119 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

Description: The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E. & Hargraves, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous Hot Gas Desulfurization and Improved Filtration

Description: This research suggests the use of waste metal oxide materials for the removal of sulfur in hot gas streams as an alternative to either traditional calcium based sorbents, or regenerable metal oxide sorbents. When classified to a desired particle size and injected into a high temperature coal utilization process, such a ``once-through`` sorbent can effectively remove sulfur and simultaneously increase the permeability of dust collected at a downstream ceramic filter station in a highly cost effective manner. There is considerable technical and economic promise in the use of waste metal oxides for the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas streams containing these components, based upon results from tests under controlled laboratory conditions. Several waste metal oxides, including the oxides of iron, tin, and zinc, have been evaluated both individually and in combination to assess their capacity for sulfur capture in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Additionally, inert materials such as silica sand as well as more traditional materials such as dolomite and limestone, were evaluated as sorbents under identical test conditions to serve as reference data. Efforts also explored the overall domestic availability of the best performing waste metal oxide sorbents, taking into account their geographic distributions, intrinsic value, etc. to provide the groundwork for commercial implementation of a low cost, highly effective sulfur sorbent for eventual use in both coal combustion and coal gasification processes. Recent elevated temperature thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) testing of these samples, performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), has further confirmed the trends in sulfur affinity which were observed in the preliminary testing.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Eggerstedt, P.M.; Zievers, J.F.; Patel, P.C. & Zievers, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology

Description: This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landslide remediation on Ohio State Route 83 using clean coal combustion by-products

Description: In the present work, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product was used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The construction process and the stability of the repaired embankment are examined. State Route 83 in Cumberland, Ohio has been damaged by a slow moving slide which has forced the Ohio Department of Transportation to repair the roadway several times. In the most recent repair FGD by-products obtained from American Electric Power`s Tidd PFBC plant were used to construct a wall through the failure plane to prevent further slippage. In order to evaluate the utility of using coal combustion by-products in this type of highway project the site was divided into three test sections. In the first repair section, natural soil removed form the slide area was recompacted and replaced according to standard ODOT construction practices. In the second section the natural soil was field mixed with the Tidd PFBC ash in approximately equal proportions. The third section was all Tidd ash. The three test sections were capped by a layer of compacted Tidd ash or crushed stone to provide a wearing surface to allow ODOT to open the roadway before applying a permanent asphalt surface. Measurement of slope movement as well as water levels and quality have begun at the site in order to evaluate long term project performance. The completion of this project should lead to increased acceptance of FGD materials in construction projects. Monetary savings will be realized in avoiding some of the disposal costs for the waste, as well as in the reduced reliance on alternative engineering materials.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Payette, R.; Chen, X.Y.; Wolfe, W. & Beeghly, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

Description: Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Stehouwer, R. C.; Sutton, P. & Dick, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

Description: A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day`s presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E.
Date: 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of DOE hazardous wastes with clean-coal technology by-products

Description: The objective of this research is to evaluate both the long term and short term stabilization of DOE metal-containing hazardous wastes with clean coal technology (CCT) by-products. This work builds directly on a currently funded DOE/METC project with the University of Pittsburgh (prime contractor) in conjunction with Mill Service (a centralized waste treater), and Dravo Lime Corporation. Studies fall into two categories: (1) observation of the ability of CCT to stabilize and solidify characteristic toxic/hazardous metal-laden wastes (and other DOE metal containing wastes) over the near term via conversion of such wastes into a non-hazardous form by means of pozzolanic type reactions with by-products, and; (2) characterization and understanding of the longer term environmental and physical stability of the resultant solidified matrix in terms of potentially time dependent physical and chemical/toxicological leaching characteristics taking place due to slow solid phase crystalline reactions.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Neufeld, R.D. & Cobb, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRPE: Cesium Return Program Experience FY 1995

Description: Since 1945, the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels in the Hanford Chemical Separation areas has resulted in the generation of significant volumes of high-level, liquid, radioactive, by-product materials. However, because these materials were recognized to have beneficial uses, their disposal was delayed. To investigate the possibilities, the By-product Utilization Program (BUP) was initiated. The program mission was to develop a means for the application of radioactive-fission products for the benefit of society. Cs capsules were fabricated and distributed to private irradiation facilities for beneficial product sterilization. In June of 1988, a small leak developed in one of the Cs capsules at a private irradiator facility that is located in Decatur, Georgia. This leak prompted DOE to remove these capsules and to re-evaluate the BUP with the irradiator facilities that were currently using Cs capsules. As a result of this evaluation, a recall was issued to require that all remaining Cs capsules be returned to Hanford for safe management and storage pending final capsule disposition. The WHC completed the return of 309 capsules from a private irradiation facility, located in Northglenn, Colorado, to the Hanford Reservation. The DOE is also planning to remove 25 Cs capsules from a small, private irradiator facility located in Lynchburg, Virginia. This small irradiator facility is currently operational and uses the capsules for the underwater irradiation of wood-flooring products. This report discusses transportation-related activities that WHC has researched, developed, implemented, and is currently managing to ensure the safe and efficient movement of Cs-137 back to the Hanford Reservation.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Clements, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue

