11 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Detoxification and generation of useful products from coal combustion wastes

Description: Electric utilities are on the brink of a new era in waste disposal problems. This research project addresses the issue of how to effectively dispose of flyash, bottom ash, desulfurization sludge through the generation of chemically-hardened material that could potentially be used as a cement or as a synthetic aggregate. The specific goals of this study were: (1) to study the hardness of mixtures of flyash, bottom ash, and DSG treated with lime and other hardening agents; (2) to determine the optimum solids content, setting time, moisture content, and post setting treatments that will yield the greatest strength and hardness out of these mixtures; and (3) to determine the leachability of the synthetic material as a measure of its ability to retain absorbed and/or entrained toxic metals. 50 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: November 21, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PURPA Resource Development in the Pacific Northwest : Case Studies of Ten Electricity Generating Powerplants.

Description: The case studies in this document describe the Public Utilities, Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) development process for a variety of generating technologies. Developer interactions with regulatory agencies and power purchasers are described in some detail. Equipment, installation, and maintenance costs are identified; power marketing considerations are taken into account; and potential environmental impacts, with corresponding mitigation approaches and practices are summarized. The project development case studies were prepared by the energy agencies of the four Northwest states, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration.
Date: July 1990
Creator: Washington State Energy Office
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

Description: In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The deploymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on deploymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380--600{degrees}C and 70--280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.
Date: October 9, 1990
Creator: Farcasiu, M. & Smith, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementing PURPA : Renewable Resource Development in the Pacific Northwest : Executive Summary.

Description: The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities (QFs) and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided cost of providing both capacity and energy. Facilities that qualify for PURPA benefits include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. The mandate of PURPA, coupled with the electrical energy deficits projected to occur in the Pacific Northwest by the mid 1980s, led to resurgence of interest in the development of small, decentralized, non-utility owned and operated generating stations. A variety of would-be developers conducted feasibility studies and initiated environmental permitting and power marketing discussions with appropriate authorities. While many proposed PURPA projects fill by the wayside, others were successfully brought on-line. A variety of public and private sector developers, including cities, counties, irrigation districts, utilities, ranchers, timber companies, and food processing plants, successfully negotiated PURPA-based, or share-the-savings'' power purchase contracts. Other developers run their meter backwards'' or provide energy to their local utilities at the same rate that would otherwise be paid to Bonneville. This document provides a summary resource development of these renewable projects in the Pacific Northwest.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Office., Washington State Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of an energy savings plan project at Lamb-Weston, Inc

Description: This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Lamb-Weston, Inc. (Lamb-Weston) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program awards cash incentives to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Lamb-Weston as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, submittal reviews (Lamb-Weston's Completion Report, Proposal, and Abstract), and process evaluation reviews. The ECM itself consists of a heat recovery heat exchanger added to the hot drain of a potato blancher to reclaim heat that would otherwise be discarded at Lamb-Weston's Plant 1 in Quincy, Washington. At this facility, Lamb-Weston makes frozen French fried potatoes for institutional and consumer markets. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to be 4,037,101 kWh per year. The ECM cost $67, 020 to install and Lamb-Weston received an incentive from Bonneville of $40, 212. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 0.83 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 1.50 mills/kWh.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Spanner, G.E. & Wilfert, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution (CEPOD): The past seventeen years and future potential

Description: Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution (CEPOD) was first demonstrated at PNL in early 1974 in work funded by EXXON Corporation. That work was aimed at dissolution of Pu-containing residues remaining in mixed-oxide reactor fuels dissolution and was first publicly disclosed in 1981. The process dissolves PuO{sub 2} in an anolyte containing small (catalytic) amounts of elements that form kinetically fast, strongly oxidizing ions. These are continuously regenerated at the anode. Catalysts used, in their oxidized form, include Ag{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 4+}, Co{sup 3+}, and AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. This paper reviews the chemistry involved in CEPOD and the results of its application to the dissolution of the Pu content of a variety of PuO{sub 2}-containing materials such as off-standard oxide, fuels dissolution residues, incinerator ash, contaminated soils, and other scrapes or wastes. Results are presented for both laboratory-scale and plant-scale dissolvers. Spin-off applications such as decontamination of metallic surfaces and destruction of organics are discussed. 27 refs., 14 figs.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Ryan, J.L.; Bray, L.A.; Wheelwright, E.J. & Bryan, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system

Description: This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective of this project was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions. 6 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spallation-based science and technology and associated nuclear data requirements

Description: Rapid advances in accelerator technology in recent years promise average proton beam currents as high as 250 mA with energies greater than one GeV. Such an accelerator could produce very high intensities of neutrons and other nuclear particles thus opening up new areas of science and technology. An example is the efficient burning of transuranic and fission product waste. With such a spallation-burner it appears that high-level waste might be converted to low-level waste on a time scale comparable to the human lifespan at a reasonable additional cost for electric power generation. The emphasis of this paper is on the design of a high power proton target for neutron production, on the nuclear data needed to operate this target safely and effectively, and on data requirements for transmutation. It is suggested that a pilot facility consisting of a 1.6 GeV accelerator and target operating at 25 ma is the next major step in developing this technology. Bursts of protons near the terawatt level might also be generated using such an accelerator with a proton accumulator ring. Research prospects based on such proton bursts are briefly described. The status of established nuclear data needs and of accelerator-based sources for nuclear data measurements is reviewed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Bowman, C. D.; Lisowski, P. W. & Arthur, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation methods for the energy savings plan

Description: The Energy $avings Plan (E$P) is Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville) retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. E$P is an outgrowth of the Industrial Test Program and the Sponsor-Designed Program, two programs offered by Bonneville that involved installing energy conservation measures in industrial firms. This paper will describe the E$P program, discuss the first process evaluation findings, report the findings from a sample of four E$P project impact evaluations, and describe the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits. The impact evaluations will provide a framework for assessing the energy savings achieved by the projects implemented under the E$P. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations will review process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and free-riders.'' The four E$P projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, and a sludge screw press for waste water treatment.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Spanner, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)) & Riewer, S. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes

Description: The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Huang, S. N. & Anderson, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} at the Dragon Products, Inc. Cement Plant located in Thomaston, Maine. 1990 Annual technical report

Description: The background and process of the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} are described. The Scrubber was developed for Dragon Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine and facilitates a number of process improvements. The exhaust gas is scrubbed of SO{sub 2} with better than 90% efficiency. The kiln dust is cleaned of alkalines and so can be returned to kiln feed instead of dumped to landfill. Potassium sulfate in commercial quantity and purity can be recovered. Distilled water is recovered which also has commercial potential. Thus, various benefits are accrued and no waste streams remain for disposal. The process is applicable to both wet and dry process cement kilns and appears to have potential in any industry which generates acidic gaseous exhausts and/or basic solid or liquid wastes.
Date: December 31, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department