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1978 annual report, INEL geothermal environmental program

Description: The objective of the Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program, in its fifth year, is to characterize the beneficial and detrimental impacts resulting from the development of moderate-temperature geothermal resources in the valley. This report summarizes the monitoring and research efforts conducted as part of this program in 1978. The results of these monitoring programs will be used to determine the mitigation efforts required to reduce long-term impacts resulting from geothermal development.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Spencer, S. G.; Sullivan, J. F. & Stanley, N. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accuracy of small diameter sheathed thermocouples for the core flow test loop

Description: This report summarizes the research and development on 0.5-mm-diameter, compacted, metal sheathed thermocouples. The objectives of this research effort have been: to identify and analyze the sources of temperature measurement errors in the use of 0.5-mm-diameter sheathed thermocouples to measure the surface temperature of the cladding of fuel-rod simulators in the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) at ORNL; to devise methods for reducing or correcting for these temperature measurement errors; to estimate the overall temperature measurement uncertainties; and to recommend modifications in the manufacture, installation, or materials used to minimize temperature measurement uncertainties in the CFTL experiments.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Anderson, R. L. & Kollie, T. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Powder River II Project: the Newcastle and Gillette Quadrangles of Wyoming and South Dakota; the Ekalaka Quadrangle of Montana, South and North Dakota. Volume I. Final report

Description: During the months of August through September 1978, geoMetrics, Inc. flew approximately 9000 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in eastern Wyoming and southern Montana over three 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangle (Newcastle, Gillette, and Ekalaka) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully reduced and interpreted by geoMetrics, and are presented as four volumes (one Volume I and three Volume II's) in this report. The survey area lies entirely within the northern Great Plains Physiographic Province. The deep Powder River Basin and the Black Hills Uplift are the two dominant structures in the area. Both structures strike NNW approximately parallel to each other with the Powder River Basin to the west of the Uplift. The Basin is one of the largest and deepest in the northern Great Plains and contains over 17,000 feet of Phanerozoic sediments at its deepest point. Economic deposits of oil, coal, bentonite and uranium are found in the Tertiary and/or Cretaceous rocks of the Basin. Gold, silver, lead, copper, manganese, rare-earth elements and uranium have been mined in the Uplift. Epigenetic uranium deposits lie primarily in the Monument Hills - Box Creek and Pumpkin Buttes - Turnercrest districts within arkosic sandstones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. A total of 368 groups of statistical values in the uranium window meet the criteria for valid anomalies and are discussed in the interpretation sections (83 in Newcastle, 109 in Gillette, and 126 in Ekalaka). Most anomalies lie in the Tertiary sediments of the Powder River Basin, but only a few are clearly related to known uranium mines or prospects. Magnetic data generally delineate the deep Powder River Basin relative to the Black Hills Uplift. Higher frequency anomalies appear related to …
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ahuachapan geothermal project: a technical and economic assessment

Description: Theeconomic and technical factors involved in using geothermal energy at Ahuachapan are examined. The experience at Ahuachapan is evaluated in relation to conditions prevailing in El Salvador and to conditions in the U.S. technical characteristics considered are: geological characteristics, well programs and gathering system, well productivity and geofluid characteristics, and energy conversion systems. Economic factors considered for El Salvador are: construction costs; environmental control costs; operating experience and costs; financing; taxes, subsidies, or incentives; marketing; and electrical system characteristics. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Bloomster, C. H.; DiPippo, R.; Kuwada, J. T. & Russell, B. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of the Apiclutural Industry in Relation to Geothermal Development and Agriculture in the Imperial Valley, Imperial County, California

Description: PART I: Continuous exposure to 30 ppB H/sub 2/S increased lifespan of caged worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., 33%; whereas, bees exposed > 13 days to 100 ppB and 300 ppB H/sub 2/S the lifespan was shortened 32% and 51%, respectively, over unexposed bees; bees exposed > 15 days to a combination of 300 ppB H/sub 2/S + 50 ppM CO/sub 2/ the lifespan was shortened 4.4% more that 300 ppB H/sub 2/S alone. The mean temperature and/or relative humidity did not exert a direct effect on the hazard to bees. A continuous exposure to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ was detrimental to caged worker honey bees; and, a mean temperature of 27.2/sup 0/C was 75.7% more toxic than the same dosage at 16.7/sup 0/C. Worker bee lifespans exposed to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ at 16.7/sup 0/C were shortened 13.5% and 79%, respectively, compared to unexposed bees. Therefore, both dosage and temperature exert direct effects on the hazards to bees. PART II: The status of the apicultural industry in Imperial County, California, was outlined giving a short characterization of the area in relation to the apicultural industry. Agriculture utilizes 500,000 intensely farmed acres which generated a 11-year average income of $370 million. Over 40 agricultural commodities are produced. The apicultural industry is intimately involved in 25% of the total gross agricultural income. In addition, most of the flora growing in the desert community which comprises the remainder of the county are very important to honey bees by providing sustaining nectar and/or pollen for brood rearing. The bee foraged flora provides substantial bee forage when colonies are located outside of the agriculutral area. It is concluded that geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley is contemplated to have minimal effects on the apicultural industry.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Atkins, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of the early phase of tokamak plasma ohmic heating