Description: At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J. & Pomykala, J.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

Description: The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. Versatility of the treatment technology, volume reduction and containment of the radioactive component of the mixed waste streams are three criteria to be considered when evaluating potential treatment technologies. The ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process being developed under this R and D contract is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of a mixed waste stream to an energy-rich synthesis gas while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganic species (metals and acid gases) on a macroporous, carbon-based char. The latter is mixed with the waste stream prior to entering the reactor. Substoichiometric amounts of oxidant are fed into the top portion of the cylindrical reactor generating a thin, radial thermochemical reaction zone. This zone generates all the necessary heat to promote the highly endothermic reduction of the organic components in the waste in the lower portion of the reactor, producing, principally, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The solid by-product is a regenerated carbon char that, depending on the inorganic loading, is capable for reuse. The in situ scrubbing of contaminants by the char within the reactor coupled with a char filter for final polishing produce an exceptionally clean synthesis gas effluent suitable for on-site generation of heat, steam or electricity. Despite the elevated temperatures in the thermochemical reaction zone, the reductive nature of the process precludes formation of nitrogen oxides and halogenated organic compound by-products.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Kuchynka, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing and utilization of wet flue gas desulfurization material

Description: Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) became fully operational in 1981. The two 550-MW units at CCS burn North Dakota lignite. The resulting by-products are fly ash, bottom ash, and wet FGD material. Although disposal of the coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was included in the original site plant at CCS, even early on, consideration was given to utilization of the fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete and as a partial sorbent replacement for the wet scrubbing system. CCS fly ash has been successfully marketed into North Dakota, Minnesota, and the surrounding region as a construction material that is environmentally benign, highly consistent, and an excellent performer in numerous construction applications. Attempts to use CCS fly ash as part of the scrubbing medium in the wet scrubbing system at the site were not as successful as first hoped, primarily due to the abrasive nature of the fly ash. Currently, CCS scrubbers use lime as the scrubbing medium for SO{sub 2} removal. CCS`s efforts to market its fly ash have been successful, so with increased awareness of the economic advantages of by-product utilization, the favorable US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory determination that CCBs are not hazardous, and the improved understanding of potential local and regional markets, Cooperative Power has taken additional steps to investigate the processing and utilization of its wet FGD material. These steps are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Stewart, A. & Hassett, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

Description: In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G. & Mishra, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of weathering and aging on a LIMB ash stockpile material

Description: A 1,500 ton temporary storage pile of water conditioned LIMB (Lime Injected Multistage Burner) ash by-product from the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant Lorain, OH was constructed in July, 1991 at a coal company near New Philadelphia, Ohio. This stockpile was created for dry FGD by-product material to be held in reserve for a land application uses field demonstration. High volume, beneficial uses of dry FGD by-products, such as for mine reclamation and embankment stabilization, will require temporary stockpiling of the by-product. Purpose for constructing this pile was to study changes with time in the LIMB by-product material when exposed to weathering. This by-product material was studied over a 2 1/2 year period. The water to control fugitive dust was added in the ash conditioner at the power plant while being loaded into dump trucks. Amount of water normally added in the conditioning process is close to the optimum moisture content of 40--50 % (dry weight basis), to construct a compacted road embankment or road base. Four environmental operating permits required for construction of the storage pile were obtained, three from Ohio EPA (air, water and solid waste), and one from the Ohio Division of Reclamation (revised reclamation area permit). There was no significant environmental impacts from storm runoff or leachate water from the LIMB ash stockpile during the initial 18 month period through December, 1992. After 2 1/2 years of storage, the potential value of the LIMB material for use as a road embankment material or soil conditioner has declined significantly. Ettringite formation occurs. Aging allows the expansive reaction to take place before its potential use as compacted structural fill or embankment.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Beeghly, J.H.; Bigham, J.M.; Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C. & Wolfe, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field demonstration project using clean coal technology by-products

Description: The disposal of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has become a major concern as issues of emission cleansing and landfill costs continue to rise. Laboratory tests conducted in the Department of Civil Engineering at The Ohio State University have shown that the dry FGD by-products possess certain engineering properties which have been proven desirable in a considerable number of construction uses. As a follow on to the laboratory program, a field investigation into possible engineering uses of dry FGD wastes was initiated. In the work presented in this paper, FGD by-products were used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The paper presents the procedures used in the process and examines the stability of the repaired highway embankment.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Kim, Sung Hwan; Nodjomian, S. & Wolfe, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use

Description: Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Bland, A.E. & Brown, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A field demonstration of the use of wet and dry scrubber sludges in engineered structures

