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Metallurgical Laboratory, Chemical Research - Radiation Chemistry, Report for the Period Ending January 15, 1945

Description: Technical report with short reports covering (1) Effect of radiation on water and aqueous systems; (2) Effect of neutrons on graphite; (3) Effect of radiation on solid compounds; and (4) Scattering, stopping-power, ion-pair production, etc.
Date: February 1, 1945
Creator: Burton, Milton, 1902- & Allen, A. O. (Augustine O.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High Frequency Induction Heating

Description: Abstract: Equations are given to calculate at least approximately the heating in solid and hollow cylinders, slabs and spheres. Short and long cylinders are treated as well as short and long solenoids. The complicated mathematics used to derive the equations given will be omitted as they may be found in the original references. Heating with a spark gap converter is covered. Equations are given which together with some experimental data should enable the reader to predict the efficiency, heating, or temperature to be expected as the charge or coil is changed. Units and conversion factors are mentioned briefly.
Date: February 1, 1947
Creator: Bromley, LeRoy A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Experimental Approach to a Simplified Band Structure of the Rare Earth Metals

Description: Technical report. From Abstract : "A number of the physical properties from which we can obtain both direct and indirect information concerning the band structures of metals, have been measured for most of the rare earth metals. It was thought that it would be desirable to review ans examine these data and try to tie them together. For this purpose the very low and room temperature heat capacities, Hall coefficients, magnetic susceptibilities, spectral data and electrical resistivities were examined."
Date: February 1, 1964
Creator: Gschneider, Karl A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hazards Report for Step Transient Loading Tests on the SM-1 : Task XII

Description: Abstract: This technical report evaluates hazards involved with SM- 1 plant response and system performance tests (Task XII), to determine the response of the SM-1 plant to step electrical and steam load changes. The report describes the changes in plant equipment and operating procedures for this task and evaluates these changes for possible additional hazards to those described in APAE No. 2, Revision 1, "Hazards Summary Report for the Army Package Power Reactor SM-1."
Date: February 1, 1962
Creator: Pomeroy, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dynamics of the Supercritical Water Reactor

Description: From introduction: "The work described in this report was carried out as part of the feasibility study (ORNL-117) of a supercritical water reactor (SCWR) for use in nuclear propulsion of aircraft. The object of this work was to study the dynamic behavior of a particular design of supercritical water reactor. Numerical results are presented in Appendix I."
Date: February 1, 1953
Creator: Goertzel, Gerald, 1919-; Shapiro, Mathew M. & Soodak, Harry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Elastic p-/sup 4/He scattering near 1 GeV

Description: New 1.029 GeV p-/sup 4/He data from an Argonne-UCLA-Minnesota collaboration are in excellent agreement with existing multiple diffraction theory predictions. The theoretical calculation includes spin and isospin dependence of the ..delta.. intermediate state process that fills the first diffraction minimum. The recently normalized Saclay data and the older Brookhaven data disagree with our calculation and the new data.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Wallace, S. J. & Alexander, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Directional growth of pearlite in iron--carbon eutectoid alloys. [Rate]

Description: Pearlite was transformed directionally by passing a zone of austenite through high purity Fe--C alloy bars of eutectoid composition. Using a small embedded thermocouple, the temperature gradient at both the austenitizing edge and the pearlite transformation edge of the austenitic zone was recorded. A sharp change in gradient occurred due to the change in thermal conductivity between the phases at each interface. The point of change in gradient enabled the temperature of both interfaces to be determined as a function of velocity. It was found that the undercooling of the pearlite transformation interface below the eutectoid temperature was quadratically dependent on the velocity of transformation. No superheating at the austenitizing interface was observed. Interlamellar spacing measurements of pearlite showed an inverse quadratic dependence of spacing on velocity. These two results are compared with theory. Volume diffusion of carbon through austenite adequately describes the kinetics of the decomposition of austenite to pearlite although extrapolated carbon diffusivities from high temperature austenite data are a factor of 2 to 4 too small. The interlamellar spacing of pearlite and the pearlite transformation interface temperature as a function of velocity are compared to other constant velocity transformation studies as well as isothermal investigations. Results of these comparisons indicate that pearlite forms via the same kinetics either isothermally or at constant velocity. The maximum rate at which pearlite can be forced to grow continuously under forced velocity conditions is shown to be approximately 100 ..mu..m/sec.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Pearson, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Methods for the isolation and identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in complex mixtures and the determination of their possible toxicity by means of a host mediated bioassay technique. Progress report, July 1, 1976--February 1, 1977. [Cultured mouse leumemia cell bioassay system]