Description: A study of ohmically heated tokamak systems has been performed in which the evolution of the plasma is followed through the initiation period up to 100 eV. A zero-dimensional model of the bulk plasma is utilized, with a one-dimensional model of the plasma inductance. Losses due to ionization and oxygen impurity processes are evaluated using the best available atomic data. The total OH system energy expended in forming and heating the plasma up to a reference temperature of 100 eV is calculated and found to be a function of the maximum induced loop voltage. The latter is found to be limited by thresholds for runaway electron production. Finally, preliminary results are presented on fully one-dimensional calculations which verify rigorously the formation of inverted temperature and current profiles as early as 50 eV in the heating process.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: von Valtier, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1978. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center]

Description: Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1978, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 6.6 mrem. This represents about 6.6% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.3% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since 1966. Because of major new construction, well water samples were not collected and analyzed during 1978. Construction activities have also temporarily placed our sampling stations for the sanitary and storm sewers out of service. They will be re-established as soon as construction activities permit. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.01 mrem; this represents less than 0.01% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.002% of the technical standard.
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1978

Description: Environmental monitoring data are reported for accelerator produced radiation; radionuclide measurements and release data from atmospheric and water sampling; population dose equivalent resulting from LBL operations; and non-radioactive pollutants. (HLW)
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Schleimer, G.E. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Interim report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1979

Description: The primary objective of this project is to reduce the energy requirements for finishing fabrics by drastically reducing the water required to wet process the fabrics. Since less water is used, less energy is consumed in the evaporation of water. This is accomplished by replacing much of the water with air, making a foam and using it as the application medium. In the first six months of the project the practicality of foam fabric finishing on a commercial basis had been established. Limited yardage of fabrics equivalent in performance to conventionally wet finished fabrics were processed. In these mill trials, a range of foam fabric finishes including softeners, hand builders, durable press and shrink-resistant types were applied to cotton sheeting, corduroy and polyester/cellulosic blends, etc. In all cases, substantial energy savings were realized. Since the issuance of the first and second interim reports, commercial practice of foam fabric finishing continues to grow with cumulative total estimated as approaching 200,000,000 yards. A number of companies are currently using foam fabric finishing as a commercial production process. Additionally, the pilot range has been used to demonstrate foam fabric finishing to over twenty companies. The range has been used to demonstrate the foam acid dyeing of nylon carpets to several companies in this specialized area of textile processing. Active work still continues with these companies since the foam dyeing of carpets involves only about 1/5 the water used in the normal continuous dyeing of carpets. At the time of writing two carpet companies are actively working to evaluate foam dyeing on a mill scale. (LCL)
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Duke, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Application of solar energy to the supply of hot water for textile dyeing. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1978

Description: The operation of the solar process hot water system since installation on June 15, 1978 is discussed, including a number of technical problems with the system and with the data acquisition system. Testing and inspection routines are briefly described. The data acquisition system is described, and some performance data are given, particularly for the collectors. Thermal efficiencies are found to be significantly below the predicted values. Two typical collectors selected at random were removed and shipped to General Electric Valley Forge for detailed testing of individual collector performance and quantification of line losses. (LEW)
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat and waste heat recovery in the primary aluminum industry. Final report, September 1977-September 1978

Description: The results of a study entitled, Applications of Thermal Energy Storage to Process Heat and Waste Heat Recovery in the Primary Aluminum Industry are presented. In this preliminary study, a system has been identified by which the large amounts of low-grade waste energy in the primary pollution control system gas stream can be utilized for comfort heating in nearby communities. Energy is stored in the form of hot water, contained in conventional, insulated steel tanks, enabling a more efficient utilization of the constant energy source by the cyclical energy demand. Less expensive energy storage means (heated ponds, aquifers), when they become fully characterized, will allow even more cost-competitive systems. Extensive design tradeoff studies have been performed. These tradeoff studies indicate that a heating demand equivalent to 12,000 single-family residences can be supplied by the energy from the Intalco plant. Using a 30-year payback criterion (consistent with utility planning practice), the average cost of energy supplied over the system useful life is predicted at one-third the average cost of fossil fuel. The study clearly shows that the utilization of waste energy from aluminum plants is both technically and economically attractive. The program included a detailed survey of all aluminum plants within the United States, allowing the site specific analyses to be extrapolated to a national basis. Should waste heat recovery systems be implemented by 1985, a national yearly savings of 6.5 million barrels of oil can be realized.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Katter, L. B. & Hoskins, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ARDISC (Argonne Dispersion Code): computer programs to calculate the distribution of trace element migration in partially equilibrating media

