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Theory of ordering transformations in metals and minerals

Description: This dissertation presents an investigation of ordering in FCC based systems using the pair potential approximation in the ground state and mean field limits. The theoretical approach is used to explain the occurrence of observed equilibrium phases and characteristics of thermodynamic instabilities, in particular, spinodal ordering and decomposition. It is shown that the stability of non-integer domain sizes in long period superstructures such as Al{sub 3}Ti and Ag{sub 3}Mg may result from the tendency of a system to reduce the number of non-dominant ordering waves, thus producing domain sizes that have rational fraction form n/m. This conclusion is used to explain the domain size stability with respect to variations in temperature and electron concentration. The cation ordering in the precipitate phases in calcite and dolomite is analyzed by analogy with ordering in FCC based metals. The ordered phases in calcite and dolomite are shown to be consistent with pair potential minima at {l brace}100{r brace} and {l brace}1/2, 1/2, 1/2{r brace} positions in reciprocal space respectively. 32 refs., 6 figs.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Lindsey, Timothy Francis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparative Labor Policy in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 1961-1987

Description: It is increasingly recognized that manpower planning and policies are a major component of a country's development efforts. The purpose of this study is to examine the labor market in Jordan and to identify the main determinants of employment (labor force) during the period from 1961 to 1987 in order to advise policy makers as to the best course of action to achieve full employment. This period was divided into two periods: 1961 to 1972 and 1973 to 1987 for comparative purposes. The socio-economic and political framework of the labor market, as well as the labor policies during the period were examined in an effort to determine the determinants affecting the labor market in the two periods. The findings of this study reveal that Jordan's labor market and policies over the last three decades have been influenced by changes and events not only in Jordan, but by changes and events in the entire region. The study also indicates that factors influencing the labor market differ under different conditions. The impact of the independent variables tested in this study differ between the two periods, 1961 to 1972 and 1973 to 1987. Policy which may serve the country's best interest during the time of instability and crisis may not be in the country's best interest in time of stability and peace.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Dwairi, Musa A. (Musa Ayesh)
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Interpretation of time domain electromagnetic soundings near geological contacts

Description: Lateral changes in geology pose a serious problem in data interpretation for any surface geophysical method. Although many geophysical techniques are designed to probe vertically, the source signal invariably spreads laterally, so any lateral variations in geology will affect the measurements and interpretation. This problem is particularly acute for controlled source electromagnetic soundings because only a few techniques are available to interpret the data if lateral effects are present. In this thesis we examine the effects of geological contacts for the time domain electromagnetic sounding method (TDEM). Using two simple two-dimensional models, the truncated thin-sheet and the quarter-space, we examine the system response for several commonly used TDEM sounding configurations. For each system we determine the sensitivity to the contact, establish how to the contact anomaly may be distinguished from other anomalies and, when feasible, develop methods for interpreting the contact geometry and for stripping the contact anomaly from the observed data. Since no numerical models were available when this work was started, data were collected using scale models with a system designed at the University of California at Berkeley. The models were assembled within a table-top modeling tank from sheets or blocks of metal using air or mercury as a host medium. Data were collected with a computer-controlled acquisition system.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Wilt, Michael Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cracking behavior of cored structures

Description: The effects of compositional gradients, are considered based on a thermodynamic analysis, referred to as the Cahn-Hillard analysis, which describes the degree to which a local surface energy is modified by the presence of a composition gradient. The analysis predicts that both ductile and brittle fracture mechanisms are enhanced by the presence of a composition gradient. Data on stress corrosion cracking and fatigue crack growth in selected FCC alloys are used to illustrate the significance of microsegregation on mechanical properties.
Date: September 1991
Creator: Wahid, A.; Olson, D.L.; Matlock, D.K. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Welding and Joining Research) & Kelly, T.J. (General Electric Aircraft Engines, Evendale, OH (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Capacitance of edge plane of pyrolytic graphite in acetonitrile solutions

