Search Results

Development of an Instrument for Evaluation of a Management Education Program

Description: This study was designed to develop a rating instrument to measure the effectiveness of the first phase of management education for an Air Force officer, An officer's ability to lead, the first objective of management training, is intrinsically related to the ability to write, speak, and solve problems. These were behaviorally stated in a 60 item survey. Supervisors (N = 174) were asked to rate the frequency of occurrence of these behaviors for a subordinate. The survey was administered on two occasions to supervisors of officers eligible for training. Item analysis of the results reflected a strong favorable response bias with usable variability. Data indicated the instrument was a unidimensional internally consistent scale.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Ballentine, Rodger D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Precluding the S- in Establishing Color Discriminations in Autistic Children

Description: A procedure in which the S- was prevented from being responded to, by electro-magnets, was used to establish color discriminations. The procedure was modified in Situation 1, to include the prevention of responses to the S+ if the S- was responded to first. The original procedure and modified procedure were used in Situation 1, with only the modified procedure being used in Situations 2 and 3. The procedure of reinforcing responses to the S+ and extinguishing responses to the S-, through nonreinforcement, was used in Situation 4. Data recorded consisted of the number of trials, the number of reinforcements, and which stimulus was first responded to. Criteria for the acquisition of a discrimination was 100 first responses to the S+. Results indicated that the modified procedure was much more effective in establishing the discriminations, than the original procedure or the procedure of reinforcing responses to the S+ and extinguishing responses to the S-. The modified procedure enhanced the establishment of stimulus control, reduced the number of errors and eliminated stereotyped responses.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Buck, Raymond W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting Success and Failure in Life Insurance Sales: A Comparison of Three Psychological Methods

Description: The marketing of personnel assessment services by a variety of individuals and groups has developed into a highly competitive, somewhat unstable, and unusually controversial major American merchandising effort. This study contains a review of the promotional materials and activities of several commercial assessment organizations. Emphasis has been placed upon various "scientific breakthroughs" in the field, including, when possible, the descriptive as well as the predictive utilities that are claimed to result from their use. Three procedures were studied under actual industrial conditions, using tenure and productivity measures as criteria. None of the procedures was found to be significantly predictive in this instance.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Dudley, George W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Susceptibility to Learned Helplessness

Description: A fifty-item questionnaire, representing personality attributes related to behaviors used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness, was administered to 152 undergraduate students. Based upon factor analysis of the results, six subscales were developed to predict latency of response, failures to solve, and trials to task criterion of anagram solving, this being used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness. The subscales comprised a ninety-item questionnaire given to seventy-seven undergraduate students three days before participation in the experiment proper. The subjects attempted to solve Levine (1971) discrimination problems (designed to be insolvable) and then attempted to solve patterned anagrams. Contrary to the learned helpless model of depression (Miller and Seligman, 1973), depression was curvilinearly related to latency of response and failures to solve in the anagram task. In addition, internal locus of control was linearly related to trials to criterion.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Foelker, George A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Theories Contrasted: Rudy's Variability in the Associative Process (V.A.P.) and Martin's Encoding Variability

Description: A paired-associate list of three-word stimuli and one-word responses comprised the first list of an A-B, A-Br paradigm. Each of the three words from the first-list three-word stimuli was singly re-paired with first-list responses to make up three of the second-list conditions. The fourth second-list condition used the first-list stimuli plus re-paired first-list responses. Results obtained were that: (a) nine of the sixteen subjects spontaneously shifted encoding cues from first to second lists, (b) evidence of significantly greater negative transfer occurred only in the A-B, A1 2 3-Br condition, and (c) although not attaining significance level, across all A -Br conditions there were more errors on second-list learning for those not shifting encoding cues from first to second list. For those who did shift, performance was only slightly lower than the A-B, C-B control condition. Neither the encoding variability nor the associative variability theory was entirely supported. A gestalt interpretation was suggested.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Fuhr, Susan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Self-Control Approach to Weight Control

