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Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ foam flooding. Annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

Description: The objective is to identify commercially available additives which are effective in reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide, CO/sub 2/, thereby improving its efficiency in the recovery of tertiary oil, and which are low enough in cost to be economically attractive. During the past year significant progress has been made in developing a commercial method of reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery processes. Four basic chemical structures, listed below, appear to show most promise for gas mobility control: (1) ethoxylated adducts of C/sub 8/ - C/sub 14/ linear alcohols; (2) sulfate esters of ethoxylated C/sub 9/ - C/sub 16/ linear alcohols; (3) low molecular weight co-polymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide; and (4) synthetic organic sulfonates. With the exception of the sulfonates, the above types are compatible with normal oil field brines, unaffected by the presence of crude oil and stable under conditions common in a petroleum reservoir. The second significant result during the year involves identification of several sulfonate structures that have high potential for mobility control for carbon dioxide. Commercial sulfonate additives are available that appear optimum for reservoirs where freshwater will be used to inject the surfactant solution. They can also be considered for limited brine applications, for as temperature increases the utility of sulfonates for mobility control also increases. This is encouraging since some of the previously identified additives are chemically unstable at temperatures encountered in most petroleum reservoirs. 113 references, 23 figures, 4 tables.
Date: December 22, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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On Cratering: A Brief History, Analysis, and Theory of Cratering

Description: Cratering is a subject that has been studied by many investigators for many years for many purposes. These purposes range from experimental studies of physical properties to large scale excavations using explosive charges of kiloton size. In the past ten years considerable effort has been devoted to cratering experiments for the purposes of determining the effects of cratering by nuclear explosions, with recent accent on Plowshare applications. From the large amount of data available for craters in alluvian has been possible to establish very reliable relationships between charge size, depth of bursty crater radii, and crater depths. In addition it has been possible to construct a preliminary theory of the mechanics of explosive crater formation. The available experimental data for nuclear and high explosive craters are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the data for desert alluvium, and the pertinent relationships are derived. A theory of the important cratering mechanisms, which has been evolved on the basis of these data and data from other sources, is outlined. (auth)
Date: August 22, 1961
Creator: Nordyke, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EVALUATION OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL METHOD FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES. PART I. INTERIM LIQUID STORAGE

Description: As the first part of a study to evaluate the economics of the various steps leading to and including the permanent disposal of high-activity liquid and solid radioactive waste, costs of interim liquid storage of acid and alkaline Purex and Thorex wastes were estimated for storage times of 0.5 to 30 years. A 6- ton/day plant was assumed, processing 1500 tons/year of uranium converter fuel at a burnup of 10,000 Mwd/ton and 270 tons/year of thorium converter fuel at a burnup of 20,000 Mwd/ton. Tanks of Savannah River design were assumed, with stainless steel construction for acid wastes and mild steel construction for neutralized wastes. The operating cycle of each tank was assumed to consist of equal filling and emptying periods plus a full (or dead) period. With interim storage time defined as filling time plus full time, tank costs were minimum when full time was 40 to 70% of the interim storage time, using present worth considerations. For waste storage times of 0.5 to 30 years, costs ranged from 2.2 x 10/sup -3/ to 9.5 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for acid wastes and from 1.7 x 10/sup -3/ to 5.1 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for neutralized wastes. (auth)
Date: August 22, 1961
Creator: Bradshaw, R.L.; Perona, J.J.; Roberts, J.T. & Blomeke, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tritium half-life

Description: Least squares analyses of calorimetric measurements made at Mound Laboratory on two tritide compounds over a period of 18 y were performed to determine the half-life of tritium. A half-life of 12.3232 +- 0.0043 mean solar years was obtained.
Date: December 22, 1977
Creator: Rudy, C. R. & Jordan, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Only source of energy

Description: Various plants that might play a role in the energy mix of the future are discussed and illustrated. Included among them are the Euphorbias and Guayule. (JGB)
Date: March 22, 1978
Creator: Calvin, G. J. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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D/sup -/ production by multiple charge-transfer collisions of low-energy D ions and atoms in cesium vapor

Description: The production of D/sup -/ by multiple charge-transfer collisions of a D/sup +/ beam in a cesium-vapor target is considered for D/sup +/ energies above 300 eV. The cross sections relevant to D/sup -/ formation are obtained by a least-squares fit of three-charge-state differential equations to experimental yield curves. Implications for production of intense negative-ion beams are discussed, and speculations are made about extrapolation to lower engeries.
Date: January 22, 1978
Creator: Hooper, E. B. Jr.; Willmann, P. A. & Schlachter, A. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

