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Farm "Counter-Cyclical Assistance"

Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of major farm income and commodity price support programs that expire after crop year 2002. Many agricultural interests expect that a new “counter-cyclical assistance” program will be an integral component of future farm policy. The intent of counter-cyclical assistance is to provide more government support when farm prices and/or incomes decline, and less support when they improve.
Date: March 7, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Womach, Jasper
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The National Debt: Who Bears Its Burden?

Description: This report discusses the burden of a national debt, the view among economists, the federal budget deficits, and the financial burden that future generations will inherit, a larger privately owned capital stock and a higher level of income.
Date: April 7, 2000
Creator: Makinen, Gail
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Federal Aid to Libraries: The Library Services and Technology Act

Description: This report discusses the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA), which consolidated and replaced the former Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) and other federal library assistance legislation. LSTA grants to the states are allocated to state library administrative agencies (SLAAs), and may be used for two basic purposes: developing and improving electronic or other linkages and networks connecting providers and consumers of library services and resources; and/or targeting library services to under served or disadvantaged populations, such as persons with disabilities, those with limited literacy skills, or children from poor families.
Date: March 7, 2003
Creator: McCallion, Gail
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options

Description: Following the terrorist attacks of September 2001, Congress has given considerable attention to the role of first responders in the nation’s homeland security efforts. This report discusses the “First Responder Initiative”, a recent proposal by the Bush Administration to help state and local first responders prepare for possible terrorist attacks.
Date: October 7, 2002
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: Overview and Characteristics

Description: Each fiscal year, Congress appropriates funds for grants to state and local governments to further national goals and assist sub-national governments. Examples of goals include attaining minimum national standards and improving program effectiveness. The federal government provides grants for numerous substantive purposes, such as crime prevention, community development, and transportation. In 1999, grants-in-aid to state and local governments totaled $270 billion. Grants can be classified by the substantive purposes they address. This report, however, reviews the fundamental characteristics according to which they can also be classified. Examples of grant characteristics include range of eligible activities, objectives, award process, and administrative requirements.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment

Description: The First Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that “Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press. . . .” This language restricts government both more and less than it would if it were applied literally. It restricts government more in that it applies not only to Congress, but to all branches of the federal government, and to all branches of state and local government. It restricts government less in that it provides no protection to some types of speech and only limited protection to others. This report provides an overview of the major exceptions to the First Amendment — of the ways that the Supreme Court has interpreted the guarantee of freedom of speech and press to provide no protection or only limited protection for some types of speech.
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Investigative Oversight: An Introduction to the Law, Practice and Procedure of Congressional Inquiry

Description: This report will provide an overview of some of the more common legal, procedural and practical issues, questions, and problems that committees have faced in the course of an investigation. Following a summary of the case law developing the scope and limitations of the power of inquiry, the essential tools of investigative oversight--subpoenas, staff interviews and depositions, grants of immunity, and the contempt power -- are described. Next, some of the special problems of investigating the executive are detailed, with particular emphasis on claims of presidential executive privilege, the problems raised by attempts to access information with respect to open or closed civil or criminal investigative matters, or to obtain information that is part of the agency deliberative process, and the effect on congressional access of statutory prohibitions on public disclosure. The discussion then focuses on various procedural and legal requirements that accompany the preparation for, and conduct of, an investigative hearing, including matters concerning jurisdiction, particular rules and requirements for the conduct of such proceedings, and the nature, applicability and scope of certain constitutional and common law testimonial privileges that may be claimed by witnesses. The case law and practice respecting the rights of minority party members during the investigative process is also reviewed. The report concludes with a description of the roles played by the offices of House General Counsel and Senate Legal Counsel in such investigations.
Date: April 7, 1995
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources

Description: This report is a guide to basic sources useful in tracking federal legislation and regulations. It has been prepared primarily for the use of constituents who wish to follow the federal government's legislative or regulatory activities at the local level. Brief annotations for the selected printed, telephone, electronic, and related sources describe their scope, focus, and frequency, include publisher contact information, and provide Internet addresses where available.
Date: May 7, 1998
Creator: Davis, Carol D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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House Conferees: Selection

Description: A conference committee is composed of a House and a Senate delegation appointed to reconcile the differences between the versions of a measure passed by the two chambers. Congress usually uses a conference committee to resolve such disagreements on the more important, controversial, or complex measures. The members of each chamber’s delegation are known as its conferees or, more formally, “managers.” This report discusses how House conferees are selected.
Date: February 7, 2003
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Access to Government Information in the United States

Description: The Constitution of the United States makes no specific allowance for any one of the co-equal branches to have access to information held by the others and contains no provision expressly establishing a procedure for, or a right of, public access to government information. Nonetheless, Congress has legislated various public access laws. These include two records access statutes — the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a) — and two meetings access statutes — the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) and the Government in the Sunshine Act (5 U.S.C. 552b). Moreover, due to the American separation of powers model of government, interbranch conflicts over the accessibility of information are neither unexpected nor necessarily destructive. The federal courts, historically, have been reluctant to review and resolve “political questions” involving information disputes between Congress and the executive branch. Although there is considerable interbranch cooperation, such conflicts probably will continue to occur on occasion.
Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Social Security: Raising the Retirement Age Background and Issues