Description: A strategy for facilitating post-treatment weight maintenance was examined. Subjects were matched for age, sex, and amount of weight that they desired to lose and were then assigned to one of two groups. Both groups were under contracts and had individually designed self-control programs for weight loss, but subjects in the experimental group lost weight in small steps and subjects in the control group lost weight continuously. The experimental group was predicted to have better weight maintenance after treatment because of a greater number of reinforcements for weight loss. Two-month follow-up data was obtained on the ten subjects who completed the study, and the experimental group was found to have regained significantly less than the control group after treatment ended. The implications of these results for obesity research are discussed.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Gardner, Jimmy N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sex Dimension of the Dogmatism Scale: A Factor Analysis

Description: The problem of this study was to factor-analyze Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and examine the factor structures of the scale for differences in the solutions obtained for the male and female groups. It was hypothesized that the Dogmatism Scale consists of several discriminable dimensions of the construct dogmatism and that these dimensions differ significantly for males and females. The dogmatism scale was administered to 186 male and 115 female college students. The male and female solutions yielded thirteen and sixteen orthogonal factors, respectively. Six male factors and eleven female factors were unique to their respective sex groups, indicating that the Dogmatism Scale is multidimensional and that significant sex differences are found when these dimensions are examined.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Gordon, William Knox
Partner: UNT Libraries

Repression-Sensitization and External-Internal Dimensions of Millon's Personality Typology

Description: In a study using 73 females and 30 male undergraduates, information on the basic dimensions of Millon's eight personality styles was obtained from correlations of the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory with Rotter's I-E scale and Byrne's R-S scale. Hypotheses predicting a significant relationship between the active-passive and repression-sensitization were generally supported. Predictions of a significant relationship between the dependent-indepenent dimension and generalized expectancy of locus of control were not supported. Implications of these findings for the efficacy of Millon's system are discussed, along with future research possibilities.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Heath, Robert Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prohibition in Symbol Communication

Description: Literature in semiotics lacks consideration of the elements in symbols that communicate specific concepts. Prohibition was the concept chosen for study. Potential prohibitors were represented by line configurations superimposed on background symbols. Seven prohibitors coupled with symbol backgrounds to form 49 experimental symbols were studied through a symbol inventory. Prohibitors constituted the independent variable, while dependent variables were verbal responses by 105 college students to the experimental symbols. Two hypotheses were tested: a) Prohibitors differ in effectiveness in communicating prohibition and b) Prohibitors differ in frequency of distortion of symbol meaning. Chi square analyses and comparisons of proportions showed diagonal lines most frequently elicited prohibition responses. A chi square analysis displayed no significant relationship between prohibitors in distortion of symbol meaning.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Kunsak, Nancy Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Moral Judgements of Males and Females as a Function of Merging Sex Roles

Description: Factors which influence severity of moral judgement in men and women were investigated in this study with 94 male and 89 female undergraduate students as participants. Effects of "sex of judge," "sex of transgressor," and "value orientation" variables were examined across five diverse story conditions. A measure of identification was also obtained. As hypothesized, a significant main effect was found for "value orientation," but not for "sex of judge" or "sex of transgressor" variables. The hypothesized disappearance of a "sex of judge" by "sex of transgressor" interaction was found. Hypotheses concerning a permissive trend and the effects of degree of identification were not confirmed.
Date: August 1976
Creator: McGraw, Phillip C., 1950-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Incentive and Frustrative Cues on the Acquisition of an Alleyway Running Response in Rats

Description: The motivational properties of Longstreth's (1970) definitions of incentive and frustrative cues were tested using 32 rats in a two phase straight alleyway experiment. During pretraining, incentive cue Ss were presented a visual cue prior to reinforcement; frustrative cue Ss experienced the visual cue simultaneously with reinforcement. Ss encountered the same cue in mid-alley during 40 CRF training trials. Significant inhibition developed as frustrative cue Ss passed through the cue and postcue segments. Significant incentive effects occurred midway through training only in the postcue segment. Differential resistance to extinction was not found. The results did not support all of Longstreth's assumed functions. The motivational effects were interpreted using Spence's and Amsel's instrumental learning paradigms.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Morey, John Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Identification of Ego States and Early Parent-Child Relationships