Description: The capacitance of the edge plane of pyrolytic graphite electrodes, in acetonitrile solutions, is measured by recording the current response to an applied triangular voltage sweep; TVS, and then fitting the current response with an appropriate function, (via a set of adjustable parameters). The pretreatment of the electrodes, the supporting electrolyte concentration used, and the frequency of the input TVS, were all found to affect the measured capacitance. In these experiments, a background current was also seen and the shape of the current output for the TVS; the charging/discharging curve, is shown to correlate with the magnitude of this background current. In addition, the size of the background current was found to have some dependence on the type of electrode pretreatment procedure used. 60 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Minick, S. K. & Ishida, Takanobu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

Description: A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Boussie, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The application of psoralens to the study of DNA structure, function and dynamics

Description: A series of six nitroxide spin-labeled psoralens were designed, synthesized and tested as probes for DNA dynamics. The synthesis of these spin-labeled psoralen derivatives and their photoreactivity with double-stranded DNA fragments is described. The spin labels (nitroxides) were demonstrated to survive the uv irradiation required to bind the probe to the target DNA. EPR spectra of the photobound spin-labels indicate that they do not wobble with respect to the DNA on the time-scales investigated. The author has used psoralen modified DNA as a model for the study of DNA repair enzyme systems in human cell free extracts. He has shown that damage-induced DNA synthesis is associated with removal of psoralen adducts and therefore is {open_quotes}repair synthesis{close_quotes} and not an aberrant DNA synthesis reaction potentiated by deformation of the DNA by adducts. He has found that all DNA synthesis induced by psoralen monoadducts is the consequence of removal of these adducts. By the same approach he has obtained evidence that this in vitro system is capable of removing psoralen cross-links as well. Reported here are synthetic methods that make use of high intensity lasers coupled with HPLC purification to make homogeneous and very pure micromole quantities of furan-side monoadducted, cross-linked, and pyrone-side monoadducted DNA oligonucleotide. These molecules are currently being studied by NMR and X-ray crystallography. The application of the site-specifically psoralen modified oligonucleotide synthesized by these methods to the construction of substrates for the investigation of DNA repair is also discussed.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Spielmann, P. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

Description: Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate ``fundamental`` limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Raubenheimer, T. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Potential energy surfaces and reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecules

Description: A simple empirical valence bond (EVB) model approach is suggested for constructing global potential energy surfaces for reactions of polyatomic molecular systems. This approach produces smooth and continuous potential surfaces which can be directly utilized in a dynamical study. Two types of reactions are of special interest, the unimolecular dissociation and the unimolecular isomerization. For the first type, the molecular dissociation dynamics of formaldehyde on the ground electronic surface is investigated through classical trajectory calculations on EVB surfaces. The product state distributions and vector correlations obtained from this study suggest very similar behaviors seen in the experiments. The intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in the formic acid dimer is an example of the isomerization reaction. High level ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are performed to obtain optimized equilibrium and transition state dimer geometries and also the harmonic frequencies.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Chang, Yan-Tyng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An amplitude analyses of the K K-bar system (M < 2 GeV/C{sup 2}) produced in J/{Psi} radiative decay

Description: Using the 5.8 {times} 10{sup 6} J/{psi} events collected by the MARK 3 experiment on the SPEAR e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring at SLAC, a mass independent amplitude analysis of the J/{psi} {yields} {gamma} K{sub s}K{sub s} and J/{psi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decays is presented. For K{bar K} systems having mass less than 2 GeV/c{sup 2}, the efficiency-corrected spherical harmonic moments of the J/{psi} joint decay angular distribution are measured. Fits are then performed in each independent mass interval in order to extract the underlying helicity amplitude structure; amplitudes describing K{bar K} systems of spin zero and spin two are included simultaneously. For the first time, a large spin zero component in the {theta}(1720) mass region is observed; consistent results are obtained for the data samples corresponding to the individual decay modes. This structure is attributed to the production of an S wave resonance, the f{sub 0}(1710), of mass and width M = 1710 {plus_minus} 10 MeV/c{sup 2}, {Gamma} = 186 {plus_minus} 30 MeV/c{sup 2}, respectively, with branching fraction Bf(J/{psi} {yields} {gamma}f{sub 0}, f{sub 0} {yields} K{bar K}) = (6.47 {plus_minus} 1.14 {plus_minus} 0.84) {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. A small amount ({approximately}24%) of spin two component in this mass region cannot be ruled out with the present statistics. These results revise the previous conclusion that the {theta}(1720) is a spin two resonance, a result obtained on the basis of spin hypothesis tests, which assumed that either pure spin zero or pure spin two states contribute in this mass region, but not both. The previous measurements of the f{sub 2}{prime} (1525) have been refined in the present analysis because of the simultaneous inclusion of spin zero and spin two amplitudes in the fit.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Chen, Liang-Ping
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