Description: The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.
Date: December 22, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Wire Scanner for SM-1

Description: Preliminary design concepts are presented for a wire scanner for experimentally evaluating spatial variations of neutron flux in the SM-l reactor core. Results of a literature search and determination of optimum criteria for flux mapping the core in minimum time dictated requirements for design concepts and specifications. The utility of both manually instrumented and automatically instrumented wire scanners was analyzed with respect to rapidity of measurement, selectivity of detector location, cost, value of data, plant downtime, and additional factors. (auth)
Date: November 22, 1961
Creator: Kemp, S. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of low-temperature fusion neutron irradiation on critical properties of a monofilament niobium-tin superconductor

Description: The objective of this work was to irradiate a Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor with 14.8 MeV neutrons at 4 K and measure critical current in transverse fields of up to 12 T, irradiating up to a fluence sufficient to decrease the critical current to below its initial value. Critical temperatures were also to be measured. The samples were to be kept near 4 K between the irradiation and the measurement of critical properties. This work is directed toward establishing an engineering design fluence limit for Nb/sub 3/Sn when used in fusion reactor superconducting magnets.
Date: March 22, 1984
Creator: Guinan, M.W.; Van Konynenburg, R.A. & Mitchell, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of Seismic Vibrations on the Experimental Gas-Cooled Reactor

Description: The effects of seismic vibrations on the dynamic behavior of a composite system were analyzed. The equations of motion were derived and soIved with special emphasis on determining the resulting stresses. The method of analysis thus developed was applied to the composite structure consisting of the core, pressure vessel, and supporting skirt of the Experimental Gas-Cooled Reactor (EGCR). A system with three degrees of freedom was considered in order to determine the effects of an earthquake of the maximum intensity expected in the area surrounding Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The system of equations of motion was solved both numerically and analytically, and the resonant frequencies were determined. The seismic effect was shown to be small when the frequency of the seismic disturbance coincided with a natural frequency of the system. In particular, the shear stresses in the graphite core were shown to be negligible. (auth)
Date: June 22, 1962
Creator: Witt, F.J.; Carver, D.R. & Maxwell, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Studies of Plasma Transport

Description: This report discusses the charge-coupled device camera and other plasma diagnostic equipment used to measure plasma density and other plasma properties. (LSP)
Date: July 22, 1991
Creator: Malmberg, J. H.; O'Neil, T. M. & Driscoll, C. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Political Parties in the Philippines

Description: This report discusses the two-party stem of the Philippines republic; NP and LP party structure, Np and LP party programs, its strength and discusses U.S - Philippine relations.
Date: April 22, 1968
Creator: Colwell, Carolyn K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Determination of required delay time following reactor shutdown prior to actuation of LOFT ECCS Bypass

Description: The results of calculations are presented for the decay time required prior to LOFT ECCS shutdown bypass actuation following a reactor shutdown. These calculations are based on a LOCA occurring during hot shutdown which would void the core. Based on an operator response time of 20 minutes to manually establish ECC flow, the reactor decay time was calculated to prevent the fuel cladding temperature from exceeding 1100/sup 0/F. Results show that 211 hours are required following normal reactor shutdown from 55 MW reactor power before ECCS shutdown bypass actuation can be allowed if the reactor is not in cold shutdown condition. One hundred (100) seconds are required following a LOCE before ECCS shutdown bypass actuation can be allowed.
Date: April 22, 1977
Creator: Carmichael, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SRE CONTROL ROD SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS

Description: Data taken on radiation traverse of the Mark 1 control rod were analyzed. Future radiation levels for all SRE control and safety rods were predicted from this. The shielding necessary to ship a complete rod and that necessary to protect a person doing maintenance work on these rods were calculated. The unshielded gamma dose rate 1 cm from the surface of the most highly activated portion of the control rod was calculated to be 5.0 x 10/sup 4/ r/hr 14 days after shutdown following an extended power run of 90 days duration. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 22, 1957
Creator: Whittum, H.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Diamond-turning tool setting by interferogram analysis

