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A Life Cycle Analysis System to Support D and D, Pollution Prevention, and Asset Recovery

Description: This paper describes a life cycle analysis system (LCAS) developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) decision-making regarding deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), pollution prevention (P2), and asset recovery, and its deployment to analyze the disposition of facilities and capital assets. Originally developed for use at the Oak Ridge East Tennessee Technology Park, this approach has been refined through application at Ohio Operations Office sites and is now being deployed at a number of DOE sites. Programs such as National Metals Recycle, the D and D Focus Area, P2, and Asset Utilization are successfully using the system to make better decisions resulting in lower cost to the taxpayer and improved environmental quality. The LCAS consists of a user-friendly, cost-effective, and analytically-sound decision-aiding process and a complementary suite of automated tools to handle data administration and multiple criteria life cycle analysis (LCA). LCA is a systematic and comprehensive process for identifying, assessing, and comparing alternatives for D and D, P2, and asset recovery at government sites, and for selecting and documenting a preferred alternative. An LCA includes all of the impacts (benefits and costs) that result from a course of action over the entire period of time affected by the action. The system also includes visualizations that aid communication and help make decision-making transparent. The LCAS has three major components related to data collection, decision alternative assessment, and making the decisions. Each component is discussed in-depth using the example of deployment of the LCAS to support asset recovery.
Date: February 28, 1999
Creator: Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E. & Yuracko, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing and Characterizing Alumina/Aluminum Composites with Tailored Microstructures Formed by Reactive Metal Penetration

Description: In industry, the need to maximize energy efficiency depends on the availability of suitable advanced materials. Ceramic composites are exemplary materials for many advanced engineering applications because they exhibit good thermal stability, oxidation resistance and enhanced toughness. Presently, ceramic composite fabrication processes are costly, often requiring high temperatures and pressures to achieve reasonable densities. Our research is focused on developing a processing technique, that will allow production of alumina/aluminum composites using relatively low temperatures and without the application of an external force, thus reducing the processing costs. Our composites were formed using Reactive Metal Penetration (RMP), which is a process involving the reaction of molten Al with a dense ceramic preform. The result is a near net shape ceramic/metal composite with interpenetrating phases. The volume fraction of metal in the composites was varied by doping an aluminosilicate ceramic preform with silica. For this study we fabricated composites using pure mullite and mullite doped with 23 and 42 weight percent silica, yielding 18, 25, and 30 volume percent metal in the composites, respectively. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to characterize the homogeneity and scale of the microstructure. The scale of the microstructure varied with preform composition, the reaction temperature and with secondary heat treatments. Four-point bend testing was used to evaluate the influence of microstructure on strength and reliability. During these studies a gradient in the microstructure was observed, which we further characterized using microhardness testing. Alumina/aluminum composites formed by RMP show higher toughness then monolithic alumina and have the potential for improved reliability when compared to monolithic ceramics.
Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: Corral, E.; Ellerby, D.; Ewsuk, K.; Fahrenholtz, B. & Loehman, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).
Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bunch compressor and de-compressor in the FEL for satellite power beaming

Description: A FEL of average power 200 kW is being designed at the LBNL for satellite power beaming. It utilizes the radiation of {approximately} 100 MeV electrons with {approximately} 200 A peak current. In order to obtain the desired peak current, the 5mm long electron bunches delivered by a linear accelerator are compressed to 1mm. Furthermore, it is important for the FEL operations that the compressed bunches have a uniform longitudinal density distribution over the entire bunch length. After the FEL, the electron beam is returned to the linear accelerator for deceleration. Since the electron beam acquires approximately 6% energy spread during radiation in the FEL, bunch de-compressor is used between the FEL and the linac to expand the electron bunches back to their original length and to reduce the energy spread. In this paper we present design and analysis of the bunch compressor and the bunch de-compressor that perform needed functions.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Wan, A. Zholents and W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

Description: A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D. & McKnight, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Projection Methods for Interdendritic Flows

Description: In spite of recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fluid dynamics for materials processing applications, no significant advances have been made in the numerical discretization of these equations. In this work, the application of two-step projection methods for the numerical simulation of interdendritic flows is, discussed. Unlike previous methods, the methods presented here are constructed for the exact equations which are characterized by variable density and volumetric fraction of the liquid. The drag terms, which describe the momentum loss due to the flow around and through the dendrite structures, are treated implicitly. Numerical examples for shrinkage-induced flow during solidification of an AI-4.5% Cu alloy bar is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Date: February 28, 1999
Creator: Han, Q.; Sabau, A.S. & Viswanathan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

Description: The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Deo, M.D. & Morgan, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flavor tagging nd CP-violation measurements at the Tevatron

Description: The CDF collaboration has adapted several heavy flavor tagging techniques and employed them in analyses of time-dependent flavor asymmetries using data from the Tevatron Run I. The tagging algorithms were calibrated using low-P{sub t} inclusive lepton and dilepton trigger data samples. The tagging techniques were applied to a sample of {approximately} 400 B{sub d}{sup 0}/{anti B}{sub d}{sup 0} {r_arrow} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} decays and were used to measure the CP violation parameter, sin(2{beta}). Prospects for future improved measurements of the CP violation parameters at the Tevatron are briefly discussed.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Tkaczyk, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Engineering of Silicon and Carbon by Pulsed-Laser Ablation