Description: The purpose was to verify ego states as objectively identifiable phenomena and the influence of early parent-child relationships on their identification using an audio tape of recorded examples of ego states, Thompson's Ego State Tape (EST), and the Roe-Siegleman Parent-Child Relations Questionaire (PCR). No relationship was found between SAT scores and scores on the EST, nor between PCR and EST scores. It was concluded that possibly (1) no relationship existed between how children perceive their parents and the identification of ego states, and (2) that the PCR might not be sampling child rearing practices relevant to the identification of ego states.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Munday, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries

Changes in Racial Attitudes as a Function of Personality Characteristics and Exposure to a Competent Black

Description: The present study examined whether a relationship exists between level of rigidity and prejudicial attitudes and whether prejudiced attitudes could be modified as a function of exposure to a competent black model. It was predicted that individuals with a high level of rigidity would display more racial prejudice than low-rigid individuals and that individuals with a low level of rigidity would demonstrate less prejudice than high-rigid individuals after exposure to a competent model. After exposure to a competent model, a significant main effect for rigidity was found which indicated that low-rigid individuals became less prejudiced than high-rigid individuals,
Date: December 1981
Creator: Myers, Emilie J. (Emilie Joyner)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Application of Group Contingent Reinforcement to Retarded Adults

Description: Two groups of eleven retarded adults each were used as subjects. An individually consequated token economy was in effect during baseline-1 for both groups. The treatment phase of the experiment consisted of group consequation, the first group receiving a high rate of reinforcement and the second group receiving a low rate. The individual token system was reinstated for both groups during baseline-2 measures. Attending behavior and work output were measured during each phase of the experiment. Significant differences were found between group versus individually contingent reinforcement treatments on attending behaviors, and between high and low contingency groups on performance behaviors. Differences between the high contingency and low contingency groups were found to be non-significant in regard to attending behaviors.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Newman, Jan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Regulation of the Frequency of Part-Word Repetitions Using Electromyographic Feedback

Description: This study investigated the use of electromyographic feedback in regulating the frequency of part-word repetitions. Two adult stutterers, one female (Subject A) and one male (Subject B) were employed. The frequency of part-word repetitions during baserate, EMG uV raising, and EMG uV lowering conditions was assessed for Subject B. As hypothesized, results indicate that there was a notable decline in the frequency of part-word repetitions during the EMG uV lowering sessions. However, contrary to the second hypothesis, (i.e. that an increase in EMG uV would correspond with an increase in part-word repetitions) there was also a decline in the frequency of part-word repetitions during the EMG raising sessions.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Pachman, Joseph S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Person Orientation of College Students' Vocational Interests as a Function of their Parents' Perceptions of Parent-Child Interactions

Description: This study investigated what relationship might exist between the parents' view of their interactions with their children and the degree of person orientation in their children's vocational interests. The hypotheses of this study were that the parents of subjects with toward-person-oriented vocational interests would perceive their interactions with their children as being more loving and overtly attentive than parents of subjects with away-from-person-oriented vocational interests. It was further hypothesized that these differences would be greater for males than for females.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Price, Jack Randall
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Group Systematic Desensitization, Group Covert Positive Reinforcement, and Test-Retest in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

Description: The investigation was concerned with determining the effectiveness of group systematic desensitization and group covert positive reinforcement, with a control group. The two treatment conditions were to be compared if both were effective in reducing test anxiety as measured by the College Form of the Test Anxiety Questionnaire. Three groups were employed, two treatment and one control group, with four subjects in each. An analysis of covariance yielded insignificant results at the .05 level. A review of the literature was presented, procedural aspects of the treatments were covered, and possible reasons for the insignificant results were discussed.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Smith, William Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness in Rats: The Effects of Electroconvulsive Shock in an Animal Model of Depression