Description: A method was developed to establish a numerically controlled tool path with respect to the work spindle centerline. Particularly adapted to the diamond turning of optics, this method is based upon interferogram analysis and is applicable to the establishment of the work spindle centerline relative to the tool path for any center-turned optic having a well-defined vertex radius of curvature. The application reported is for an f/2 concave spherical mirror.
Date: October 22, 1980
Creator: Rasnick, W.H. & Yoder, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Arsenic Removal From Gaseous Streams

Description: Uranium feed materials, depending on the production process, have been found to contain arsenic (As) as a contaminant. Analyses show the As to be present as As pentafluoride (AsF{sub 5}) and/or hexafluoroarsenic acid (HAsF{sub 6}) and enter the enrichment cycle through contaminated hydrogen fluoride (HF). Problems related to corrosion of cylinder valves and plugging of feed lines and valves have been attributed to the As. Techniques to separate AsF{sub 5} from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) using sodium fluoride (NaF) as a trapping media were successful and will be discussed. Procedures to significantly reduce (up to 97%) the level of As in HF will also be reported. 5 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: November 22, 1989
Creator: Russell, R. G. & Otey, M. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interim Report on the Development of an Air Pulser for Pulse Column Application

Description: The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant for several years has been studying various pulsing systems, used in extraction columns for processing irradiated nucIear fuel elements, in an effort to eliminate the mechanical difficuittes in present pulsing systems. An air puising system has been demonstrated, and a discussion is given of experimental work, pulser design, and plant operational experience with this system. It is concluded, from work completed thus far that air puising of extraction columns is a considerable improvement over other systems. (auth)
Date: September 22, 1961
Creator: Weech, M. E.; P'Pool, R. S. & MacQueen, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geothermal materials survey : Arkansas Power and Light Development and Demonstration Project. 100kW power system using direct contact heat exchangers, El Dorado, Arkansas

Description: The 100 kW plant is a direct contact boiling/direct contact condensing binary system using isopentane as the working fluid. Treated waste geothermal brine from the Great Lakes Chemical Co. (GLC) bromine recovery operation is the heat source. Brine is taken from the GLC Treated Brine Line at 205 to 210/sup 0/F and supplied to the pilot plant via the APL Brine Inlet Line. The brine enters the direct contact boiler (DCB) and vaporizes isopentane. The cooled brine is discharged into the reinjection pond at 135 to 155/sup 0/F. The brine flow rate is 45,655 to 87,030 lb(m)/hr (pounds mass per hour). The chemistry of the brine is discussed. The objectives here are to: (1) evaluate present pilot plant materials selections, (2) identify potential materials problems, and (3) recommend alternate materials for use in future systems. (MHR)
Date: July 22, 1980
Creator: Ellis, P.F. II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Multiple three-decision rules for 2/sup k/-factorial simple effects. Technical report No. 8

Description: One of the problems confronted in the investigation of environmental health and in biological research more generally is the fact that organisms often respond to combinations of treatments in ways which are not predictable from the way they respond to each of these taken separately. One air pollutant may, for example, disable the respiratory tract's self cleaning mechanisms and thereby increase its sensitivity to the effects of other pollutants. It is important that laboratory experiments be able to simultaneously detect the effects of the various possible combinations of treatments in a way that utilizes the data as effectively as possible. This paper deals with the optimal use of data from such experiments when the response variable can be regarded (possibly after undergoing a suitable transformation) as having a normal distribution with mean determined by the combination of treatments it has undergone.
Date: March 22, 1977
Creator: Bohrer, R.; Chow, W.; Faith, R.; Joshi, V.M. & Wu, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of a three-dimensional model of the atmospheric boundary layer using the finite element method

Description: This report summarizes our current effort and ideas toward the development of a model for the planetary boundary layer using the finite element technique. As an initial step, the finite element methodology is applied to simpler version of the boundary layer equations given by the two-dimensional, constant-property, incompressible conservation equations (Navier-Stokes equations). Solution procedures for both the steady-state and transient equations are discussed. For the transient problem, a variable time-step, trapezoid-rule algorithm with dynamic time-truncation error control is presented. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations is solved by a Newton iteration procedure with a frontal solution scheme used for the linear set of equations. The need to develop a suitable linear equation solver, with respect to minimization of computer storage and execution costs, particularly for large (three-dimensional) finite element problems, is also discussed.
Date: November 22, 1977
Creator: Lee, R. L. & Gresho, P. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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