Description: Techniques were developed to produce excellent high performance glass capillary columns for gas chromatographic analyses of a wide range of complex mixtures of organic compounds, including those containing a wide array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) derived from a coal liquefaction process. Work was begun to assess the potential mutogenicity and/or carcinogenicity of the various isolated PAH fractions utilizing a unique host mediated bioassay system. Preliminary results indicate that further efforts will be required to determine dose response parameters of cultured mouse leukemia cells, as well as suitable vehicles for the satisfactory introduction of certain PAH fractions into this particular bioassay system.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Lipsky, S. R.; Alexander, G.; McMurray, W. & Capizzi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ultraprecise parabolic interpolator for numerically controlled machine tools. [Digital differential analyzer circuit]

Description: The mathematical basis for an ultraprecise digital differential analyzer circuit for use as a parabolic interpolator on numerically controlled machines has been established, and scaling and other error-reduction techniques have been developed. An exact computer model is included, along with typical results showing tracking to within an accuracy of one part per million.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Davenport, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Some alternatives to the mixed oxide fuel cycle

Description: While on initial examination each of the six fuel cycle concepts (tandem cycle, extended burnup, fuel rejuvenation, coprocessing, partial reprocessing, and thorium) described in the report may have some potential for improving safeguards, none of the six appears to have any other major or compelling advantages over the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle. Compared to the MOX cycle, all but coprocessing appear to have major disadvantages, including severe cost penalties. Three of the concepts-tandem, extended burnup, and rejuvenation--share the basic problems of the throwaway cycle (GESMO Alternative 6): without reprocessing, high-level waste volumes and costs are substantially increased, and overall uranium utilization decreases for three reasons. First, the parasitic fission products left in the fuel absorb neutrons in later irradiation steps reducing the overall neutronic efficiencies of these cycles. Second, discarded fuel still has sufficient fissile values to warrant recycle. Third, perhaps most important, the plutonium needed for breeder start-up will not be available; without the breeder, uranium utilization would drop by about a factor of sixty. Two of the concepts--coprocessing and partial reprocessing--involve variations of the basic MOX fuel cycle's chemical reprocessing step to make plutonium diversion potentially more difficult. These concepts could be used with the MOX fuel cycle or in conjunction with the tandem, extended burnup and rejuvenation concepts to eliminate some of the problems with those cycles. But in so doing, the basic impetus for those cycles--elimination of reprocessing for safeguards purposes--no longer exists. Of all the concepts considered, only coprocessing--and particularly the ''master blend'' version--appears to have sufficient promise to warrant a more detailed study. The master blend concept could possibly make plutonium diversion more difficult with minimal impact on the reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication operations.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Deonigi, D. E.; Eschbach, E. A.; Goldsmith, S.; Pankaskie, P. J.; Rohrmann, C. A. & Widrig, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Influence of strain rate and temperature on the yield and fracture toughness behavior of selected steels for an LMFBR spent fuel shipping cask, a literature assessment

Description: The literature has been reviewed to determine the possible influences of strain rate and temperature on the yield and fracture toughness behavior of selected steels suggested for use in an LMFBR Spent Fuel Shipping Cask. Based on this information, recommendations have been made for further work which is intended to alleviate potential problems prior to their having a major impact on the shipping cask program.
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Rack, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Collisional effects on trapped electron instabilities

Description: The effects of collisions on dissipative trapped electron instabilities are evaluated by distinguishing between the perpendicular and parallel electron velocity components when calculating trapped and untrapped electron contributions. The growth rate is obtained for all regimes of collisionality and reduces to previous results in appropriate limits. We show that the dominant effect of finite collisionality is to determine the number of trapped and untrapped electrons and that collisional broadening removes the resonant electron response only for collision frequencies greater than or equal to ten times the wave frequency, ..nu../sub e/ greater than or equal to 10 ..omega... For such large ..nu../sub e//..omega.., ion-ion collisions are found to exert a far stronger stabilizing influence than broadening.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Tsang, K. T.; Callen, J. D. & Catto, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Irradiation performance of HTGR fertile fuel in HFIR target capsules HT-12 through HT-15. Part I. Experiment description and fission product behavior