Description: The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Krebs, L. C. & Ishida, Takanobu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) ytterbium: Electron-transfer reactions with organotransition metal complexes

Description: The divalent lanthanide complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb, reacts with methylcopper to produce the base-free, ytterbium-methyl complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbMe. This product forms a asymmetric, methyl-bridged dimer in the solid state. The bulky alkyl complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbCH(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, displays similar chemistry to (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbMe, but at a reduced reaction rate due to the limited accessibility of the metal in (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbCH(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}. Copper and silver halide salts react with (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}V to produce the trivalent halide derivatives, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}VX (X + F, Cl, Br, I). The chloride complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}VCl, reacts with lithium reagents to form the phenyl and borohydride species. Nitrous oxide transfers an oxygen atom to (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}V producing the vanadium-oxo complex, (Me{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}){sub 2}VO. The trivalent titanium species, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}TiX (X = Cl, Br, Me, BH{sub 4}), form bimetallic coordination complexes with (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb. The magnetic behavior of the products indicates that electron transfer has not occurred. The solid state structures of the chloride and bromide complexes show unusual bend angles for the halide bridges between ytterbium and titanium. A model based on frontier orbital theory has been proposed to account for the bending behavior in these species. The bimetallic methyl complex contains a linear methyl bridge between ytterbium and titanium.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Matsunaga, P. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Quantum-limited detection of millimeter waves using superconducting tunnel junctions

Description: The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator- superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction is highly nonlinear. Such a nonlinearity can be used to mix two millimeter wave signals to produce a signal at a much lower intermediate frequency. We have constructed several millimeter and sub-millimeter wave SIS mixers in order to study high frequency response of the quasiparticle tunneling current and the physics of high frequency mixing. We have made the first measurement of the out-of-phase tunneling currents in an SIS tunnel junction. We have developed a method that allows us to determine the parameters of the high frequency embedding circuit by studying the details of the pumped I-V curve. We have constructed a 80--110 GHz waveguide-based mixer test apparatus that allows us to accurately measure the gain and added noise of the SIS mixer under test. Using extremely high quality tunnel junctions, we have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 {plus_minus} 0.36 quanta, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This measured performance is in excellent agreement with that predicted by Tucker`s theory of quantum mixing. We have also studied quasioptically coupled millimeter- and submillimeter-wave mixers using several types of integrated tuning elements. 83 refs.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Mears, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 238}U in heavy-ion collisions at 120 MeV/A

Description: This thesis describes a measurement of the heavy-ion induced electromagnetic dissociation of a 120 MeV/A {sup 238}U beam incident on five targets: {sup 9}Be, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, {sup nat}Ag, and {sup nat}U. Electromagnetic dissociation at this beam energy is essentially a two step process involving the excitation of a giant resonance followed by particle decay. At 120 MeV/A there is predicted to be a significant contribution of the giant quadrupole resonance to the EMD cross sections. The specific exit channel which was looked at was projectile fission. The two fission fragments were detected in coincidence by an array of solid-state {Delta}E-E detectors, allowing the changes of the fragments to be determined to within {plus_minus} .5 units. The events were sorted on the basis of the sums of the fragments` charges, acceptance corrections were applied, and total cross sections for the most peripheral events were determined. Electromagnetic fission at the beam energy of this experiment always leads to a true charge sum of 92. Due to the imperfect resolution of the detectors, charge sums of 91 and 93 were included in order to account for all of the electromagnetic fission events. The experimentally observed cross sections are due to nuclear interaction processes as well as electromagnetic processes. Under the conditions of this experiment, the cross sections for the beryllium target are almost entirely due to nuclear processes. The nuclear cross sections for the other four targets were determined by extrapolation from the beryllium data using a geometrical scaling model. After subtraction of the nuclear cross sections, the resulting electromagnetic cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations based on the equivalent photon approximation. Systematic uncertainties are discussed and suggestions for improving the experiment are given.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Justice, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