Description: The response deficit following exposure to inescapable shock has been termed "learned helplessness." This experiment was designed (a) to determine whether learned helplessness following an inescapable footshock induction procedure extends to 48 hours, and (b) to test the hypothesis that electroconvulsive shock (ECS) reverses learned helplessness in rats. Subjects were tested for helplessness in a bar-press shock-escape task. Results indicated that helplessness was not present 48 hours after exposure to inescapable shock. A slight indication of helplessness was observed in the first 10 trials of the 60-trial task. In addition, ECS was shown to enhance performance in the test task; however, this facilitation effect was seen only in control animals that were not previously exposed to inescapable footshock.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Thrasher, Ronald Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measurement of Attitudes Toward Feminism

Description: The relationship of two sexist attitude questionnaires (Attitudes Toward Women Scale and Sexism Scale) was explored. Responses on the Bem Sex Role Inventory were compared with attitude responses to assess the effect of sex-role concept on degree of sexism. Various demographic variables were included to determine if any related to sexist attitude responses. Subjects were 53 male and 113 female undergraduate psychology students, aged 17-47. Test instruments and a demographic data survey were administered, and statistical analyses performed. Attitude measures were significantly correlated and could not be differentiated on the basis of variables included for study. Factor analysis of instruments revealed 3 separate factors: masculinity, femininity,and "sexist" attitudes. Sex-role concept was unrelated to sexist attitude responses. Only the demographic variable ofage was significantly related to attitude scores.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Tofte-Tipps, Sharry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Bender-Gestalt Emotional Indicators and Acting-Out Behavior in Young Children

Description: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between 15 emotional indicators on the Bender-Gestalt Test and acting-out behavior in young children. The subjects were 93 children ranging in age from 5 to 12 years. Each was administered the Bender. A measure of each subject's overt acting-out behavior was then obtained by having teachers rate each student on a Behavioral Rating Scale. Subjects' records were then divided into groups on the basis of both sex and age. Results indicated that neither the total number of Bender indicators nor any of the individual Bender indicators were significantly correlated with total scores on the rating scale. Use of the Bender as a projective device to measure acting-out behavior was seriously questioned.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Trahan, Donald Everett
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Amount of Postshift Training on Resistance to Extinction

Description: The investigation sought to examine resistance to extinction (Rn) as a function of previous experience with downward shifts in reward magnitude. It was suggested that previous research conducted within the framework of the Spence-Amsel frustration hypothesis and the sequential hypothesis failed to administer sufficient postshift trials to adequately establish the relationships that may exist. Under one condition, four groups of rats received twenty extinction trials following forty postshift trials. Under another condition, four groups were extinguished following eighty postshift trials. An inverse magnitude of reward effect occurred in the preshift phases, however, which prevented an adequate analysis of either the shift or the Rn data, This unexpected effect was discussed within the framework of Black's incentive-motivation interpretation of reinforcement.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Wheeler, Royce Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Application of Geometric Principles to the Place-Versus-Response Issue

Description: By applying geometric analysis to some experimental maze situations the present study attempted to determine if a continuity in the responding of experimental Ss existed. This continuity in responding might suggest the presence of alternative explanations for the behavior of these Ss in some maze problems. The study made use of a modified version of the Tolman, Ritchie, and Kalish (1946a) experiment using six runways during training rather than one. The results of the study show that three of the six groups obtained the identical angle of choice, angle between the runway trained on and the runway chosen during the experimental trial, indicating the possibility of an underlying behavioral factor determining this continuity in responding.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Williams, John Burgess
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Esteem, Sex Roles, and Fundamentalist Religious Belief

Description: Recent sex role research suggested that androgynous subjects demonstrated better adjustment than sex-typed subjects. Fundamentalist religious belief, however, has strongly supported sex role differentiation. This study hypothesized that the effect of appropriate sex role typing or androgyny on self-esteem would depend on religious belief. Although this hypothesis was not supported, a main effect on sex roles for females was obtained; androgynous females had a higher self-esteem level than feminine females. In addition, males in this study had a higher self-esteem level than females.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Zervopoulos, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries