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International Impacts of Global Climate Change: Testimony to House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs

Description: International impacts of global climate change are those for which the important consequences arise because of national sovereignty. Such impacts could be of two types: (1) migrations across national borders of people, of resources (such as agricultural productivity, or surface water, or natural ecosystems), of effluents, or of patterns of commerce; and (2) changes to the way nations use and manage their resources, particularly fossil fuels and forests, as a consequence of international concern over the global climate. Actions by a few resource-dominant nations may affect the fate of all. These two types of international impacts raise complex equity issues because one nation may perceive itself as gaining at the expense of its neighbors, or it may perceive itself as a victim of the actions of others. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: February 21, 1989
Creator: Fulkerson, W.; Cushman, R.M.; Marland, G. & Rayner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic mirror confinement of high-energy, high-density plasma

Description: This paper summarizes results obtained from and work in progress on those experiments which have contributed significantly toward the confinement in single-cell magnetic mirror systems of plasmas close to thermonuclear conditions. Because the mirror confinement of such high-energy, high-density plasmas has been studied most extensively in the 2XIIB experiment, discussion of 2XIIB results forms a major portion of this paper. In these experiments, injection of low-energy plasma has been shown to suppress microinstabilities to sufficiently low levels that high-beta (..beta.. approx. = 1) plasmas could be achieved and sustained by cross-field injection of beams of neutral particles. Plasma confinement was found to improve with ion energy, electron temperature, and plasma size. Based on these results, a larger Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) was designed to pursue confinement scaling to higher energies and larger plasma dimensions. MFTF design parameters and construction status are briefly reviewed.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Coensgen, F.H. & Simonen, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

Description: We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.
Date: December 21, 1989
Creator: Ross, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SVI: Super-VIOR interface routines

Description: This document describes a set of routines for a VME DMA module called the Super-VIOR. The Super-VIOR interface routines, also called the SVI routines, are written in PILS and run under a Valet-plus system. These routines enable a program to set up, execute, and monitor DMA operations. The Super-VIOR Interface Routines are written in PILS, a high level language similar to BASIC and Pascal which is powerful and fast enough for most applications. One of the most powerful features of the Valet/PILS system is the ability to set up exception vectors and exception handlers directly in a program. This feature is used to handle interrupts from the MC68450 (a 4 channel, 16 bit DMA controller) and the interface's front panel. This document is divided into ten sections, the first being the introduction. The remaining sections detail the interface registers, channel initiation, polling and interrupts, status reporting, front panel interrupts, the configuration routines, the operation control routines, the status reporting routines, and special comments on the MC68450.
Date: October 21, 1987
Creator: Alleva, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Segregation effects in JBK-75

Description: Chemical segregation of alloying elements, can be a severe problem in complex alloys. Many problems have been experienced with developing fabrication processes for JBK-75 and it is suggested that these difficulties may be related in part to the degree of chemical heterogeneity that exists in the alloy. Early testing and qualification of the alloy was made on relatively homogeneous samples, which came from small diameter ingots. In large size ingots used for production, it is more difficult to achieve a uniform distribution of alloying elements in the product; resulting in greater variability of alloy properties which are difficult to explain. Extensive microprobe measurements were made on samples of JBK-75 bar stock from several different production size ingots. It was found that segregation of titanium is a common occurrence. Titanium banding can be controlled by ingot melting rate and homogenization of ingot or intermediate product. A model for titanium diffusion shows that homogenizing at the ingot stage is ineffectual with respect to the spacing measured. However, homogenizing 20.3-cm diameter intermediate product, where band spacing is reduced, will significantly reduce segregation. The effect of segregation on tensile properties is discussed. Segregation may have a significant influence on forgeability of JBK-75. Forgeability tests show that microstructure plays an important role in the ability of JBK-75 to deform homogeneously, and microstructure is controlled by chemical uniformity of the alloy. Inhomogeneous shear during forging can cause adiabatic shear planes to form, and these have been observed in JBK-75.
Date: December 21, 1979
Creator: Mataya, M. C.; Edstrom, C. M.; Krenzer, R. W. & Doyle, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection Plan for the CyberCemetery

Description: This report discusses the collection plan for the CyberCemetery, part of the Web-at-Risk project. The topics include the mission and scope, the selection, acquisition, descriptive metadata, presentation and access, maintenance and weeding, and preservation.
Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Glenn, Valerie & Hoffman, Starr
Partner: UNT Libraries

Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's top priority program, and wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021.
Date: December 21, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-molten uranium hazard analysis. Final report. LATA report No. 92

Description: The hazard potential of cooling water leakage into the crucible of molten uranium in the MARS laser isotope separation experiment was investigated. A vapor-phase explosion is highly unlikely in any of the scenarios defined for MARS. For the operating basis accident, the gas pressure transient experienced by the vessel wall is 544 psia peak with a duration of 200 ..mu..s, and the peak hoop stress is about 20,000 psi in a 0.5-in. wall. Design and procedural recommendations are given for reducing the hazard. (DLC)
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D. & Donham, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical model of a utility firm. Final technical report, Part IIB

Description: The aim of this project was to develop an understanding of the dynamical processes that evolve within an electric utility firm, and without it. This volume covers organizational dynamics and control, and planning under uncertainty. (DLC)
Date: August 21, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Evaluations of neutron reactions with sup 52 Cr, sup 56 Fe, sup 58 Ni)