Description: This (<100 {Angstrom}) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 {times} r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm{sup 2} catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on ``Pt-on-alumina`` and on ``alumina-on-Pt`` are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Boszormenyi, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Quaternary tectonics and basin history of Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California

Description: The Pahrump fault system is an active fault system located in Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California, in the southern part of the Basin and Range Province. This system is 50 km long by 30 km wide and is comprised of three fault zones: the right-lateral East Nopah fault zone, the right-oblique Pahrump Valley fault zone, and the normal West Spring Mountains fault zone. All three zones have geomorphic evidence for late Quaternary activity. Analysis of active fault patterns and seismic reflection lines suggests that the Pahrump basin has had a two-stage genesis, an early history associated with a period of low angle detachment faulting probably active 10-15 Ma, and a more recent history related to the present dextral shear system, probably active post-4 Ma.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Hoffard, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Spatially variant tomographic imaging: Estimation, identification, and optimization

Description: This thesis is an investigation of methods for processing multidimensional signals acquired using modern tomography systems that have an anisotropic or spatially variant response function. The main result of this research is the discovery of a new method to obtain better estimators of an unknown spatial intensity distribution by incorporating detailed knowledge about the tomograph system response function and statistical properties of the acquired signal into a mathematical model.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Baker, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Imaging earth`s interior: Tomographic inversions for mantle P-wave velocity structure

Description: A formalism is developed for the tomographic inversion of seismic travel time residuals. The travel time equations are solved both simultaneously, for velocity model terms and corrections to the source locations, and progressively, for each set of terms in succession. The methods differ primarily in their treatment of source mislocation terms. Additionally, the system of equations is solved directly, neglecting source terms. The efficacy of the algorithms is explored with synthetic data as we perform simulations of the general procedure used to produce tomographic images of Earth`s mantle from global earthquake data. The patterns of seismic heterogeneity in the mantle that would be returned reliably by a tomographic inversion are investigated. We construct synthetic data sets based on real ray sampling of the mantle by introducing spherical harmonic patterns of velocity heterogeneity and perform inversions of the synthetic data.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Pulliam, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Surface Science Investigation of Silicon Carbide: Oxidation, Crystal Growth and Surface Structural Analysis

Description: For the semiconductor SiC to fulfill its potential as an electronic material, methods must be developed to produce insulating surface oxide layers in a reproducible fashion. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the oxidation of single crystal {alpha}-SiC over a wide temperature and O{sub 2} pressure range. The {alpha}-SiC surface becomes graphitic at high temperatures and low O{sub 2} pressures due to Si and SiO sublimation from the surface. Amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layers from on {alpha}-SiC at elevated O{sub 2} pressures and temperatures. Both the graphitization and oxidation of {alpha}-SiC appears to be enhanced by surface roughness. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is currently the preferred method of producing single crystal SiC, although the method is slow and prone to contamination. We have attempted to produce SiC films at lower temperatures and higher deposition rates using plasma enhanced CVD with CH{sub 3}SiH{sub 3}. Scanning AES, XPS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the composition and morphology of the deposited Si{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} films as a function of substrate temperature, plasma power and ion flux bombardment of the film during deposition. High energy ion bombardment during deposition was found to increase film density and substrate adhesion while simultaneously reducing hydrogen and oxygen incorporation in the film. Under all deposition conditions the Si{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} films were found to be amorphous, with the ion bombarded films showing promise as hard protective coatings. Studies with LEED and AES have shown that {beta}-SiC (100) exhibits multiple surface reconstructions, depending on the surface composition. These surface reconstructions possess substantially different surface reactivities at elevated temperatures, which can complicate the fabrication of metal on SiC junctions.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Powers, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AC microcalorimetry of adsorbates on evaporated metal films: Orientational ordering of H₂ multilayers

