical method for producing particles of virtually any type of material that has a nominal conductivity: particles can be prepared in sizes ranging from a few nm to tens of {micro}m. The purpose of this feasibility study was to demonstrate the capability of making spherical particles of specific magnetic materials. We chose (Tb Dy)Fe{sub 2} (Terfenol-D) due to its potential use as the magnetostrictive component in magneto-elastomer composites. We also chose to work with pure Ni as a model system. Improvements in the properties of magneto-elastomer composites have broad applications in the areas of sensor development, enhanced actuators and damping systems.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Radousky, H; McElfresh, M; Berkowitz, A & Carman, G P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department