Description: In a research program being performed at The Ohio State University, the agronomic and engineering properties of flue gas desulfurization by-products are being evaluated. The purpose of this project is to identify potentially beneficial uses for these materials and in so doing reduce the amount of by-product that must be disposed of in landfills. The results of the experimental program have demonstrated that FGD by-products possess the physical properties that should make them suitable for use as a select fill in a variety of construction projects. To verify the laboratory findings on a larger scale, work was begun on a number of field demonstration projects in which the behavior of the FGD could be evaluated under actual field conditions. Two of these field projects were conducted at an Ohio State University research farm where both wet and dry FGD materials were used to stabilize the soil bases in cattle feedlots. Ash from American Electric Power`s Tidd PFBC plant in Brilliant, Ohio was placed in three lots each designed to accommodate approximately fifty animals. Stability wet scrubber sludge from AEP`s Conesville, Ohio plant was placed at two hay bale storage and Winter feeding sites. The construction of the test plots is described. Visual inspections of the plots as well as laboratory tests on samples of the by-product collected at several times during the months since the FGD bases installed have shown that in general, the materials have performed satisfactorily.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Wolfe, W.E. & Cline, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of fifth annual North American waste-to-energy conference

Description: The 73 papers are grouped under the following headings: evolution of WTE utilization (global look); utility restructuring panel; recycling issues; retrofits & emissions characteristics; implementation issues; assessment of emission and ash management regulations (global report); emerging issues & technologies; risk communications; emissions measurement & monitoring; ash utilization; fluidized bed combustion; emissions control; regulatory issues; research & emerging technologies; retrofits & advanced technologies; health & safety. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: August 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

Description: The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.; Yim, S.P.; Dyer, R.S. & Michaud, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

Description: One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO{sub 2} to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO{sub 2} to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D. & Carey, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Next generation enhancement of cements by the addition of industrial wastes and subsequent treatment with supercritical CO{sub 2}

Description: The natural curing reactions which occur in a standard portland cement involve the formation of portlandite, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and calcium silicate hydrates, CSH. Over time, the cured cement abstracts carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2}, from the air, converting the portlandite and CSH to calcium carbonate, CaCO{sub 3}. It turns out, however, that this secondary conversion results in the blockage and/or closure of pores, drastically slowing the reaction rate with time. By exposing a portland cement to supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), it is found that the carbonation reaction can be greatly accelerated. This acceleration is due to (1) the ability of the supercritical fluid to penetrate into the pores of the cement, providing continuous availability of fresh reactant, in hyper-stoichiometric concentrations; and (2) the solubility of the reaction product in the supercritical fluid, facilitating its removal. By accelerating the natural aging reactions, a chemically stable product is formed having reduced porosity, permeability and pH, while at the same time significantly enhancing the mechanical strength. The supercritical CO{sub 2} treatment process also removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement, and sequesters large amounts of carbon dioxide, permanently removing it from the environment. The authors describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of cements containing industrial waste. Some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed. Finally, some initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid CO{sub 2} treatment will be presented.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Taylor, C.M.V.; Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.W.; Jones, R. & Baglin, F.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

P2 integration into conduct of decommissioning

Description: Over the last five years, the D and D Program at the ANL-East site has completed decommissioning of three facilities. Currently, decommissioning of two facilities continues at the site with completion of the JANUS Reactor scheduled for September 1997 and completion of the CP-5 Reactor scheduled for late in CY 1999. In the course of this work, certain waste minimization pollution prevention (WMin/P2) activities have been integrated into all these projects. In most cases, the P2 aspects were key components of the operations that made the best use of available project resources to complete the work safely, within the budget and on or ahead of schedule. This paper will highlight those WMin/P2 activities found most suitable for these D and D operations. Activities covered will include: re-use of lead bricks from a research reactor for shielding material at an accelerator facility, re-use of a reactor out building structure by the on-site plant services group, and several other smaller scope activities which have also helped heighten WMin/P2 awareness in decommissioning.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Boing, L.E. & Lindley, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turning a liability into an asset at Sandia California: The Tritium Research Facility transition

Description: With an investment of $20.9 million, Sandia National Laboratories/California (Sandia/CA) saved the Department of Energy (DOE) an estimated $106.3 million--a 500% return on investment. In cooperation with DOE, Sandia/CA decontaminated and transitioned (D and T) the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL), a DOE non-reactor Category 2 nuclear facility. In support of the DOE`s Office of Defense Programs, Sandia/CA had conducted advanced research and development experiments at the TRL since 1977. However, in 1991, Sandia/CA scheduled the TRL for shutdown and decommissioning. By October 1996, the TRL`s D and T, rather than decontamination and demolition (D and D), resulted in the reuse of the building. Implementation of innovative D and T process techniques not only saved millions of dollars, but gained non-monetary benefits. First, the savings and benefits will be detailed, followed by descriptions of the decontamination and pollution prevention techniques.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Garcia, T.B. & Raubfogel, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

Description: The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A.; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr. & Christiana, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sediment Decontamination Treatment Train: Commercial-Scale Demonstration for the Port of New York/New Jersey

Description: Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the operational results obtained from the demonstration facility. ...
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Jones, K. W.; Stern, E. A.; Donato, K. R. & Clesceri, N. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department