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Abortion: Legislative Response

Description: The primary purpose of this issue brief is to focus on the current legislative action in the 107th Congress with respect to abortion; however, understanding that legislation requires a review of the U. S. Supreme Court’s leading decisions concerning a woman’s right to choose whether to terminate her pregnancy. For a detailed discussion of the case law, see CRS Report 95-724, Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview.
Date: July 19, 2002
Creator: Lewis, Karen J.; Shimabukuro, Jon O. & Ely, Dana
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Medicare Prescription Drug and Reform Legislation

Description: This report describes the major features of S. 1, as ordered reported, and the measure to be considered by the House Ways and Means Committee, H.R. 2473, as ordered reported.
Date: June 19, 2003
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer; Chaikind, Hinda Ripps; Tilson, Sibyl L.; Boulanger, Jennifer & Morgan, Paulette C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conservation Reserve Program: Policy Issues for the 1995 Farm Bill

Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive crop land for 10 years (or longer under certain circumstances). Successful bidders receive annual rental payments, and cost-sharing and technical assistance to install approved plantings. The program was to enroll between 40 and 45 million acres before 1996. Program goals are to reduce erosion and excess production, and more recently, to provide other environmental benefits. To date, about 36.5 million acres have been enrolled.
Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tobacco Control: Enforcement and Effectiveness of Federal and State Youth Access Laws

Description: This report reviews recent efforts to limit youth access to cigarettes through enforcement of federal and state laws prohibiting tobacco sales to minors. Under the federal Synar Amendment, states must conduct compliance checks and enforce their minimum age-of-sale laws or risk losing block grant funds
Date: August 19, 1998
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen & Austin-Lane, Joy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Food Biotechnology in the United States: Science, Regulation, and Issues

Description: This report discusses the science of food biotechnology, and the federal structure by which it is regulated. Because U.S. farmers are adopting this technology at a rapid rate, some observers advocate a more active role for the federal government to ensure that farmers have equal access to this technology. Others believe that federal officials should play a more active role in protecting the environment, funding more research, and participating in international trade negotiations to ensure that trade continues to expand for genetically engineered crops. Trading partners often label food products that have been genetically modified as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Many of those partners have labeling requirements for GMOs to allow consumers the “right to know” their food content.
Date: January 19, 2001
Creator: Vogt, Donna U. & Parish, Mickey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Agroterrorism: Options in Congress

Description: Although U.S. intelligence agencies have not identified any terrorist acts targeting agricultural production (i.e., agroterrorism) in the United States to date, the events of September 11, 2001 have awakened the nation to their possibility. Some experts estimate that a single agroterrorist attack using a highly contagious livestock disease could cost between $10 billion and $30 billion to the U.S. economy. This report examines the potential threats to America’s agriculture from a deliberate biological attack, describes the current defense structure and capabilities available to respond to agroterrorism, and analyzes current congressional proposals to address the threat of biological weapons to U.S. agriculture.
Date: December 19, 2001
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Description: Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year.
Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Description: This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives.
Date: March 19, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Endangered Species: Difficult Choices

Description: This report discusses issues debated in the 107th Congress while is considering various proposals to amend the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). Major issues in recent years have included changing the role of science in decision-making, changing the role of critical habitat, reducing conflicts with Department of Defense activities, incorporating further protection for property owners, and increasing protection of listed species, among others. In addition, many have advocated including significant changes to ESA regulations made during the Clinton Administration in the law itself.
Date: June 19, 2002
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. Lynne & Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Date: August 19, 2003
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Description: This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
Date: April 19, 2002
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Budget for Fiscal Year 2001

Description: On December 15, 2000, Congress reached an agreement with the President and passed the remaining appropriations (H.R. 4577; H.Rept. 106-1033) for fiscal year (FY) 2001. The legislation, including tax cuts ($31.5 billion over 10 years), completes budget action in the 106th Congress for FY2001. The action followed extended disagreements over appropriations, which resulted in a series of continuing resolutions on appropriations that funded those parts of the government not covered by regular appropriations or permanent funding during the fall. The fiscal year had begun with only 2 of the 13 regular appropriations enacted into law.
Date: April 19, 2001
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues that have been, or may be, of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process.
Date: August 19, 2002
Creator: Stedman, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues

Description: This report discusses the funding authorizations for programs in the Higher Education Act (HEA). This legislation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), authorizes the federal government’s major student aid programs, as well as other significant initiatives.
Date: March 19, 2003
Creator: Stedman, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Description: Interest in methods to provide drugs at lower cost, particularly for the elderly, has rekindled discussion over the role the federal government plays in facilitating the creation of new pharmaceuticals for the marketplace. This report explores the issue of whether or not the substantial federal investment in health-related research and development (R&D) entitles the public to commensurate consideration in prices charged for any resulting drugs. It is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the rationale for government support of R&D and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of new technologies generated from such work. Concerns surrounding innovation in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology are discussed within the broader context of the federal role in facilitating technological progress.
Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Brief History

Description: This report discusses the history of the federal grants-in-aid system, which predates the Constitution. he grants-in-aid system assumed its current form when President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated his New Deal programs. Since Roosevelt, the grants-in-aid system has expanded, especially in the number and dollar amount of categorical grant programs.
Date: February 19, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options

Description: This report discusses a new block grant program proposed by the Bush Administration called the “First Responder Initiative” to help state and local first responders prepare for possible terrorist attacks
Date: March 19, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options

Description: This report provides background information and policy analysis pertinent to proposals to restructure first responder assistance programs. Specifically, this report provides information on existing programs, appropriations, legislation in the 108th Congress, and selected policy issues. This report does not discuss all relevant policy issues, but, rather, those issues that may be germane to any significant restructuring of existing programs.
Date: June 19, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Argentina's Sovereign Debt Restructuring

Description: The U.S. Congress has held numerous hearings to evaluate the causes and ongoing repercussions of Argentina’s financial crisis. This report analyzes Argentina’s debt situation in support of this interest and will be updated periodically.
Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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