Description: We have improved and extended a novel ac calorimetric technique for measuring the heat capacity of adsorbates on evaporated metal films. Metallic substrates are of particular interest in current studies of the thermodynamics of adsorbed molecules. The method described in the present work is only calorimetric technique which allows measurements of molecules on simple metallic surfaces. Among other improvements, we have achieved significant progress in the preparation and characterization of the evaporated metal film. We have applied this novel technique to a study of hydrogen multilayers on gold and sapphire substrates. We have shown that samples of normal-hydrogen with a nominal coverage n of approximately 25 monolayers (ML) undergo a bulk-like orientational ordering transition. The transition is suppressed as the coverage is decreased, and no sign of the transition remains above 1.6 K for n {approx} 1 ML. For n {approx_lt} 8 ML, the peak in the heat capacity exhibits signs of finite-size effects. At higher coverages, finite-size effects are not observed, and the shape of the peak depends strongly on the substrate. We conclude that the peak is inhomogeneously broadened for n {approx_lt} 8 ML. This work represents the first measurements of the heat capacity due to orientational ordering in adsorbed hydrogen. The results of an earlier experiment involving vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules are included in the Appendix. In this work, we have used infrared emission spectroscopy to study the spectral region in the vicinity of the C=O stretch vibration of bridge-bonded CO on Pt(111).
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Phelps, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Optical pumping and xenon NMR

Description: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping {sup 129}Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the {sup 131}Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Raftery, M. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

Description: An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute {gamma}-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Levy, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnetic flux noise in copper oxide superconductors

Description: Magnetic flux noise and flux creep in thin films and single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x}, Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, and TlCa{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are measured with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The noise power spectrum generally scales as 1/f (f is frequency) from 1 Hz to 1 kHz, increases with temperature, and decreases in higher-quality films. It is proportional to the magnetic field B in which the sample is cooled, at least in the range 0.1 mT < B < 3 mT. A model of thermally activated vortex motion is developed which explains the dependence of the noise on frequency, temperature, current, and applied magnetic field. The pinning potential is idealized as an ensemble of double wells, each with a different activation energy separating the two states. From the noise measurements, this model yields the distribution of pinning energies in the samples, the vortex hopping distance, the number density of mobile vortices, and the restoring force on a vortex at a typical pinning site. The distribution of pinning energies in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} shows a broad peak below 0.1 eV. The small ambient magnetic field, and the detection of noise even in the absence of a driving force, insure that the measured pinning energies are characteristic of isolated vortices near thermal equilibrium. The observed vortex density in fields much less than 0.1 mT is too large to be explained by the ambient field, suggesting a mechanism intrinsic to the sample which produces trapped vortices.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Ferrari, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mass and charge distributions in chlorine-induced nuclear reactions

Description: Projectile-like fragments were detected and characterized in terms of A, Z, and energy for the reactions {sup 37}Cl on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 209}Bi at E/A = 7.3 MeV, and {sup 35}Cl, on {sup 209}Bi at E/A = 15 MeV, at angles close to the grazing angle. Mass and charge distributions were generated in the N-Z plane as a function of energy loss, and have been parameterized in terms of their centroids, variances, and coefficients of correlation. Due to experimental problems, the mass resolution corresponding to the {sup 31}Cl on {sup 209}Bi reaction was very poor. This prompted the study and application of a deconvolution technique for peak enhancement. The drifts of the charge and mass centroids for the system {sup 37}Cl on {sup 40}Ca are consistent with a process of mass and charge equilibration mediated by nucleon exchange between the two partners, followed by evaporation. The asymmetric systems show a strong drift towards larger asymmetry, with the production of neutron-rich nuclei. It was concluded that this is indicative of a net transfer of protons from the light to the heavy partner, and a net flow of neutrons in the opposite direction. The variances for all systems increase with energy loss, as it would be expected from a nucleon exchange mechanism; however, the variances for the reaction {sup 37}Cl on {sup 40}Ca are higher than those expected from that mechanism. The coefficients of correlation indicate that the transfer of nucleons between projectile and target is correlated. The results were compared to the predictions of two current models based on a stochastic nucleon exchange mechanism. In general, the comparisons between experimental and predicted variances support this mechanism; however, the need for more realistic driving forces in the model calculations is indicated by the disagreement between predicted and experimental centroids.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Marchetti, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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