Description: A computer program (ARDISC, the Argonne Dispersion Code) is described which simulates the migration of nuclides in porous media and includes first order kinetic effects on the retention constants. The code allows for different absorption and desorption rates and solves the coupled migration equations by arithmetic reiterations. Input data needed are the absorption and desorption rates, equilibrium surface absorption coefficients, flow rates and volumes, and media porosities.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Strickert, R; Friedman, A M & Fried, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Automated Array Assembly, phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1979

Description: This contract provides for the fabrication of modules from large area tandem junction cells (TJC). The key activities in this contract effort are a) Large Area TJC including cell design, process verification and cell fabrication and b) Tandem Junction Module (TJM) including definition of the cell-module interfaces, substrate fabrication, interconnect fabrication and module assembly. The overall goal is to advance solar cell module process technology to meet the 1986 goal of a production capability of 500 megawatts per year at a cost of less than $500 per peak kilowatt. This contract will focus on the Tandem Junction Module process. During this quarter, effort was focused on the design of a large area, approx. 36 cm/sup 2/, TJC and process verification runs. The large area TJC design was optimized for minimum I/sup 2/R power losses. In the TJM activity, the cell-module interfaces were defined, module substrates were formed and heat treated and clad metal interconnect strips were fabricated. All activities are on or ahead of schedule.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Carbajal, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basalt waste isolation program. Quarterly report, January 1, 1979--March 31, 1979

Description: During the quarter, progress was made in all areas of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. In the Geosciences, Hydrology, and Engineered Barriers areas, work continued on schedule aimed at being able to make a site selection decision in 1981, as scheduled. Emphasis continued to be placed on geologic mapping studies, on hydrologic data gathering, and on definitions of waste/basalt interactions and needed engineered barriers. Construction of the Near-Surface Test Facility was rescheduled to reflect tunnel design changes and previous quarter work delays. Progress at the end of the quarter was approximately on schedule and the rate of work was accelerating to better than scheduled due to some equipment improvements and tunnel design modifications. In the Engineering Testing area, design work, test planning, and fabrication of heaters and auxiliary equipment continued on schedule. In the Repository area, an Architect/Engineer Evaluation Board was formally designated by the US Department of Energy-Headquarters during October 1978. The evaluation board will select an architect/engineer for repository conceptual design with an option for follow-on Title I, Title II, and Title III engineering services. Selection will be completed by October 1979. Questionnaire information was received from a number of interested architect/engineer firms by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has been evaluated. Onsite visits with the qualified firms are scheduled during April 1979. In addition, repository preconceptual design studies continued on schedule with emphasis on compilation of repository functional design criteria by July 1979, and the repository preconceptual design report in August 1979. Twenty-nine documents were issued during the quarter. These documents are listed at the end of this report.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Deju, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic research projects

Description: The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Beam pulse length and guide field strength parameter study for the autoresonant acceleration proof-of-principle experiment

Description: Generator and diode problems have reduced electron beam parameters for the proof-of-principle autoresonant collective ion acceleration experiment from 3 MeV, 30 kA, and 200 ns to 2.25 MeV, 15 kA, and 100 ns. This reduction limits acceleration of hydrogen ions to about 4 MeV, if present experimental plans are followed. The output ion energy can be increased to a more acceptable level by reducing the electron beam radius at the diode and by accelerating ions in a weaker guide magnetic field. Analysis further suggests that preacceleration of ions is necessary for efficient trapping in the slow cyclotron waves. The maximum ion current is of order 15 A.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Godfrey, B.B. & Faehl, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biaxial creep-fatigue behavior of Type 316H stainless steel tube

Description: Biaxial creep-fatigue test data for Type 316 stainless steel tubes at 1100/sup 0/F for use in high-temperature components in solar central receivers are presented. The specimens were subjected to constant internal pressure and fluctuating axial strain with and without hold times in tension as well as compression. The results show that internal pressure significantly affects diametral ratchetting and axial stress range. Axial tensile hold is found to be more damaging than axial compressive hold even under a biaxial state of stress.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Majumdar, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography of GRASER research. Informal report

Description: The bibliography contains 161 references to literature on the problem of developing gamma-ray lasers or of observing stimulated emission or coherent spontaneous emission of nuclear gamma radiation, together with a number of references that deal with phenomena that are expected to be central to their realization. The period covered is 1917 through 1979.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Baldwin, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Botanical inventory of the Rocky Flats AEC site. Final report, April 29, 1976--July 31, 1977

