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Description: Thorium is readily extracted by a solution of tri-noctylphosphine oxide in cyclohexane from either acidic nitrate or chloride solutions. The maximum extraction coefficient in a nitrate medium is 380 as compared to 1300 for a chloride solution. In nitrate media the extraction coefficient is relativelv unaffected by changes in the anion concentration. In chloride media the coefficient varies directly with increasing chloride concentration, i.e., from about 0.4 in one molar chloride to the maximum in 7 to 10 molar. The acid concentration should be at least one molar. Thorium is not appreciably extracted from sulfate solutions. The extraction coefficient is of the order of 0.3. The addition of nitrate or chloride increases the coefficient sufficiently so that essentially 99% of the thorium can be extracted in a single equilibration. In perchlolate systems the extractlon is most efficient in one molar acid. The maximum (The above was unscabble material)
Date: November 20, 1958
Creator: Ross, W.J. & White, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Data are presented from the following studies: the radiation chemistry of pepsin, gelatin, methanol, benzene, and hexanes; the effects of irradiation of the pituitary in advanced cancer using high-energy particles from the 184-inch cyclotron; applications of ion beams in biological studies; the metabolism of strontium-90 and its relation to calcium metabolism in rats; hematological effects of low-level radiation doses in man; the influence of diet on serum lipoproteins; development of simplified methods for the analysis of blood serum for lipid content; tracer studies employing iron59 of red blood cell production and destruction and iron metabolism in a wide variety of blood disorders; tracer studies on heart function and blood circulation employing I/sup 131/; applications of C/sup 14/ in studies of leukocyte formation from which it was concluded that peripheral neutrophils have a 2-day life span, large lyphocytes a life span of 2 to 3 days, and small lyphocytes a life span of between 8 and 14 days; tracer studies employing P/sup 32/ in studies of the phagocytic action of cells of the reticuloendothelial system; factors regulating the volume of the body fluids; and development of a method for determining estrogen concentration in urine. Radiation protection activities are summarized. Lists are included of reports issued and papers published during the period. (For preceding period see UCRL-8031.J (C.H.)
Date: April 25, 1958
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the direct sulfochlorination of hydrocarbons and nitrobenzene. The radiation source consisted of spent uranium fuel elements, providing a gamma radiation intensity up to 2.5 x 10/sup 6/ roentgen/ hour. The sulfochloriuation studies were carried out either with SO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ or with gaseous mixtures of SO/ sub 2/ aud Cl/sub 2/. Attempts to sulfuochlorinate nitrobenzene and benzene were unsuccessful. There was no detectable reaction in the case of nitrobenzene, while the reaction with benzene produced only chlorinated products, up to the full addition product 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane. Liquid cyclohexane reacted with SO/sub 2/ and Cl/sub 2/ in the presence of gamma radiation to give very high yields of cyclohexanesullonyl chloride, and to a smaller extent chlorocyclohexane and cyclohexanedisulfonyl chloride. The leugth of the chemical chain reaction induced by gamma radiation was estimated at over 2 x 10/sup 5/, and the radiochemical yield G was greater than 10/sup 6/. Sulfochlorination was the predominant reaction but at lower radiation intensities and for SO/sub 2/Cl/ sub 2/ ratios lower than unity, chlorination was found to exceed sulfochlorinatiou. Within a temperature range of 11.5 to 40.0 deg C, the selectivity of the reaction was independent of temperature. For a total gas flow rate of 1.9 l/min per liter C/sub 6/H/sub 12/ and SO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ ratios of 2/ 1, the rate of conver sion to C/sub 6/H/sub 11/SO/sub 2/Cl was proportional to the square root of the absorbed radiation dose up to a dose rate of 40 rad/min, but became independent of dose rate above 400 rad/min. Under these conditions, the conversion rate was 0.025 g-moles C/sub 6/H/sub 11/SO/sub 2/Cl/ (l) (min). A basic plant design was developed for the contiuuous sulfo chlorination of cyclohexame initiated by gamma radiation. Tbe economics of ...
Date: June 1, 1958
Creator: Schneider, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department