Description: The traveler organized and chaired the meeting of the NEANDC/NEACRP Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation Subgroup-I: Intercomparison of USA, European, and Japanese Evaluations for {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 58}Ni, held on December 3, 1990, at the NEA Data Bank in Saclay, France. The traveler held discussions with Subgroup-II members to keep track of the activities of this group in which the traveler is a member. Highlights and/or recommendations of these meetings, as well as observations of the EAF, EFF, and JEF meetings, are included in this report.
Date: December 21, 1990
Creator: Fu, C.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defect states in plasma-deposited a-Si:H. Technical progress report, May-July 1979

Description: Three preprints are presented. The first, entitled ''Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy Measurement of Dopant Concentrations in a-Si:H,'' reports significant differences between the ratio of boron to silicon of the films and that of their deposition plasmas. The second, entitled ''Growth Morphology and Defects in Plasma-Deposited a-Si:H Films,'' presents structural studies that show that a major class of defect is an anisotropic density fluctuation. Studies of the hydrogen environment suggest that an inhomogeneous hydrogen distribution is associated with these fluctuations. From considerations of the deposition chemistry and nucleation theory, a model is proposed to describe the film growth process and its relationship to defects. The third, entitled ''Luminescence and ESR Studies of Defects in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,'' demonstrates that the two experiments involve identical recombination transitions, and identify two separate processes. One process involves defect states, and from the doping dependence of light induced ESR, it is deduced that the electronically active defects are dangling bonds with positive electronic correlation energy. (LEW)
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Knights, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dresden Unit Two: dilute chemical decontamination and alternate water chemistry. Progress report, July 1-31, 1978

Description: Most of the Dilute Chemical Decontamination Program effort was expended on the VNC test loop simulation of a BWR decontamination. The various tasks in the Alternate Water Chemistry Program are reported on: dose rate, offgas system, leakage monitoring, materials, condensate treatment, additives, etc. (DLC)
Date: September 21, 1978
Creator: Blomgren, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic risk analysis for the Babcock and Wilcox facility, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

Description: The results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Babcock and Wilcox Plutonium Fuel Fabrication facility at Leechburg, Pennsylvania are presented. This report focuses on earthquakes; the other natural hazards, being addressed in separate reports, are severe weather (strong winds and tornados) and floods. The calculational method used is based on Cornell's work (1968); it has been previously applied to safety evaluations of major projects. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. The results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented, expressed as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Babcock and Wilcox facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The bounding curves roughly represent the one standard deviation confidence limits about the best estimate, reflecting the uncertainty in certain of the input. Detailed examination of the results show that the accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and that each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site. If required for structural analysis, acceleration response spectra for the site can be constructed by scaling the mean response spectrum for alluvium in WASH 1255 by these peak accelerations.
Date: October 21, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative Rates Program. Final report

Description: Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)
Date: June 21, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor for simulation and acceleration of solar ultraviolet damage

Description: An environmental test chamber providing acceleration of uv radiation and precise temperature control (+- 1/sup 0/C) has been designed, constructed and tested. This chamber allows acceleration of solar ultraviolet up to 30 suns while maintaining temperature of the absorbing surface at 30/sup 0/C to 60/sup 0/C). This test chamber utilizes a filtered medium pressure mercury arc as the source of radiation, and a combination of selenium radiometer and silicon radiometer to monitor solar ultraviolet (295 to 340 nm) and total radiant power output, respectively. Details of design and construction and operational procedures are presented along with typical test data. The test chamber was designed for accelerated testing of solar cell modules.
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Laue, E. & Gupta, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

Description: A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Beaman, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bearing staking process investigation using a designed experiment

Description: A designed experiment was performed on the staking operation of a miniature precision bearing. Three variables were controlled during the experiment: staking force, tool diameter, and bearing-to-wheel fit. The study showed that the current staking tool diameter is highly sensitive to staking force and to bearing-to-wheel fit, whereas a smaller diameter tool is not. The study also shows that, with the current process, bearing movement under a 100-Newton (N) force can be estimated at 0.009 in. to 0.0029 in. The current specification is 0.002 in. and should be revised to 0.0035 in. 4 figs.
Date: December 21, 1990
Creator: Armstrong, K.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

Description: This report presents a summary of trade negotiations and the proposed U.S.-Panama free trade agreement (FTA). The proposed U.S.-Panama FTA is a comprehensive agreement. Some 88% of U.S. commercial and industrial exports would become duty-free upon implementation, with remaining tariffs phased out over a 10-year period.
Date: April 21, 2011
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and oversight issues for Congress on the Virginiaclass nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2012 budget requests procurement funding for the 15th and 16th Virginia-class boats, and advance procurement (AP) funding for Virginia-class boats to be procured in future years. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: April 21, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East.
Date: April 21, 2011
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

Description: Prompt global strike (PGS) would allow the United States to strike targets anywhere on earth with conventional weapons in as little as an hour. This report provides an overview of the rationale for the PGS mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles in support of this mission. It then reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems. It summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs.
Date: April 21, 2011
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detoxification and Generation of Useful Products From Coal Combustion Wastes

Description: Electric utilities are on the brink of a new era in waste disposal problems. This research project addresses the issue of how to effectively dispose of flyash, bottom ash, desulfurization sludge through the generation of chemically-hardened material that could potentially be used as a cement or as a synthetic aggregate. The specific goals of this study were: (1) to study the hardness of mixtures of flyash, bottom ash, and DSG treated with lime and other hardening agents; (2) to determine the optimum solids content, setting time, moisture content, and post setting treatments that will yield the greatest strength and hardness out of these mixtures; and (3) to determine the leachability of the synthetic material as a measure of its ability to retain absorbed and/or entrained toxic metals. 50 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: November 21, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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