Description: Sixteen types of Biso-coated designs, on ThO/sub 2/ kernels, were irradiated in High Flux Isotope Reactor target capsules HT-12 through HT-15. The report addresses the description of the experiment and extensive postirradiation analyses and experiments to determine fertile-particle burnup, fuel coating failures, and fission product behavior. Several low-temperature isotropic (LTI) pyrocarbon coatings, which ''survived'' according to visual inspection, were shown to have developed permeability during irradiation. These particles were irradiated at temperatures approximately equal to 1250/sup 0/C and to burnups equal to or greater than 8 percent fission per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). No evidence of permeability was found in similar particles irradiated at temperatures approximately equal to 1550/sup 0/C and burnups approximately equal to 16 percent FIMA. Failures due to permeability were not detectable by visual inspection but required a more extensive investigation by the 1000/sup 0/C gaseous chlorine leaching technique. Maximum particle surface operating temperatures were found to be approximately 300/sup 0/C in excess of design limits of 900/sup 0/C (low-temperature magazines) and 1250/sup 0/C (high-temperature magazines). The extremes of high temperatures and fast neutron fluences up to 1.6 x 10/sup 22/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ produced severe degradation and swelling of the Poco graphite magazines and sample holders.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Kania, M. J.; Lindemer, T. B.; Morgan, M. T. & Robbins, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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NDA technology for uranium resource evaluation. [ONETRAN]

Description: The following progress report describes the work performed during the first quarter on the contract for NDA Technology for Uranium Resource Evaluation. The initial phases of the work focused on gamma-ray calculations and computer code modifications in support of borehole logging measurements and surface gamma-ray surveys. The existing gamma-ray transport computer codes at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are being modified to give the energy group resolution desired for the uranium calculations. Monte Carlo computer calculations have been compared with the discrete ordinates ONETRAN code results for simple cases to gain confidence in the results. Preliminary calculations have been performed to investigate the applicability of transport and Monte Carlo computer calculations to uranium ore measurements. Feasibility studies are in progress to investigate the use of a photoneutron source for direct measurement of the uranium concentration surrounding a borehole. An /sup 124/Sb-Be neutron source was used for the initial laboratory test experiments, and a /sup 4/He gas proportional counter was used to count the induced prompt fission neutrons. A new approach is being investigated for producing photoneutrons by means of converting a beta-decay source to a bremsstrahlung spectrum.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Menlove, H. O. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Photo-induced cataphoretic isotope separation. Progress report, June 15, 1976--June 14, 1977. [Monoisotope light sources]

Description: Initial results of studies of the feasibility of radiation-induced cataphoretic segregation of isotopes are summarized. More detailed feasibility calculations show that significant isotope separation efficiencies can be obtained for discharges at low pressure. This may make it desirable to use a buffer gas in the discharge in order to manipulate the electron energy distribution. Requirements for the properties of the buffer gas have been established. The experimental system for studying laser-induced cataphoretic separation of neon isotopes has been completed. Preliminary studies show that the system is capable of detecting less than 1% change in the Ne/sup 20//Ne/sup 22/ isotope ratio. It is anticipated that a systematic study can be made with respect to the photo-induced isotope separation efficiency in about three months. The other experimental system relates to the separation of mercury isotopes in a direct current gaseous discharge using radiation from external monoisotopic mercury light sources. Initial experimental feasibility studies of this technique are expected to be started after about three months. The ultra-high vacuum and gas handling system has been completed.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Carruthers, J. A.; Chanin, L. M. & Oskam, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Microinstabilities in Complex Magnetic Field Geometries and High- Beta. Sheared Sheath Structure. Progress Report, June 1, 1975--February 27, 1976

Description: A new approach for the solution of the Vlasov equation for complex magnetic field geometries has been developed using operator techniques. The general approach is illustrated by determining the perturbed distribution function and density operator for the problem of shear stabilization of drift waves for transverse and arbitrary directions of propagation. The ensuing corrections to stability criteria of current theories are obtained for certain domains of physical parameters. Preliminary work on the integral equation approach to the dispersion relation has been initiated. As a prelude to the study of particle orbits in complex mirror geometries, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic behavior of a harmonic oscillator has been studied using operator methods. High-..beta.., high shear plasma sheath configurations have been studied with the full ion dynamics taken into account and electrons treated in the zero and first order approximation, in the ratio of the electron Larmor radius to the scale length. The resulting sheath structure equation in the lowest order approximation has been solved for certain entering ion distributions, and prepared for computer analysis for others. In this approximation the electron current parallel to magnetic field lines has to be assumed suppressed or predetermined. Equations in the next order approximation include the finite Larmor radius stress tensor. This equation is under study.
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Bakshi, P. & Kalman, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Transient response of three-layered rings