Description: The present plant life of the Rocky Flats site and surrounding area was documented. This documentation is intended as a base-line description which may be used by researchers and managers. The analysis of natural vegetation, including plant species inventory, vegetation composition study, and identification of major environmental control factors at the Rocky Flats site provides a data base on which future environmental decisions concerning, for example, future construction and handling of disturbance on this site can be made. The establishment of morphological norms for potential plant indicators of mutagenic hazards serves as a start for development of a vegetation-based system for detection of possible changes in plant life induced by accidental plutonium release around the plant. This study is not directed towards assessing any past or present industrial impacts of plutonium processing. The principal products from the contract are a list of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, a 1:12,000 color vegetation map, five large scale (1:500) maps of special study and experimental areas, and a description of the morphological norms of two common vascular plant species.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Webber, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Calculation of laminar incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer during spherical annulus filling

Description: A method of computing laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer during the filling of a spherical annulus is presented. Transient fluid temperatures and heat flux rates in the spherical annulus are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a constant temperature inner sphere with heated water filling the annulus from the bottom. To achieve a solution, laminar axially symmetric flow is assumed and the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) free surface computational method is applied to this problem in spherical coordinates. Changes in the standard MAC treatment are incorporated and special methods for handling the free surface are introduced. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep and the governing equations are derived for variable fluid properties to allow an eddy viscosity turbulence model to be applied later. Calculations of velocity, temperature, and inner sphere heat flux in a spherical annulus of 139.7 mm inner radius, and 168.3 mm outer radius within an inlet tube diameter of 38.1 mm are presented.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Tuft, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Calculation of neutron cross sections on isotopes of yttrium and zirconium. [Multestep, Hauser-Feshbach calculations, pre-equtetrium corrections, 0. 001 to 20 MeV tables]

Description: Multistep Hauser-Feshbach calculations with preequilibrium corrections were made for neutron-induced reactions on yttrium and zirconium isotopes between 0.001 and 20 MeV. Recently new neutron cross-section data have been measured for unstable isotopes of these elements. These data, along with results from charged-particle simulation of neutron reactions, provide unique opportunities under which to test nuclear-model techniques and parameters in this mass region. A complete and consistent analysis of varied neutron reaction types using input parameters determined independently from additional neutron and charged-particle data. The overall agreement between calculations and a wide variety of experimental results available for these nuclei leads to increased confidence in calculated cross sections made where data are incomplete or lacking. 75 references.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Arthur, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Calorimetric assay of HTGR fuel samples

Description: A calorimeter using a neutron source was designed and fabricated by Mound Laboratory, according to ORNL specifications. A calibration curve of the device for HTGR standard fuel rods was experimentally determined. The precision of a single measurement at the 95% confidence level was estimated to be +-0.8 ..mu..W. For a fuel sample containing 0.3 g /sup 235/U and a neutron source containing 691 ..mu..g /sup 252/Cf, this represents a relative standard deviation of 0.5%. Measurement time was approximately 5.5 h per sample. Use of the calorimeter is limited by its relatively poor precision, long measurement time, manual sample changing, sensitivity to room environment, and possibility of accumulated dust blocking water flow through the calorimeter. The calorimeter could be redesigned to resolve most of these difficulties, but not without significant development work.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Allen, E. J.; McNeany, S. R. & Jenkins, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Catalyst and process development for the H/sub 2/ preparation from future fuel cell feedstocks. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1979

Description: Phase I of this contract, which involved preliminary catalyst and process evaluations, has been completed with a decision to pursue an autothermal type reforming process in which the reactants, steam and oil, are preheated to reacting temperature by partial oxidation of the reactants over a monolithic catalyst upstream of the high temperature steam reformer. Five commercial steam reforming catalysts were evaluated in short tests to indicate initial aging. Methane leakage in the range of 2.4 to 3.1% was noted with these catalysts in the hydrogen assisted steam reforming of No. 2 oil at about 1650/sup 0/F. An experimental Engelhard catalyst was slightly more active than the commercial catalysts with a methane leakage of about 1.2% under similar conditions. The catalytic partial oxidation of No. 2 oil was carried out over a monolithic catalyst containing Pt/Pd/Rh. At the space velocities used, some light hydrocarbon leakage was noted. However, operation without carbon plugging in the monolith was accomplished at an O/sub 2//C molar ratio of 0.31. The results from these runs with No. 2 oil are being used to design an autothermal reactor with a monolithic catalytic partial oxidation preheater. Pure methanol was steamed reformed over a commercial low temperature shift catalyst at 525/sup 0/F in a 900 hour aging run. Methanol conversion was essentially 100% throughout the period of the test. In the presence of 5% higher alcohols, the low temperature shift catalyst is rapidly deactivated. The use of Pd/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst upstream of the shift catalyst was not effective in preventing this deactivation with this very high level of higher alcohols.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Yarrington, R M; Feins, I R; Hwang, H S & Mayer, C P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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