Description: Experiments are described in which a focused pulsed-excimer laser beam is used either to ablate a graphite target and deposit hydrogen-free amorphous carbon films, or to directly texture a silicon surface and produce arrays of high-aspect-ratio silicon microcolumns. In the first case, diamond-like carbon (or tetrahedral amorphous carbon, ta-C) films were deposited with the experimental conditions selected so that the masses and kinetic energies of incident carbon species were reasonably well controlled. Striking systematic changes in ta-C film properties were found. The sp{sup 3}-bonded carbon fraction, the valence electron density, and the optical (Tauc) energy gap ail reach their maximum values in films deposited at a carbon ion kinetic energy of {approximately}90 eV. Tapping-mode atomic force microscope measurements also reveal that films deposited at 90 eV are extremely smooth (rms roughness {approximately}1 {angstrom} over several hundred nm) and relatively free of particulate, while the surface roughness increases in films deposited at significantly lower energies. In the second set of experiments, dense arrays of high-aspect-ratio silicon microcolumns {approximately}20-40 {micro}m tall and {approximately}2 {micro}m in diameter were formed by cumulative nanosecond pulsed excimer laser irradiation of silicon wafers in air and other oxygen-containing atmospheres. It is proposed that microcolumn growth occurs through a combination of pulsed-laser melting of the tips of the columns and preferential redeposition of silicon on the molten tips from the ablated flux of silicon-rich vapor. The common theme in this research is that a focused pulsed-laser beam can be used quite generally to create an energetic flux, either the energetic carbon ions needed to form sp{sup 3} (diamond-like) bonds or the overpressure of silicon-rich species needed for microcolumn growth. Thus, new materials synthesis opportunities result from the access to nonequilibrium growth conditions provided by pulsed-laser ablation.
Date: February 28, 1999
Creator: Fowlkes, J.D.; Geohegan, D.B.; Jellison, G.E., Jr.; Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Pedraza, A.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COA User's Guide

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.
Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: Fox, B.; Pautz, J. & Sellers, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

Description: The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: Giangiacomo, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

Description: The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids.
Date: February 28, 1999
Creator: Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K. & Baca, E.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of the top quark at the Tevatron

Description: We report on studies of the top quark, beyond the measurements of its mass and produciton cross section, which have been carried out recently by the CDF and D0 collaborations, based on {approximately}110{+-}6 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV. Each experiment has searched for t{yields}H{sup +}b decays and, from the lack of observable signal, excluded previously unexplored regions of the [M{sub H+},tan{beta}] parameter space. D0 has studied the correlation between the spin states of pair-produced top quarks, and CDF has studied the helicity of the W bosons produced in the decay of top quarks. Within large statistical uncertainties, both measurements agree with predictions of the standard model.
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: Chakraborty, Dhiman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of nonlocal one-pion-exchange potential in deuteron

Description: The off-shell aspects of the one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) are discussed. Relativistic Hamiltonians containing relativistic kinetic energy, relativistic OPEP with various off-shell behaviors and Argonne v{sub 18} short-range parameterization are used to study the deuteron properties. The OPEP off-shell behaviors depend on whether a pseudovector or pseudoscalar pion-nucleon coupling is used and are characterized by a parameter {mu}. The authors study potentials having {mu} = {minus}1, 0 and +1 and they find that they are nearly unitarily equivalent. They also find that a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian containing local potentials and nonrelativistic kinetic energy provides a good approximation to a Hamiltonian containing a relativistic OPEP based on pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling and relativistic kinetic energy.
Date: May 28, 1999
Creator: Forest, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

Description: Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.
Date: July 28, 1999
Creator: Jimenez, T. & Olson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrocarbon and Electrical Requirements in the Plasma During Treatment of NOx in Light-Duty Diesel Engine Exhaust

Description: This paper examines the hydrocarbon (C{sub 1}/NO{sub x} ratio) and electrical energy density (ratio of power to exhaust flow rate) requirements in the plasma during plasma-assisted catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The requirements for treatment of NO{sub x} in heavy-duty and light-duty diesel engines are compared. It is shown that, for light-duty applications, the plasma can significantly enhance the catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with little fuel penalty incurred in the plasma process.
Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Penetrante, B.; Brusasco,R.M.; Merritt, B.T. & Vogtlin, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling and Analysis of the Ranchero Coaxial Explosive Pulse Power Generator System

Description: A key element in the design of a coaxial generator system is the simplicity of the geometry. The clean cylindrical geometry allows us a reasonable chance at modeling RANCHERO performance using our 1D and 2D MHD modeling codes. The results of numerical simulations have been compare to several tests of the RANCHERO system in a variety of configurations. Recent comparisons of 1D calculations with the REOT-2 data have been extremely good and suggest that the generator is behaving in a very 1D like nature until reaching 90-95% of peak current. Differences between calculated current and measured performance during the last 3 mm (out of 70 mm) of flux compression may be a consequence of either the EOS for SF{sub 6}, 2D effects, or both. This study will examine the existing models and attempt to provide a robust integrated model which can then be used to drive design studies, pre- and post-shot analysis, and predict performance parameters for slight variations of the base design of RANCHE RO.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Atchison, W.L.; Goforth, J.H.; Lindemuth, I.R. & Reinovsky, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

Description: The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department