Description: Hamilton's principle is used to derive equations of motion for a linear elastic three-layered ring. The theory includes the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia in each layer and radial strain effects in the middle layer. A convenient computational technique is developed for transient response evaluation without resorting to finite-difference or finite-element approximations. A companion experimental study was conducted using three different rings. All rings had aluminum inner and outer layers, but each had a different low-modulus middle layer. Radial impulse loads, axisymmetric and distributed as a cosine over half the ring circumference, were applied to the outer ring surface, and the transient response was monitored with strain gages mounted on the aluminium layers. Measured strain-time histories were compared with theoretical calculations, and good agreement was obtained.
Date: February 1, 1975
Creator: Sagartz, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Estimation of gas leak rates through very small orifices and channels. [From sealed PuO/sub 2/ containers under accident conditions]

Description: As a result of a literature search, equations have been compiled for estimating the flow rates of pure gases through very small orifices and capillaries. Such equations might be useful in establishing upper limits of leak rates from sealed PuO/sub 2/ containers under accident conditions.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Bomelburg, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Supporting documents for LLL area 27 (410 area) safety analysis reports, Nevada Test Site

Description: The following appendices are common to the LLL Safety Analysis Reports Nevada Test Site and are included here as supporting documents to those reports: Environmental Monitoring Report for the Nevada Test Site and Other Test Areas Used for Underground Nuclear Detonations, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Rept. EMSL-LV-539-4 (1976); Selected Census Information Around the Nevada Test Site, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Rept. NERC-LV-539-8 (1973); W. J. Hannon and H. L. McKague, An Examination of the Geology and Seismology Associated with Area 410 at the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-51830 (1975); K. R. Peterson, Diffusion Climatology for Hypothetical Accidents in Area 410 of the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-52074 (1976); J. R. McDonald, J. E. Minor, and K. C. Mehta, Development of a Design Basis Tornado and Structural Design Criteria for the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-13668 (1975); A. E. Stevenson, Impact Tests of Wind-Borne Wooden Missiles, Sandia Laboratories, Tonopah, Rept. SAND 76-0407 (1976); and Hydrology of the 410 Area (Area 27) at the Nevada Test Site.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Odell, B. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ANL ITER high-heat-flux blanket-module heat transfer experiments

Description: An Argonne National Laboratory facility for conducting tests on multilayered slab models of fusion blanket designs is being developed; some of its features are described. This facility will allow testing under prototypic high heat fluxes, high temperatures, thermal gradients, and variable mechanical loadings in a helium gas environment. Steady and transient heat flux tests are possible. Electrical heating by a two-sided, thin stainless steel (SS) plate electrical resistance heater and SS water-cooled cold panels placed symmetrically on both sides of the heater allow achievement of global one-dimensional heat transfer across blanket specimen layers sandwiched between the hot and cold plates. The heat transfer characteristics at interfaces, as well as macroscale and microscale thermomechanical interactions between layers, can be studied in support of the ITER engineering design effort. The engineering design of the test apparatus has shown that it is important to use multidimensional thermomechanical analysis of sandwich-type composites to adequately analyze heat transfer. This fact will also be true for the engineering design of ITER.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Kasza, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Three-body approach to the single scattering optical potential. [Watson and KMT multiple scattering theory]

Description: The single scattering optical potential was in the multiple scattering approaches of Watson and KMT. Since the kinematics of single scattering is three-body in nature, one builds a three-body model of this term. This approach can include the proper kinematics for the struck nucleon, the identity of the target nucleons, and the binding interaction of the struck nucleon. Integral equations of the Faddeev type are derived for both the Watson and KMT single scattering optical potentials. Unitarity relations are investigated and one observes that these relations can be expanded in order to identify the intermediate states responsible for the absorptive parts. The transition amplitudes to the inelastic states implicit in the model are extracted and evaluated. This permits one to understand the physical meaning of the imaginary part in precise terms. The same procedure is applied to the closure and impulse approximations for the single scattering term and their implicit inelastic states and reaction amplitudes are identified. These approximations are evaluated by analyzing the inelastic data. It is concluded that the impulse approximation to the Watson single scattering term should provide the best two-body approximation to a single-scattering optical potential.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Tandy, P. C.; Redish, E. F. & Bolle, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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