Description: The Social Security “full retirement age” — the age at which retired workers, aged spouses, or surviving aged spouses receive benefits that are not reduced for “early” retirement — will gradually rise from 65 to 67 beginning with people who attain age 62 in 2000 (i.e., those born in 1938). Early retirement benefits will still be available beginning at age 62 (age 60 for aged widows and widowers), but at lower levels. This report discusses bills introduced in the last four Congresses that would, among other things, accelerate the phase-in of the increase in the full retirement age to 67, raise the early retirement age to 65 or 67, and raise the full retirement age to 69 or 70.
Date: June 7, 2000
Creator: Kollmann, Geoffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hong Kong - U.S. Economic Relations

Description: This report discusses about Recent economic challenges, Hong Kong- U.S. ties, Export Controls, IPR Protection, Hong Kong economic future and many more.
Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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European Union Enlargement

Description: On May 1, 2004, 10 states joined the European Union (EU), enlarging the Union to 25 members. The EU views the enlargement process as an historic opportunity to promote stability in Europe and further the integration of the continent by peaceful means. In addition to the 10 new members (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia), three other states — Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia — hope to accede to the EU by 2007. Turkey is also a candidate and is expected to begin accession negotiations in 2005. Macedonia has also applied for EU membership.
Date: March 7, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Reconciliation and the Deficit in FY2006 and Through FY2010: Fact Sheet

Description: This report discusses the budget resolution for FY2006 (H.Con.Res. 95), adopted by Congress on April 28, 2005, which included reconciliation instructions for three bills.
Date: June 7, 2005
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues

Description: This report provides background concerning various aspects of fuel ethanol, and a discussion of the current related policy issues.
Date: April 7, 2003
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Womach, Jasper
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Israeli-United States Relations

Description: Israeli-U.S. relations are an important factor in U.S. policy in the Middle East, and Congress has placed considerable emphasis on the maintenance of a close and supportive relationship. The main vehicle for expressing support for Israel has been foreign aid; Israel currently receives about $3 billion per year in economic and military grants, refugee settlement assistance, and other aid. Congress has monitored aid closely along with other issues in bilateral relations, and its concerns have affected Administration’s policies.
Date: March 7, 2005
Creator: Mark, Clyde R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Topics in Aging: Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2004

Description: Older Americans are an economically diverse group. In 2004, the median income of individuals age 65 and over was $15,199, but incomes varied widely around this average. Twenty-eight percent of Americans 65 or older had incomes of less than $10,000 in 2004, while 10% had incomes of $50,000 or more. As Congress considers reforms to Social Security and the laws governing pensions and retirement savings plans, it may be helpful to consider how changes to one income source would affect each of the others, and thus the total income of older Americans
Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Whitman, Debra B. & Purcell, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Transportation, the Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, the District of Columbia, the Executive Office of the President, and Independent Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations

Description: At the beginning of the 109th Congress, both the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations reorganized their subcommittee structure, affecting the coverage of the FY2006 appropriations bills. As a result of this change, the appropriations bill that formerly provided funding for the Departments of Transportation and the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President, and Independent Agencies now includes funding for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, and (in the case of the House, but not the Senate) the District of Columbia.
Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Peterman, David Randall & Frittelli, John F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance

Description: The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to improve border security is a technique that has garnered congressional attention. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress.
Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Health Insurance: Federal Data Sources for Analyses of the Uninsured

Description: Given the various reasons individuals lack health insurance coverage, analysis of the effectiveness of a proposal to reduce the number of uninsured (such as those discussed above) requires examining characteristics of individuals with and without health insurance coverage. Numerous sources of data have emerged over time that support estimates of the uninsured. However, each data source differs in how it collects information from individuals, as well as the amount of information it collects related to health insurance status. This report outlines the major advantages and limitations of four federally administered surveys — in providing estimates of the uninsured population.
Date: February 7, 2002
Creator: Peterson, Chris L. & Devere, Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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India: Chronology of Recent Events

Description: This report provides a reverse chronology of recent events involving India and India-U.S. relations. Sources include, but are not limited to, major newswires, the U.S. Department of State, Hindu (Madras), Hindustan Times (Delhi), and Indian Express (Bombay).
Date: February 7, 2006
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation: More Energy from Less Fuel

Description: This report discusses magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, which is a method for converting heat directly into electrical energy without the use of a rotating electrical power generator.
Date: October 7, 1981
Creator: Crane, Langdon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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How the Food Stamp Program Works

Description: This report briefly describes the present operation of the Food Stamp program, reflecting legislative revisions through 1982.
Date: October 7, 1982
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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